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Letter from Dr Hawkesworth to a Young Lady. 421 That the good archbishop did not decaying, in an element so unnatural Want credulity in other instances ap to so delicate a bird; when we know pears from this, that, after having that the otter, the corvorant, and the Itocked the bottoms of the lakes with grebes, foon perish if caught under birds, he stores the clouds with mice, ice, or entangled in nets : and it is which sometimes fall in plentiful well known, that those animals will showers on Norway and the neigh. continue much longer under water bouring countriest.
than any others to whom Nature hath Some of our countrymen have give denied that particular structure of en credit to the fubmerfion of fwal. the heart, neceffary for a long refilowst; and Klein patronises the doc. dence beneath that element. trine frongly, giving the following Though entirely convinced in our history of their manner of retiring, own mind of the impossibility of these which he received from some coun- relations, yet desirous of strengthentrymen and others. They afferted, ing our opinion with some better au.. that sometimes the swallows assem. thorities, we applied to that able anbled in numbers on a reed till it broke atomift, Mr John Hunter, who was and funk with them; and their im- so obliging as to inform us, that he mersion was preluded by a dirge of had diffected many swallows, but a quarter of an hour's length; that o- found nothing in them different from. thers would unite in laying hold of a other birds as to the organs of respio straw with their bills, and so plunge ration; that all those animals which down in society. Others, again, would he had diffected of the class that sleep form a large mass by clinging toge- during Winter, such as lizards, frogs, ther with their feet, and so commit &c. had a very different conforma. themselves to the deep .
tion as to those organs; that all these Such are the relations given by animals, he believes, do breathe in those who are fond of this opinion; their torpid ftate; and, as far as his and, though delivered without exag- experience reaches, he knows they geration, mult provoke a smile. They do ; and, that therefore he esteems it account not for these birds being a a very wild opinion, that terrestrial ble to endure so long a fubmerfion animals can remain any long time uowithout being suffocated, or without der water without drowning.
LETTER FROM DR HAWKESWORTH TO A YOUNG LADY.
NOW FIRST PUBLISHED.
that leads to happiness and ho. YOU
OU are now going from the nour. If this paih is mified at setcompany,
the conversation, and ting out, it is very difficult to recoamusements of children, into a scene ver it ; it is therefore of great conof life which affords more rational sequence to be directed into it at pleasures, and will engage you in first; and though I hope you will be more important pursuits : the world 'long under the protection and guidis opening before you, a wilderness ance of parents in whom there is all in which many have been lost; and that can be wished in the relation, in which, among a thousand broad yet I shall give you a few plain inways, there is but one narrow path ftructions, which I hope will allist
you † Gefner. Icon. An. 100. I Derham and Hildrop. ø Klein. Hitt. Av. 205, 206. Ekmarck. Migt. Av. Amen. Acad. IV. 489.
you n fulfilling your duty to them, or character, if by revealing it the in obtaining the good will of others, evil may be prevented ; and this is and promoting your own welfare. the only instance in which you are
As any affection to you first led allowed to speak of the faults of me to this design, my knowledge of others. your capacity encouraged me to pur. Be always punctual in returning fue it. Do not imagine that I think what the world calls civilities. The you inclined to all the faults and fol. failing in this, however trifling, is ofjies that I shall warn you against, ten taken for contempt, or at least for but you muit remember, that all men want of esteem; and I have known' have faults and follies, and that to the omitting to return a visit, or 10 caution persons while they are inno. answer a letter in due time, attended cent, may prevent the shame and an. with coldnefs, indifference, and worse guith of being reproved or upbraided consequences. That persons ought after they are guilty.
not to let such a value on these trifles Great part of the happiness of is true ; but if they do, it behoves us every individual depends upon the to act as if they ought: however, as opinion and actions of others : it is the resenting a breach of these panetherefore desirable to gain and to tilios is really a fault, take care that preserve the good will of all: nor you are not betrayed into it. Let it would I have you think any person be a rule with you, never to resent either so mean in their state of life, any thing that was not intended as or fo undeserving in their character, an affront; mere negligences should as that their good-will is of no con- be below your resentment; though, sequence to you. Every one who for the fake of the infirmities of thinks you love them will love you ; others, you should guard against them for this reason be always ready to in yourself. laow your good will to all, by such There are two ways of gaining acts of friend(hip as are in your pow. the good will of the world, which er, ftill taking care to avoid a par- weak people practise because they tiality which
you to do any know no other; one is flattery, the. thing in favour of one person at the other is lavilh professions of friendexpence of another, or of your felf. ship, which begin and end on the
There are many acts of friendship. lips. Never stoop to either of these to mankind in general, which are low and infamous arts; whatever is neither difticult, troublesome, nor, thus gained is bought too dear. To expensive : the principal of these is refrain from this fault is easy, but to speaking well, or at least not fpeak- guard against the ill effects of it in ing ill, of the absent.
others difficult; it is not, however, If you see a fault in another, don't more difficult than neceffary. make it the subject of conversation; ways fuspect that a person who com. hide it with as much care as if it mends you to your face endeavours was your own. Do not think your- to gain a confidence that intends to self juftified by saying that what betray. Remember that whoever you report to another's disadvantage makes professions of friendihip which is true: if all the failings which are are not merited, is an hypocrite ; and true of the beit of us were to be told beware that your own vanity does to cur dearest friend, perhaps all our not encourage you to think that you virtues could scarce secure his efteem. have merited uncommon and excelBut this rule must not extend to the five instances of favour and zeal to concealing any thing by which ano. serve you.
. her may be injured in his property But the constant steady esteem and
Letter from Dr Hawkesworth to a Young Lady. friendship of a person long tried and to be in fault, from their zeal to dewell known, who has obtained a re- fend themselves, than
your putation for virtue and fincerity, is filence; for it is a consciousnefs that an invaluable treasure : if you find others will condemn us which makes it, preserve it with a religious care, us so eager to anticipate their judge and return it with fidelity and zeal. ment. This rule extends to the talk
In this place I would caution you ing of yourself and of your private never to be trusted with the secrets affairs on every other occasion, exof others, if you can by any means cept when it has some pertinent reavoid it with decency: reject it as an lation to the discourse of the com. enemy to your peace, and as a snare pany, or when it is necessary to obfor your good name. Whoever tells tain some valuable purpose. you a secret, tells it as a secret to As to your behaviour at home, twenty more; at length it is betray- keep yourself always above the fered; and as this breach of faith is al- vants; your station is above them as ways denied by the guilty, the inno- their master's daughter, while they cent are always suspected. It has are your father's servants; and every been thought good advice not to re one should act !uitably to their staveal your own secrets, but I would tion. But do not think I mean that rather advise you to have none : do you should treat them haughtily, or nothing that is known would wound look upon the meanest of them with your reputation, or fill your own bo- contempt; that you should put on a fom with shame and regret. To lie commanding air, or speak to them in at the mercy of accident; to be ob- a peremptory tone : this would be liged constantly to watch over our most effectually to lose the superioriwords and actions, left what we wish ty of your station, and to become to hide should be discovered; is the despised and hated by those who life of a flave, full of fear, fufpi- ought to regard you with respect cion, and anxiety: those who have and efteem. My meaning is, that? nothing to fear but falsehood and you should treat them courteously, detraction enjoy their own innocence, but permit no familiarity. Never have an open look,a noble confidence, fuffer yourself to be made their connative chearfulness, and perpetual fidante in any thing that they would peace.
conceal from their master and milIf upon any difference you should trefs; never make yourself a party in happen to lose an intimate acquain- their discourse ; and if they should tance, don't be eager to relate the address themselves to you, decline circumstances of the quarrel, in order the conversation with as much adto justify your conduct and condemn dress as you can, not to incur the their's : those stories, which a thou- imputation of pride, or ill nature, by sand little circumstances make of im- frowning looks and harsh language. portance to you, and warm your mind Avoid also the opposite extreme : do in the recital, are infipid to every not watch their most trivial actions other person; and while you think as a spy, nor report every little misde. you amuse them, and are rising into meanor which falls under
obfera person of consequence by a detail vation with the low pleasure and petof your own prudent management, ty officiousness of an informer: never you will become tiresome, imperti- fteal the knowledge of what passes nent, and ridiculous. If the party between them when they think they with whom you have differed should are alone, by secretly listening with pursue this method, the wiser part of a vain or malevolent curiosity ; what mankind will rather conclude them you over-bear by such means may Ed. Mag. June 1796.
Probably do you more harm, than very shameful then is the common any thing which may be thus disco. triumph of favourites for having gainvered can do you good. If your ed by importunity what is denied to mama should delegate part of her merit, and withheld by prudence! authority to you in the management Whatever is thus gained from the of the household affairs, use it with hand is lost in the heart, I have moderation, and give orders to the feen with grief and resentment every maid rather in her name than your tender moment watched, to urge a own ; you will then be obeyed with- request, and wrelt a promise, from out seeming to affume a command, or the generous weakness of unguarded 'to value yourfelf upon.it.
affection. How mean and selfish is If your papa or mama' should at such a practice? Remember that a any time express a disapprobation of noble mind will dispose a perfon to your conduct, immediately resolve suffer much, rather than ak a favour to amend it, apologize for the past, which he knows cannot be refused, if and promise for the future: never he thinks that his friend may not. feem in baste to justify yourself; withstanding have reason to with it and though you should imagine had not been asked. their difpleasure unmerited, in which I shall finish this long letter with a it is a thousand to one but you will note of yet higher i.vportance. be mistaken, yet be sure to avoid If you succeed in every design all pert and lelf-sufficient replies on which you form, and the world gives the one hand, and on the other sullen you 'till its utmoft bounty is exbauft. looks and dumb resentment. If it ed, your happiness will still be imshould happen that an harsh express perfect, you will find some defire unfion escapes them when their temper satisfied, and your poffeffion will never is ruffled by the perplexing accidents fill your wishes. and disappointments of business, as it But do not fuffer the present hour would be the highest ingratitude and to pass away unenjoyed by an earnett indecency in you to express impa. and anxious delire of some future tience and discontent, fo, as the re. good; for if this weakness is indulgward of a' contrary conduct, their ed, your happiness will Aill fly from own reflections upon what is past you as you pursue it, and there will when the mind is calm will be in be the fame distance between you your favour, and their affection will and the object of your wishes, till all Icek an opportunity of compensating the visions of imagination shall vanish, your uneasiness. You should regard and your progress to further degrees these accidents as opportunities of of temporal advantage tall be stopendearing yourself to them, and as ped by the grave, tests of your prudence, duty, and af. It is notwithstanding true, that the fection,
expectation of future good, if the obWhat may not children expect jed is worthy of a rational desire, from a father who is a friend to the pleases more than any present enjoy. whole circle of his acquaintance? It ment. You will therefore find that is your happiness to have such a fa- a well-grounded hope of Heaven will ther; think yourself secure of every give a relish to whatever you shall thing that is fit for you in bis affec. possess upon earth. . If there is no tion, and do not anticipate his boun. time to come that we can anticipate ty by requests: the pleasure of both with pleasure, we regret every mowill be lessened if you receive be. ment that passes; we see that time is cause you ak, and if he gives be. flying away with all our enjoyments; Cause he cannot deny you. How that youth is Niort, health precarious,
Life of Sir Charles Linneus.
425 and age approaching, loaded with in- fail to understand now; and I would formities to wbich death only can put recommend the frequent perusal of an end: for this reafon strive to see this letter, that you may at length cure an interest in the favour of God, comprehend the whole ; for as the which will ensure to you an everlalte world opens to you, you will see the ing life of uninterrupted and incon- reason and the use of other parts ; ceivable felicity. Nor is this a dif- and if they assist you in any degree ficult or an unpleafing attempt ; no to pass througi lite with fafety and real present happiness need to be for- reputation, I thall think my labour feited to purchase the future, for vir- well befowed. tue and piety at once secure every
I am, dear Miss, good of body and mind both in time
Your affectionate friend, and eternity. As many of these hints as may be
John HawkESWORTH. of immediate use I think you cannot Broomley, Kent, 14 Dec. 1748.
LIFE OF LINNÆUS.
[CONTINUED FROM PAGE 93.]
cision and order which characterises dicine as a practitioner, but as a all his works, is also nighly conspitheorist this science derived the most cuous in those defcriptions. The effential benefits from his exertions. confused appellations which had till
The knowledge of diseases, (Patho then prevailed with regard to many logy)-their remedies or cures (Ma- plants were now destroyed; be assignteria Medica)—and the instructions ed to every plant its real rank, its how to preserve health by means of pharmaceutical and botanical names, a regular, choice, and judicious use of the synonymues or bye-names given meat and drink, (Diætetic)--confti- by the ancients, its native foil and tute the three principal branches of properties, and an exact description physic; and Linnæus acquired cele. of its fanative virtues. brity and extensive merit in those The genius which seemed so enthree different branches of medical tirely created. for fystematic order science.
and description, farther displayed its In the Materia Medica the best eminence in pathology, which is anuand most numerous
remedies are ther branch of physic. The neceilidrawn from the vegetable reign. ty of a syftem, of a general rule by Linnæus became the modern creator which diseases might be known and of botany and natural history, and at difcerned according to their difierthe same time of the Materia Media ence and manifold variations, had
When he examined plants or frequently occurred to his penetrating other natural productions, their in- mind. The late Professor De Sautrinsic properties and economical or vages, one of the best friends of Linmedical virtues were generally the væus in France, published in 1739 a objects of his atteotion. He first valuable work, which was highly described the vegetable productions, embellihed on subsequent occafiors. especially those which grow in his But before ever Linnæus obtained own country; and in a like manner, any knowledge of this work, he himsome time after, those fanative fub- felf planned a fystematic abridgment Atances which exist in the animal and of nofology to serve him in his lecmineral reigns. That fpirit of pre- tures, published in 1759 as an acade.
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