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internal feeling. It is chiefly in the proper use of these tones, that the life, spirit, beauty, and harmony of delivery consist.

The limits of this Introduction do not admiti of examples to illustrate the variety of tones belonging to the different passions and emotions. We shall, however, select one, which is extracted from the beautiful lamentation of David over Saul and Jonathan, and which will, in some degree, elucidatej what has been said on this subject. "The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places ; how are the mighty fallen! Tell it not in Gath ; publish it not in the streets of Askelon ; lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice; lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph. Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew nor rain upon you, nor fields of offerings ; for there the shield of the mighty was vilelyk cast away; the shield of Saul, as though he had not been anointed with oil.” The first of these divisions expresses sorrow and lamentation : therefore the note is low. The next contains a spirited command, and should be pronounced much higher. The other sentence, in which he makes a pathetic' address to the mountains where his friends had been slain, must be expressed in a note quite different from the two former ; not so low as the first, nor so high as the second, in a manly, firm, and yet

plaintivem tone.

The correct and natural language of the emotions is not so difficult to be attained, as most readers seem to imagine. If we enter into the spirit of the author's sentiments, as well as into the meaning of his words, we shall not fail to deliver the words in properly varied tones. For there are few people, who speak English without a provincial note, that have not an accurate use of tones, when they utter their sentiments in earnest discourse. And the reason that they nave not the same use of thein, in reading aloud the sentiments of others, may be traced to the very defective and erroneous methodo; in which the art of reading is taught; whereby all the various, natural, expressive tones of speech, are suppressed; and a few artificial, unmeaning reading notes, are substituted” for them.

But when we recommend to readers, an attention to the tone and language of emotions, we must be understood to do it with proper limitation. Moderation is necessary in this point, as it is in other things. For when reading becomes strictly imitative, it assumesk a theatricals manner, and must be highly improper, as well as give offence to the hearers; because it is inconsistent with that delicacy and modesty, which are indispensable on such occasions. The speaker who delivers his own emotions must be supposed to be more vividu and animated,u than would be proper in the person who relates them at second hand.

We shall conclude this section with the following rule, for the tones that indicatew the passions and emotions. “In reading, let all your tones of expression be borrowed from those of common speech, but, in some degree, more faintly characterized. Let those tones

which signify any disagreeable passion of the mind, be still more faint than those which indicate agreeable emotions; and, on all occasions, preserve yourselves from being so far affected with the subject, as to be able to proceed through it with that easy and masterly manner, which has its good effects in this, as well as in every other


delivers a message

SECTION VII. 2 Ces-sa-tion, sés-se'-shån, a stop, restyr Ter-mi-nate têr-me-nate, to limit,end 6 Per-cep-ti-ble, pêr-sep’-te-bl, such as s Mes-sen-ger, mês'-sen-júr, one who

may be known or seen « Meas-ur-a-bie, mézh'-år-a-bl, such as t Con-junc-tion, kön-jånk’-shồn, a part may be measured

of speech, union 1d Tem-po-ra-ry, tèm'-po-ra-rè, fleeting, Dis-ci-pline, dis'-se-plin, order, edushort lived

cation e Con-ti-nu-i-ty,kôn-id-nu--d-tè,connex-lo Co-in-cide, k3-in-side', to concur ion, cohesion

20 Con-trol, kontroll', to check, govern Ush-er, åsh - år, to introduce, an assis- 2 U-til-i-ty, yů-til-e-lè, usefulness tant

y Ag-ri-cul-ture, ag'-rd-kål-tshire, tilg Ex-cite, ék-elte', to rouse, animate lage, husbandry

Dis-gust, diz-gåst', aversion, offence z Spe-cies, spe'-shéz, a sort, class i De-liv-er-y, dê-liv'-år-é, act of deliv- a Re-sign, rè-zine', to give up claim, ering, utterance

subrnit j In-ter-val, in'-têr-vål, space between b Mal-ice, mål'-}is, intention to injure places, or times

c Se-rene, se-rési', calm, placid k Punc-tu-a-tion, pångk-tshå-d'-shản, d So-lic-i-tudo, só-lis'-se-tode, anxiety, stops in writing

great care Con-struc-tion,kon-sirůk'-shin,mean-e Re-morse, re-mðrse',anguish of a gulling, sense

ty conscience m In-ti-mate, in'-te-måte, to hint, a fa- f Sen-su-al-i-ty, sen-shủ-81'-_-té, luxumiliar friend

ry, addiction to corporeal pleasures a En-gage, én-gåje', to take, induce, g A-ver-sion, d-ver'-shủn, dislike, habind

tred Dis-qui-e-tude, dis-kw-e-tode, un- h Lau-da-ble,låw'-d4-1),praise-worthy,

good Al-le-vi-ate, al-le-ve-ate, to make i In-ves-ti-ga-tion, fin-vés-te-ga'-shin, light, to ease

search, a tracing, examination 9 In-ter-rog-a-tive, in-têr-rog'-gå-dvilj El-o-cu-tion, el-o-šu-shin, eloquence, denoting a question




Pauses or rests, in speaking

are a total cessationa of the voice, during a perceptible, and in many cases, a measurables space of time. Pauses are equally necessary to the speaker, and the hearer. To the speaker, that he may take breath, without which he cannot proceed far in delivery; and that he may, by these temporaryd rests, relieve the organs of speech, which otherwise would be soon tired by continued action: to the hearer, that the ear also may be relieved from the fatigue, which it would otherwise endure from a continuity of sound ; and that the understanding may have sufficient time to mark the distinction of sentences, and their several nombers.

There are two kinds of pauses : first, empnafical pauses; and next, such as mark the distinctions of sense. An emphatical pause is generally made after something has been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention. Sometimes before such a thing is said, we ushers it in with a pause of this nature. Such pauses have the same effect as a strong emphasis ; and are subject to the same rules; especially to the caution, of not repeating them too frequently. For as they excite uncommon attention, and of course raise expectation, if the importance of the matter be not fully answerable to such expectation, they occasion disappointment and disgust.

But the most frequent and the principal use of pauses, is to mark the divisions of the sense, and at the same time to allow the reader to draw his breath; and the proper and delicate adjustment of such pauses, is one of the most nice and difficult articles of delivery. In all reading, the management of the breath requires a good deal of care, so as not to oblige us to divide words from one another, which have so intimate a connexion, that they ought to be pronounced with the same breath, and without the least separa‘ion. Many a sentence is miserably mangled, and the force of the emphasis totally lost, by divisions being made in the wrong place. To avoid this, every one while he is reading, should be very careful to provide a full supply of breath for what he is to utter. It is a great mistake tn imagine, that the breath must be drawn only at the end of a period, when the voice is allowed to fall. It may easily be gathered at the intervalss of the period, when the voice is suspended only for a moment; and, by this management, one may always have a sufficient stock for carrying on the longest sentence, without improper interruptions.

Pauses in reading must generally be formed upon the manner in which we utter ourselves in ordinary, sensible conversation ; and not upon the stiff artificial manner, which is acquired from reading books according to the common punctuation. It will by no means be sufficient to attend to the points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauses which ought to be made in reading. A mechanical attention to these resting places, has, perhaps, been one cause of monotony, by leading the reader to a similar tone at every stop, and a uniforın cadence at every period. The primary use of points, is to assist the reader in discerning the gramınatical construction; and it is only as a secondary object, that they regulate his pronunciation. On this head, the following direction may be of

Though in reading, great attention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense ; and their correspondent times occasionally lengthened beyond what is usual in common speech.

To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not only be made in the right place, but also accompanied with a proper tone of

use :

voice, by which the nature of thise pauses is intimatedim muda more than by the length of them, which can seldom be exactly meas, ured. Sometimes it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is prope: ; sometimes a degree of cadence in the voice is required; and sometimes that peculiar tone and cadence which denote the sentence to be finished. In all these cases, we are to regulate ourselves by attending to the manner in which nature teaches us to speak, when engageda in zeal and earnest discourse with others. The following sentence exemplifies the suspending and the closing, pauses : Hope, the balm of life, sooths us under every misfortune.' The first and second pauses are accompanied by an inflection of voice, that gives the bearer an expectation of something further to complete the sense : the inflection attending the third pause signifies that the sense is completed.

The preceding example is an islustration of the suspending pause, in its simple state : the following instance exhibits that pause with a degree of cadence in the voice: “ If content cannot remove the disquietudes of mankind, it wall at least alleviatep them.”

The suspending pause is often, in the same sentence, attended with both the rising and the falling inflection of voice ; as will be seen in this example: “ Moderate exercise', and habitual temperance', strengthen the constitution."*

As the suspending pause may be thus attended with both the rising and the falling infection, it is the same with regard to the closing pause : it admits of both. The falling inflection generally accompanies it; but it is not unfrequently connected with the rising inflection. Interrogative9 sentences, for instance, are often terminatedr in this manner : as, Am I ungrateful'?" Is he in earnest' ?”

But where a sentence is begun by an interrogative pronoun or anverb, it is commonly terminated by the falling inflection : as, What has he gained by his folly'?” “ Who will assist him?" Where is the messenger 5?” “When did he arrive" ??.

When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected by the conjunction' or, the first takes the rising, the second the falling inflection : as,

“Does his conduct support discipline'," or destroy it?”

The rising and falling inflections must not be confounded with emphasis. Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature, perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controlsw those inflections.

The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, confers so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by the young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples, to induce him to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instances, all the inflections are not marked. Such only are distinguished,

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* The rising inflection is denoted by the acute; the falling, by the grave as den).

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as are most striking, and will best serve to show the reader thei utilitya and importance.

“ Manufactures', trade', and agriculture' y certainly employ more than nineteen parts in twenty of the human species.

“ He who resignse the world, has no temptation to envy', hatred', malice, anger', but is in constant possession of a serenec mind: he who follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappointing, is in constant search of care', solicitude', a remorse', and confusion'."

** To advise the ignorant', relieve the needy', comfort the afflicted', are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives."

“ Those evil spirits, who by long custom, have contracted in the body habits of lust' and sensuality of malice', and revenge ; an aversions to every thing that is good", just', and laudable',' are naturally seasoned and prepared for pain and misery.”

“ I am persuaded, that neither death', nor life'; nor angels', nor principalities', nor powers ; nor things present, nor things to come'; nor height, nor depth'; nor any other creature', shall be able to separate us from the love of God.”

The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious investigation of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they are governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocutioni

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SECTION VIII. a Mel-o-dy, měl’-18-de, musick, har heaven mony of sound

fi Il-lu-mine, 11-14'-min, to enlighten, ilð Ad-just, ad-jůst', to put in order

lustrato « Cæ-su-ral, se-zu’-rål, relating to alj Ar-buth-not, år'-båth-not, a friend and. cæsura

cotemporary of Alexander Pope d De-grade, de-grade', to lessen in k Op-er-rate, op'-pêr-ate, to act, provalue, to diminish

duce effects e He-mis-tich, he-mis'-tik, half a verse ? Com-pi-ler, kom-pl-1år, a collector f He-ro-ick, he-rd-ik, brave, reciting from various authors the acts of heroos

m Pu-pil, pů'-pil, a scholar, the eyeg Theme, thème, a subject, original ball word, root

n Pre-par-a-tor-y, pre-pår-rd-tår-ė, inh Sac-ri-fice, şak'-kre-fize, to offer to troductory, previous

heaven, that which is offered tolo Pe-ruse, pe-ruze', to read, to examine


WHEN we are reading verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in making the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melodya of verse, which dictates to the ear pauses or rests of its own: and to adjust and compound these properly with the pauses of the sense, soas neither to hurt the ear, nor offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter, that it is no wonder we so seldom meet with good readers of poetry. There are two kinds of pauses that belong to the melody of verse : one is, the pause at the end of the line ; and the other, the

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