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tisfaction in laying on the table all the day, and the intelligence had only reached correspondence.

him that morning through the telegraph. The Earl of LONSDALE said, that He had immediately consulted with the with respect to the question the noble Earl physician attached to the Board of Privy bad addressed to him he should be happy | Council, Sir W. Pym, and had given orders to give his noble Friend all the information that the parties should be relieved from in his power on this subject. The circum- quarantine. The physician had gone down stances connected with the letter of the bimself, and would communicate such 2nd of September to which his noble orders as were necessary to the quarantine Friend had referred were these: It was station. represented to the Council by official au- The EARL of ST. GERMANS: Has thority that malignant cholera was raging any accommodation been provided for the at Dantsic and several of the principal parties on shore ? ports in the Baltic, and the advice under The Earl of LONSDALE had already which the Council acted in issuing the let stated that he had sent down orders that ter to which reference had been made, was the parties should be relieved. He also regiven by one of the most skilful physicians peated his statement that he had sent of the present day. His noble Friend had down the physician of the Board to the quacomplained of the letter of the 2nd of Sep. rantine station to give the proper directions. tember as an act of severity and restriction LORD STANLEY of ALDERLEY was on the part of the Privy Council; but his uuderstood to remark upon the inconnoble Friend was under some misappre-sistency of our sending a representative hension in this respect, for if he would at the Sanitary Conference at Paris, to take the trouble of referring to the Act of impress upon the other deputies that the 6th Geo. IV., he would find that the cholera was not conveyed by contagion, Board of Customs had the power to send to while we were renewing our quarantine any quarantine station any vessel arriving restrictions in our own ports. The memfrom a foreign port with any infected per- bers of the Conference were of opinion, son on board. The late Quarantine Act that cholera could not be conveyed by conallowed the Privy Council to give in each tagion, and a report had been made by a case such orders to the Board of Customs congress of American physicians, and had as the case might require; and the letter been recently published by the Board of of the 2nd of September mitigated several Health in this country, in which it was provisions of the existing law. His noble stated to be their unanimous opinion that Friend said that he could not understand no quarantine regulations were of any avail that letter. He was surprised at such an in preventing the entrance of the cholera, assertion, for to him it appeared that its if the atmospheric and other causes necesmeaning was clear enough. The letter sary for its production were present. It mitigated the Act of George IV. very con- was not likely that we could make satissiderably, as it ordered those only who factory progress with the Convention, if, were actually attacked by cholera to be while our representative at Paris was urdetained on board. He would not enter ging these views on the one hand, on the into any discussion with his noble Friend other the President of the Council was enon the subject of contagion and non-conta- forcing more stringent quarantine regulagion, for he knew that eminent physicians tions with respect to cholera. had not only differed from one another, The Earl of LONSDALE said, that but, at different periods, even from them the regulations issued by the Privy Counselves, on these points. [The noble Earl cil were not more stringent, but were in here read, in a low voice, several conflict- fact a relaxation of the powers with which ing extracts from the reports of the Col- the Council were invested by the Act of lege of Physicians and of the Army Medi- George IV. cal Board on the subject of contagion; and, LORD STANLEY of ALDERLEY rein reply to a question of the Earl of St. marked, that it seemed very extraordinary Germans, said, that there were some phy- that our representative at Paris, instructed sicians who denied contagion, but he be by the Foreign Secretary, should there lieved that not merely three-fourths but maintain views on this subject quite difnine-tenths of the profession advised all ferent from those entertained by the Prewho consulted them to avoid contagion.] sident of the Council. With regard to the news respecting La The Earl of MALMESBURY also Plata, that vessel had only arrived that protested against the idea that the representatives of the British Government had had drawn the attention of the public to been instructed to abolish all regulations of this matter; and he believed that the safety quarantine ; they had only been instructed as well as the convenience of the public to mitigate and regulate them, and to ren- really required some attention on the part der the burden of them less intolerable ; of the Government, and the adoption of and that was their object in attending some regulations which might enable them the Sanitary Conference at Paris. If his to interfere a little in these matters. He noble Friend fancied that he could per- knew that there was some little difficulty suade the representatives of foreign coun- in moving in this matter; because, whentries to believe that cholera and other ever any attempt was made by the Governdiseases were not contagious, he believedment to interfere with them, it was urged that his noble Friend, on trying it, would that to interfere with the railway compafind that he was very much mistaken; nor nies would diminish their responsibility. would any convention ever be concluded if But he was convinced that there were many we were to wait until we had brought them points in the management of railways on to that conviction. Whether diseases of which the interference of the Government this kind were infectious or contagious, he would be most useful. His reason for did not know ; but foreign countries were drawing the attention of the House to this convinced of this—that they were catching subject, arose partly from the responsi

LORD STANLEY of ALDERLEY said, bility which the House had cast upon him he did not suppose that the different na- in the office in which they had placed him tions of Europe could be induced to forego as their Chairman of Committees. It was all quarantine regulations; but the greatest supposed that that functionary should exnumber of medical opinions were certainly ercise an almost complete control over the against the contagious character of cholera. regulations to be enforced with regard to

LORD WHARNCLIFFE was understood Private Bills. Now, unquestionably from to say, that nothing could be more prepos- the manner in which the House had always terous than to subject a vessel to quarantine supported the Chairman of Committees, for yellow fever in our latitude, and in the he had considerable power; but still no month of November. The yellow fever de Chairman of Committees, and certainly not pended on the thermometer. It was never be, for one, could presume to lay down on known to exist when the thermometer was matters of this kind a code of legislation below a certain point. It was well known which he would feel justified in imposing in tropical climates it ceased its ravages on all railways whatever. This could only with colder weather. In New Orleans it be done by Parliament itself acting legiswas well understood that the first frost put latively at the instance of the Governan end to the yellow fever. When we ment. To him it appeared that all the railwere pressing upon other Governments the way companies stood in a position which propriety of relaxing their quarantine laws, rendered such a course of legislation it placed us in an awkward position to be justifiable—because for the last thirteen found enforcing our restrictions with re- years a clause had been inserted in every spect to a disease so unlikely to spread as Railway Act subjecting the companies to the yellow fever.

the operation of any general Act which

might be introduced with respect to railRAILWAY LEGISLATION.

ways. No railway company, therefore, LORD REDESDALE wished to ask his would have any right to complain, whatnoble Friend the Vice-President of the ever the interference of the Government Board of Trade (Lord Colchester), whether might be. He thought that advantage there was any intention on the part of Her should be taken of the present Session for Majesty's Government to bring in any Bill the introduction of a measure of the kind to for the regulation of railways. He believ- which he had referred; for if it was allowed ed that there was an almost universal opin- to pass without this being done, their power ion amongst persons in this country, with of obtaining a control over railway compathe exception of those personally interested nies would be materially diminished. It was in railways, that some further regulations also most important that such a measure should be adopted, and some further control should be introduced on account of the exercised in regard to matters connected character of many of the Bills likely to be with these concerns. The accidents which introduced-Bills to effect important amalhad lately occurred, and which had cer- gamations. Now, it was impossible for tainly been more than usually numerous, any person to look to a great extension of amalgamations without some apprehensions | want of punctuality. A reform in railway as to the consequences that might arise management, by which punctuality should from them to the public interests. To a be enforced, would be more beneficial to incertain extent he entertained no objection dividuals, and would even affect a greater to the amalgamation of companies, but he number of persons, than the reform rethought that proposals for that end should cently introduced by his noble and learned be taken up only with the greatest caution. Friend on the woolsack into the Court of Measures should be taken to protect the Chancery. In a new Parliament, like the public against the consequences which present, it would be difficult to obtain that might naturally be expected to follow from attention in the other House to the many some of these amalgamations, if they should Railway Bills which would come before be carried out, for they would certainly them in the course of the present Session partake in a considerable degree of the na- which their importance required, on acture of monopolies. It was only, there count of the number of election petitions, fore, in proceeding by a general measure, which would necessarily occupy the time assuming the necessary powers of control, of many of those who were best qualified to that they could expect to give the public act as Chairmen of Committees ; and the confidence in the administration of railway consideration of these matters must consebusiness. He had to the last opposed the quently not only be more hurried than abolition of the Railway Commissions; and usual, but also in many cases be left to the he hoped to see them re-established with decision of new and less experienced Memmore extended powers, and properly sup- bers. It was on that account that he had ported by the Government of the day, drawn the attention of the Government to which they never had been before. There the subject thus early. If the Government were many points as to which he thought were not prepared to introduce a general it highly expedient that some power of measure for the better regulation of rail. control should be taken. For instance, ways, he trusted that, at least, they would there should be some authority able to frame beforehand some clauses, directed to regulate the proceedings of the railway the purposes he had specified, and to companies in putting on and in taking other matters of importance to the safety off trains from different lines, for at pre- and convenience of the public, to be insent the conduct of the railway com- serted in all Railway Bills in the present panies in regulating such matters was in Session ; but he believed they would find many cases opposed to the convenience of that proceeding by a general Act would be the public. You found that when there the least trouble to them, and more effecwere two railway companies conflicting tive. with each other, you came by one to a point

LORD COLCHESTER was ready to from which you must travel by another, and acknowledge that this was a matter which that the train by which you wished to pro- the noble Lord had done well in bringing ceed on your journey had started just ten before Parliament, for it was one of great minutes before your arrival by the train of importance to the public safety and the the other company, and that you must public convenience. He was afraid the wait three or four hours until you could answer he had to give to the questions start by another train. It could not be put might not be quite satisfactory to his productive of any mischief to vest power in noble Friend. The attention of the deà general Board to correct such abuses on partment to which he had the honour to receiving a representation from the inha- belong was constantly devoted to this subbitants of a district, or from another rail- ject, but no new measure was at preway company; and it would be just to sent in preparation. With respect to the enforce such arrangements, for the lines number of new Railway Bills that might were given to the companies by Parlia- be expected to be introduced in the prement on the faith of their giving that ac- sent Session, their information was at commodation to the public. There was present necessarily very imperfect. They another point on which he thought it neces- had only the official notices inserted in the sary that Government should interfere with Gazette by wbich to judge of the probable the management of the railway companies. number, and the entire number would not There should be some stringent regula- be known until the 30th of November, the tion to exact from them punctuality in their last day for depositing the notices, and times lof departure and arrival. Almost even then it must be remembered that every accident on the railways arose from many intended undertakings probably would not be carried out, and perhaps the desirable theoretically it might be that Bills not even introduced into Parliament. there should be one code of regulations At present the number of Bills for which which should guide and govern all railway notices had been given was forty-two, companies, past, present, and to come, and fifteen of which were for the incorporation that Parliament should, by an ex post facto of new companies, thirteen for the con-regulation, lay down rules for the guidance struction of new works, eight for continua- of a railway company, thus interfering with tions, five for amalgamations, and one for its internal management, not only would it extension of powers. The whole subject, be impossible for Government to carry any in the opinion of Government, was of such measure through Parliament, but, if it were difficulty and importance, as only to be possible, it would be an extraordinary inadequately dealt with by a Select Com- terference with the internal regulations of mittee, and, therefore, Government had railway companies, which were most of come to the determination of moving the them much better judges of what was conappointment of a Select Committee to con- ducive to their own and the public interest, sider it. At present he was not able to and much more capable of attending to it give a more decided answer to the ques- than any Government Board could be. He tions, than that the subject was engaging could not, therefore, hold out to the noble the earnest attention of Government. Lord who had just sat down any expec

LORD BEAUMONT observed, that in tation that it was the intention of Governhis opinion, the necessity of an Act re- ment to introduce any measures of railway specting the management of railways did regulations which might tend, according to not depend upon the number of Bills which the sanguine views which the noble Lord in the course of the present Session would took, to render impossible the occurrence be introduced into the Legislature. What of inconveniences and accidents to the pubthey wanted was this, a code of laws-a lic, or which would amount to any serious general code of laws-respecting the man- interference with the powers and privileges agement of railways, which should apply conferred by Parliament on the existing equally to all railways, both those that companies. He would not, however, hesimight obtain Bills in future, and those tate to say that, as experience showed from that had already obtained them, and had day to day the necessity of legislation consequently now no occasion to come be- for particular purposes, and as opportunifore the Legislature. A Bill might be ties arose for dealing with particular quesframed so as to prevent the vexatious pro- tions, he thought it exceedingly desirable, ceedings which now so often take place and indeed necessary, that they should between conflicting railway interests, and avail themselves of the fresh references to which always result in inconvenience to Parliament that would become requisite on the passengers, and loss to one or other the part of the companies, for the purpose of the parties. What they wanted was of introducing such modifications of the ersuch a general Bill as would lay down isting system as experience had shown to a rule to enable persons who had grounds be necessary or desirable for the public inof complaint to right themselves. Of terest. One question raised by his noble course such a Bill could alone properly Friend in which Parliament might probably emanate from Government; and he (Lord interfere with advantage, was in the conBeaumont) thought, therefore, he might nection of different trains with different ask his noble Friend if, in the Office of railways communicating with each other. the Board of Trade, this question had in such cases there might usefully be given been considered, whether in consequence some power of arbitration or arrangement of the numerous accidents which had re- under a Government Board to prevent the cently occurred on railways, and the enor- inconvenience now inflicted upon the public, mous loss incurred by the necessity of for the purpose of making them travel the applying to Parliament for amalgamations greatest length possible upon the respecand other desirable objects by separate tive lines of the different companies. But and special Bills, the Government intended any measure of that kind would require to introduce any measure of a general na much care, because it might involve an inture which would put an end to this state terference with the details of management; of things, by an enactment in the nature and their Lordships must recollect that in of the Lands Clauses Consolidation Act, every case where Parliament insisted on which would be of general application ? particular times being observed, Parliament The Earl of DERBY thought, however must become responsible also for the inconvenience and danger which might be Iject, with the view of remedying the preintroduced by running corresponding trains sent imperfect states of railway legislation. on other lines, and which, if great atten- The EARL of HARROWBY denied that tion were not paid, might be of a very in any contract the Government were at serious description. There was another the mercy of the railway companies. It subject to which he wished to call the at- ought to be remembered that the public tention of the House, and with respect to required from the latter a vast amount of which be considered that a great mistake duty. Look at the vast bulk of newshad been made by neglecting it at an early papers and books which the railways conperiod of the existence of the railway sys- veyed, and for which the means of transit tem—he meant the making provision for were never required under the old system. the conveyance both of mails and troops by This should be remembered when noble the different companies. He believed that Lords were told of the large amount of at present Government was absolutely and payment to railways by the Post Office. entirely in the power of a railway company All experience showed that railway amalas to the terms—not on which the mails gamation, under wise and proper regulawould be conveyed, indeed—but on which tions, was the best system. Parliament other conditions most essential to the pub- might order trains to be run at particular lic service, in the conveyance of troops and hours, but they could never regulate the similar objects, would be performed. There action of hostile parties. Companies with fore, when railway companies came to Par- rival interests always began with extraliament for new and amended Bills to ex- vagant competition, and then combination tend the powers they already possessed, he eventually followed, to cover the expense thought the opportunity should be taken of of all the losses caused by competition. introducing such fresh regulations for the It would have been much better if Parliafurtherance of the public service by facili- ment had carried out properly the scheme tating the conveyance either of mails or of Lord Dalhousie. If they had not left troops, as might be found expedient. His the construction of lines to the mad specunoble Friend the Postmaster General (the lation of private parties, they would have Earl of Hardwicke) had very carefully con- had a much more economical and efficient sidered this subject, and prepared clauses service. The best remedy was, to keep in which would be submitted to Parliament view the original views of Lord Dalhousie, for its approval, and which, if adopted, and to assign somewhat of a monopoly to would provide greatly increased facilities each railway company over their respective for the transmission of mails and troops by districts, under proper regulations for the railway companies. He differed, however, protection of the public. Monopolies on from the noble Lord as to the extent to railways were, and must be. Let Parliawhich Parliament ought to legislate for the ment avow that they were, and deal with regulation of existing railways.

them as such, and all would be easy. The MARQUESS of CLANRICARDE But if they treated railways as undersaid, he had heard with great satisfaction takings to which the ordinary law of supthe remarks of the noble Earl; because he ply and demand was applicable, causes was fully aware of the great inconvenience of complaint against railway management to which the Post Office and other depart- would always exist. ments were put by the present system. EARL GRANVILLE doubted whether The sum paid by the public for the con- so many towns would be now connected by veyance of mails was now of an enormous railway, or whether so many trains would amount, and exceeded, when he left office, be run, if the Government had originally 400,0001. a year. He was sorry the noble assumed greater responsibility, or had been Earl had not held out greater hopes that intrusted with the management of railway the subject would be considered by Govern- matters. He thought it desirable that a ment. He did not approve of ex post facto Parliamentary Committee should be aplegislation. It would be very unfair to re-pointed. In many instances the railway sort to any measures of that kind, except companies would be grateful to have some when railway companies came to ask for of the questions between them settled by some boon. He thought, however, there the superior authority of Parliament. would be no hardship whatever in taking LORD BATEMAN said, that a passenger measures by which redress would be af- in Yorkshire ought to have the power of forded in case of the breach of public en- booking himself through to London with. gagements. It was very desirable that out being compelled to change his carriage consideration should be given to the sub-) when he came upon the line of any other

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