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nical differtation, by the title of G:. by which he formed the greatest part nera Morborum, and in 1763 as a se- of the young Swedish practitioners.

We now return to his chief study, to In his general division of diseases natural history. One single reign of be reduced them to eleven classes, nature, was too confined a sphere for thirty-seven orders, and three hund. him to move in. With the same red and twenty-five species. He al. spirit and success he made conquests so gave lectures upon the various equally great in the animal reign. species of diseases (Species Morbs. This reign was covered with ftill rum.) This plan, however, remain. greater darkness, and remained a ed a manuscript, from which he dic- chaos of intricacy and confusion. tated to his students. The chief re. Gesner, Aldrovandus, and Ray, had fult of his medical observations and spread over it some small streaks of lectures he published in 1766, under a dawning light, but through Linthe title of Clavis Medicinæ Duplex, næus alone it first appeared as a feExterior et Interior, Holm. twenty. rene and resplendent day. His aninine pages in octavo. This work, mal system confifted only of a few small as it was, became a compendi- pages in the beginning, but the um of the whole science, and an epi- twelfth and last edition which apo tomical ketch of the virtues and ef. peared at Stockholm in 1767, at the fects of medicines. “ It was like an expiration of thirty years after its Ilias in Nuce,” says Dean Beck, firft appearance, formed two large " but a nut somewhat hard to be volumes. cracked to get at the kernel.” Diæ All the creatures of the ani. tetics--as another most interesting mal reign, then' kpowd, were arand most useful branch of medicine, ranged in it with as much accuracy also occupied Linnæus. His travels and precision as the plants had been had enabled him to make many described in bis botanical works. experiments and observations upon Every animal with its characteristics, that branch of medical study. “ This its synonymous and trivial names, its fcience,” wrote be to Baron Haller country and principal qualities, could in 1744,“ makes my delight; I have easily be found in it. collected more in it than I know any He taught us to diftinguish the other to have done. . The whole species of the serpents by the numcourse of his diætetic lectures lasted ber of their shields or scales, the three years each time. He did not fishes by the position of their fins, publish any general works upon this and was the first who ranged in due branch of plyfic. It was, however, order the insects, those dumb and enriched with a considerable number deaf instruments of nature, which of fine treatises upon single subjects; collect in much larger numbers than for instance, such as on the utility of any other living animals, and are motion, on the diverhty of aliments, in general only known by the milon bread, on the eatable plants of chief which we accuse them of comSweden, op tea, coffee, chocolate, mitting upon us. &c. &c. These tracts were defend Linnæus also introduced a more ed by his pupils, whom he furnished convenient method of ordering the with the materials. He also made teftaceous animals.

ftonehimself equally conspicuous in what plants or corals were even before is properly called medicine. his time mixed with the zoophites,

This is a fummary view of the la- worms, and insects. Linnæus pointbours by which Linnæus acquired ed out their distinctive marks, and his medical celebrity in Sweden, and all were thus put in their proper

place.

The.

Life of Sir Charles Linnaeus.

427 place. All animated beings were the science which he cultivated. The described on that muster-roll in such different academies of Europe vied a manner that the lover of nature on with each other, which of them the frigid coast of Greenland might Thould first have the honour of electlearn to know by it even the smallest ing Linnæus one of their members. butterfly in the regions of India. He experienced also the flattering

The merits of Linnæus in minera- distinction which had never before Jogy were, doubtless, very shining been the lot of any Northern genius, and eminent. He was the first who to be received, in 1762, as an ordiestablished the genera in that science, nary member of the Royal Academy and precisely indicated their charac. of Sciences of Paris, after he had teristic figns. His mineral system, been a corresponding member ever which was the latest received in his fince the year 1738. This, for a fo. code of nature, confifted at the last reigner, was deemed a very particuedition, in 1760, of two hundred and lar mark of respect by Barons Leibthirty-fix octavo pages. The trea- pitz, Haller, Van Swieten, and the fures of this reign of nature are di- great anatomist Morgagni at Padua. vided by Linnæus into three differ- The Royal Society of London fol. ent clafles; namely, into ftones (Pe- lowed this example in the year 1763. træ,) minerals (Mineræ,) and fossils In 1762 Linnæus also became a (Fossilia,) the latter into various or- member of the British @conomical ders, and the whole into fifty-four, Society, and in 1772 Honorary genera. Linnæus gave a fingular Member of the Physical College at hypothesis respecting the origin of Edinburgh. The Academy of Flo

stones, which was peculiar to him- rence chose him in 1759, that of self. In his opinion, water is the Drontheim in 1766, that of Cell ia prima materia of the earth, and its 1767, that of Rotterdam in 1771, sediment is clay. If sea water be that of Sienna in the same year, and mixed with rain-water, the faline par

that of Bern in 1772. He was electticles of brine settle at the bottom ed Fellow of the Royal Patriotic like fand. Rotten plants are chang- Society in Sweden in 1775, and ed into a black duft like earth; but shortly before his death allo became all that belongs to the animal reign a member of the Medical Society of turns into chalk. Linnus afligns Paris (Societé de Medecine,) which these as the four principal matters was first instituted in the year 1776. from which all the rest spriilg, by The greatest academy in a distant crystallization, folution, &c. &c. part of the world, that of Philadel.

In the years 1767 and 1771, he phia, also brightened her records by published supplements to his botani- the honour of his name, in 1770. cal descriptions, and after the year Thus was he (comprising the other 1774 gave accounts of single plants scientific bodies mentioned before) which had been sent to him by his member of twenty academies, namepupils.

ly, of three in Sweden, three in GerThese were the lait fruits of the many, one in Switzerland, two in activity of a man whose whole life Holland, three in France, three in had been uninterrupted enthusiasm England, three in Italy, one in Denand merit. Meanwhile, his fame mark, and one in America. spread all over the world, nay far From the river Neva to the Ta. ther, perhaps, than that of any learn- gus in Europe, and in every other .ed man of our age ever reached. part of the world where Nature had He was every where freely acknow. friends, the works of Linnæus beledged and revered as the first man in "came the compass of the study of na

tural

tural bistory. When a great num. his countrymen in our time. When ber of reforms were introduced in the the Swedilh officers and soldiers, tayear 1771 at the university of Coim. ken prisoners and dispersed over the bra in Portugal, under the direction Russian empire, in the late war, were of the Marquis De Pombal, the roy. exchanged in 1790, and at liberty to al ordinance issued for that purpose return to their country through St expressly itated, " That the works Petersburgh, they met with the great« of Linnæus should be the pattern est support and encouragement, efpe“ and basis of all botanical lectures, cially on the part of Demidoff

, who “ because he was the best and great refided in that metropolis, and exert“ est author in that science.” A fi- ed himself by rendering every service milar change took place in the Sp3- to those unfortanate Swedish warriniih universities.

ors, whose gallantry he esteemed, and Among the learned of his own of whose country he ftill retained the country, he was a phenomenon of the most grateful remembrance. firft magnitude. No foreigner of The salary which Linnæus enjoyquality, or of any literary eminence, ed, the property which he had acpassed through Upsal, without with- quired by his marriage, and the preing to see him.

Strangers of all de. fents which were sent him by bis punominations gave him the most flat- pils and admirers, made him one of tering proofs of respect. Lord Bal- the richest and most monied among timore, whose great fortune corre the professors and inhabitants of Upfponded with his love of natural his. sal. His annual ftipend amounted to tory, went from Stockholm to Upsal seven hundred platens or florins. To merely for the purpose of seeing Lin- these may be added one hundred tons

He viewed the Linnæan col- of corn and about twenty tons more, lections, and after a few hours con which were the produce of a prebenversation with our luminary, conceiv- dary estate ; making altogether an ed to high an esteem for him as to annual income of about five hundred present bim with a gold snuff box Swedish rix-dollars, fometimes more set in diamonds. His Lordship’s li- and sometimes less, according to the berality and munificence did not stop price of the corn. During the lathere.' On his travels through Ger. ter part of his life the late King almany he sent Linnæus a service of lowed him a double salary. To these Glver plate, or what the French call resources ought also to be joined the a neceffaire, worth 2000 rix-dollars, produce of his numerous writings, of or upwards of three hundred pounds which Laurence Salvius, a man of sterling. Such an act of munificence merit at Stockholm, was generally can only be the result of the gener- the editor, and by the care of the ous fublimity of mind which lo pe. fame person the first literary journal culiarly characterises the inhabitants was introduced in Sweden in 1745, of the British illes.

under the title of Larda Tidningar. Linnæus also received many proofs Salvius paid Linnæus for each printof the liberality and attachment of ed sheet of his original works only the richer class of his foreign pupils. the small sum of one ducat. But if Among the latter, Messrs Demedoros it be considered, that on account of and Debidoffs, the fons of two most the small population in that vast kingrespectable and wealthy Russian fa. dom, no great number of individuals milies, signalized tbemselves in a pe- are scientific readers, cur surprise at culiar manner.

Owing to the uni- fo scanty a fum paid for such originversal love which Linnæus had gain- al works as those of Linnæus, will cd, he even became the benefactor of certainly abate. The foreign book

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. . Life of Sir Charles Linnaeus,

429 fellers chiefly found his works the Sweden diftinguished the beginning Ous ; and some of them ftill reap bea committee was appointed, consisting Defits from him, even after his death. of fix bishops, fix doctors in divinity Had Linnæus, as an author, received and eight other literati, charged with those fums which the publication of a better translation of the Bible into his works and their manifold editions the Swedith language ; and Linnæus yielded to the booksellers of every was chosen a member of this comcountry, those alone must have made mittee, for the purpose of ascertainhim worth a capital fum.

ing and describing the plants and oThat rural amenity which always ther vegetable productions mentionpofeffed the greatest charms in the ed in the holy fcriptures. eyes of the eminent men of all pa. Linnæus gave even so late as 17726 tions, and which may be looked up- a fine proof of the lasting vigour of on as the just reward of merit in the his genius, which encompassed all nadecline of life-the possession of a ture; and at the same time of that villas-was also one of the first wishes liveliness of fancy which heightened of him who occupied himself folely the charms of his ideas. When he with nature. Soon did his prosper. religned, on the 14th of December, ous and flourishing circumstances gra- his functions of Rector of the Uni tify him with the accomplishment of verlity, which he had thrice exercilthis wish; he purchased the villa of ed, be made an oration on the deHammarby, at the distance of one lights of nature, (Delicia Natura). league from Upsal. During the fif. He had composed this oration in a teen last years of his life he mostly short time, though overwhelmed with chose it for his summer residence, a variety of other important business. There he kept, comparatively speak. The whole academical forum found ing, a little university. His pupils, it so beautiful, that the students of followed him thither, and those who all the Swedish provinces sent depu. were foreigners used to rent lodgings ties to him on the next day, to in. in the villages of Honby and Edeby, treat him to translate it into the Swewhich were both contiguous to his dish tongue from the Latin. villa. In 1769 he had a little edi Though the enthusiastic violence fice erected at the distance of a quar. with which Linnæus exerted himself, ter of a league from his rural abode, and the excessive ftudy of nature, upon an eminence, which commande which made him forget all other coned the prospect of that whole diftri&t. cerns, would often prove detrimenIn this place he kept bis collection tal to his health,—yet the charms of of natural history, upon the contents nature as frequently helped to restore of which he delivered. bis lectures. it to its prisline vigour. When he He afterwards deftiged this country compleated his Philofophia Botanifeat as a dowry for his confort, who ca, in the summer of 1751, and in canie to inhabit it after his decease. the following year, he had a most vi. He purchased, at a subsequent peri- olent fit of the gout, and was oblig. od, another villa of less extent called ed to keep to his bed almost totally Soefja.

derived of the use of his limbs. it So lively a genius as that of Linnæ-was at this period that his pupil us could never remain ina@live. His Kalm returned from North-America zeal continued as long as nature left with a great number of new plants any vitals in his frame. Even in the and other natural curiosities. The year 1773 he took a share in an en- desire of seeing these treasures, and ferprise by which the late King of the delight which he felt when he

actually

actually saw them, was so great, as to which contained thirteen new geriemake the gout fortunately disappear. ra, and upwards of forty new species. The composition of the species Plan Linnæus, the darling of nature, tarum, the most excellent and most was not, so fortunate as Fontenelle, laborious of his works, occafioned al. Haller, and Voltaire, in finding her fo an illness, which served to acce- propitious to him till bis lait mo. lerate his death. The constant si: ment. His great mind, the energy lence which attended his studies, and powers of his faculties, sunk into brought on the stone and the most such a deep decline, that towards the excruciating pains in his right fide. last stage of his life, he was reduced When his pupil Roland returned from to the helpless and feeble state of an Surinam, he felt the liveliest sensa- infant. His fate was fimilar to, nay tions of joy. Rolander had brought worfe ftill than that of Franklin. The | with him the Cochineal-tree (Coctus two last years of his existence were,

Cochenillifer,) on which were to be it might be said, but a slow and obfeen alive the insects from which the itinate struggle with death. While red colour used in dying scarlet is exhe gave lectures in the month of tracted. This joy was however soon May 1774, in the botanical garden, changed into the deepest sadness, ow- he had an apople&ic stroke, and fell ing to a mistaken carefulness. The into a swoon from which he did not tree had been removed to the bota. recover for a long time. This was nical garden. Before the gardener the period at which his health debad received any instructions respect. clined entirely. In his younger days, ing its management, he observed the he used to be amicted with catarrhs insects, which were creeping upon its and the tooth-ach, and his maturity leaves, and confidering them to be with the most violent meagrim; but the destruction of the leaves of the he now began to complain of a pain tree, he gathered them with great in the lower part of his back and in trouble and care, killed them, and his loins. In the year 1774 Mr Penthus annihilated the great and bright nant, the celebrated Zoologist, wrote hopes which Linnæus had conceived to him, to intreat him not to forget of introducing cochineal as a natural his promise of writing the natural bilproduction into Sweden. This ac- tory of Lapland, which he had first' cident caused so much derangement made in the prefáce of his Flora Lapin his frame, as to be followed by a ponica. The answer which Linnæus most violent nervous head-ach. returned to Mr Pennant's request pur

Nature again operated by her ma-ported, “ that it would now be too' gic power upon his health, even when as late for him to begin.” it was quite impaired and reduced in . His public activity continued how. the year 1774. Lieut. Col. Dahl. ever to last till 1776, when he had berg returned from Surinam, and attained the 68th year of his age. brought with him one hundred and Then the feeble and infirm state of eighty.fix fpecies of curious plants, his health suffered a fresh shock; his the production of that country, as a senses then seemed to be worn out, present for the King of Sweden. The and his tongue, palfied as it were, ale King resolved to make a present of most denied its office. With that. this valuable collection to the great natural flow of chearfulness which naturalist of his empire, persuaded was so peculiar to him, he thus dethat there was none to whom it would scribes his situation in his own diary: prove more interesting. Linnæus, pe. _“ Linnæus limps, can hardly walk, netrated with sensations of gratitude, “speaks unintelligibly, and is scarce composed a catalogue of those plants, “ able to write."--Even in this me

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