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sellers chiiify .found his works the most prafitable^ftid most advantageous; and some of them stil) reap benefits from him, even after his death. Had Linnæus, as an author, received those sums which the publication of his works and their manifold editions yielded to the booksellers of every Country, those alone must have made him worth a capital sum._
That rural amenity which always possessed the greatest charms in the eyes of the eminent men of all nations, and which may be looked upon as the just reward of merit in the decline of life—the possession of a v/lla-!-was also one of the first wishes of him who occupied himself solely with nature. Soon did his prosperous and flourishing circumstances gratify him with the accomplishment of this wish; he purchased the villa of Hammarby, at the distance of one league from Upsal. During the fifteen last years of his life he mostly chose it for his summer residence. There he kept, comparatively speaking, a little university. His pupils followed him thither, and those who were foreigners used to rent lodgings in the villages of Honby and Edeby, ■which were both contiguous to his villa. In 1769 he liad a little edifice erectecLat the distance of a quarter of a league from his rural abode, upon an eminence, which commanded the prospect of that whole district. In this place he kept bis collection of natural history, upon the contents of which he delivered his lectures. He afterwards desticed this country feat as a dowry for his confoft, who came to inhabit it after his decease. He purchased, at a subsequent period, another villa of less extent called Soefja.
So lively a genius as that of Linnæus could never remain inactive. His zeal continued as long as nature left any vitals in his frame. Even in the year j 773 he took a (hare in an enterprise by which the late King of
Sweden distinguished the beginning of his reign as a lover of science. A committee was appointed, consisting of fix bistiops, six doctors in divinity, and eight other literati, charged with a better translation of the Bible into the Swedish language; and Linnæus was chosen a member of this committee, for the purpose of ascertaining, and describing the plants and other vegetable productions mentioned in the holy scriptures.
Linnæus gave even so late as 1772, a sine proof of the lasting vigour of his genius, which encompassed all nature; and at the fame time of that liveliness of fancy which heightened the charms of his ideas. When he resigned, on the 14th of December, his functions of Rector of the University, which he had thrice exercised, be made an oration on the delights of nature, (Delict* Nature)-. He had composed this oration >in a short time, though overwhelmed with a variety of oth»r important business. The whole academical forum found it so beautiful, that the students of all the Swedish provinces sent depu. ties to him on the next day» to intreat him to translate it into the Swedish tongue from the Latin.
Though the enthusiastic violence with which Linnæus exerted himself, and the excessive study of nature, which made him forget all other concerns, would often prove detrimental to his health,—yet the charms of nature as frequently helped to restore it to its pristine vigour. When he compleated his Philosophia Botanica, in the summer of 1751, and in the following year, he had a most violent fit of the gout, and was obliged to keep to his bed almost totally derived of the use of his limbs. It was at this period that his pupil Kalm returned from North-America with a great number of new plants and other natural curiosities. The desire of seeing these treasures, and the delight which he felt when he
ictually saw them, was so great, as to make the gout fortunately disappear. The composition of the species Plantarum, the most excellent and most Laborious of his works, occasioned also an illness, which served to accelerate his death. The constant silence which attended his studies, brought on the stone and the most excruciating pains in his right side. When his pupil Roland returned from Surinam, he felt the liveliest sensations of joy. Rolander had brought with him the Cochineal-tree (Coctus Cochenillifer,) on which were to be seen alive the insects from which the red colour used in dying scarlet is extracted. This joy was however soon changed into the deepest sadness, owing to a mistaken carefulness. The tree had been removed to the botanical garden. Before the gardener had received any instructions respecting its management, he observed the insects, which were creeping upon its leaves, and considering them to be the destruction of the leaves of the tree, he gathered them with great trouble and care, killed them, and thus annihilated the great and bright hopes which Linnæus had conceived of introducing cochineal as a natural production into Sweden. This accident caused so much derangement in his frame, as to be followed by a most violent nervous head-ach.
Nature again operated by her magic power upon his health, even when it was quite impaired and reduced in the year 1774. Lieut. Col. Dahlberg returned from Surinam, and brought with him one hundred and eighty.six species of curious plants, the production of that country, as a present for the King of Sweden. The King resolved to make a present of this valuable collection to the great naturalist of his empire, persuaded that there was none to whom it would prove more interesting. Linnæus, penetrated with sensations of gratitude, composed a catalogue of those plants,
which contained thirteen new genera, and upwards of forty new species. Linnæus, the darling of nature, was not;so fortunate as Fontenelle, Haller, and Voltaire, in finding her propitious to him till his last moment. His great mind, the energy and powers of his faculties, funk into such a deep decline, that towards the last stage of his life, he was reduced to the helpless and feeble state of an infant. His fate was similar to, nay worse .still than that of Franklin. The two last years of his existence were,' it might be said, but a slow and obstinate struggle with death. While he gave lectures in the month of May 1774, in the botanical garden,he had an apoplectic stroke, and fell into a swoon from which he did not recover for a long time. This was the period at which his health declined entirely. In his younger days, he used to be afflicted with catarrhs and the tooth-ach, and his maturity with the most violent meagrim j but he now began to complain of a pain in the lower part of his back and in his loins. In the year 1774 Mr Pennant, the celebrated Zoologist, wrote to him, to intreat him not to forget' his promise of writing the natural history of Lapland, which he had first made in the preface of his Flora Lapponica. The answer which Linnæus returned to Mr Pennant's request pur- ■ ported, *' that it would now be too "late, for him to begin."
His public activity continued however to last till 1776, when he had attained the 68th year of his age. Then the feeble and infirm state of his health suffered a fresti shock; his senses then seemed to be worn out, and his tongue, palsied as it were, almost denied its office. With that • natural flow of chearfulness which was so peculiar to him, he thus describes his situation in his own diary: —" Linnæus limps, can hardly walk, "speaks unintelligibly, and is scarce "able to write."—Even in this replaocholj
Tancholy and painful state, nature still remained his only comfort and relief. He used to be carried to his museum, where he viewed the treasures which he had collected with so much labour, and manifested a particular delight in examining the rari
ties and new productions,which, during the latter part of his life, had been brought him by M. Mutis from Carthagena and New Grenada, and by his other pupils from- the Cape of Good Hope and Asia.
(To be concluded in our next.)
NARRATIVE OF THE ADVENTURES OF THE MUTINEERS ONBOARD HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP BOUNTY AFTER THEIR SEPARATION FROM CAPTAIN BLIGH.
/~\UR readers well know the his^"^ tory of this mutiny by the interesting account publilhed by Captain Bligh after his return home. It happened on the 28th of April 1789, at a little distance from Tofoa, one of the Friendly Islands. The mutineers who kept possession of the Bounty were in all 25, and the most able men of the (hip's company, viz. Fletcher Christian, master's mate— Peter Heywood, Edward Young and George Stewart, midshipmen, Charles Churchill, master at arms, John Mills, gunner's mate, James Morrison, Boatswain's mate, Thomas Burkitt, Matthew Quintal, John Sumner, John Mil ward, William M'Koy, Henry Kilbrant, Alexander Smith, William Musprat, Michael Byrne, Thomas Elifon, John WHiiams,- Isaac Martin, Matthew Thomson and Richard Skinner seamen, William Brown, gardener, Joseph Coleman, armourer, Charles Norman, and Thomas M'ln'tosh, carpenter's mates. The three last, with Isaac Martin, were detained contrary to their inclination.
When Captain Bligh was turned adrift and the Bounty set fail, some of Christian's party cried out, " Huiza, for Otaheite," which gave him much offence, as he dreaded the Captain's following him thither. In order therefore to deceive the boat, they steered W. N. W. but as soon as the launch was out of sight, made for Otaheite.
Remorse seems to have seized
Christian the moment he had com* mitted th« attrocious deed. He became pensive, while a few of the others began to laugh and joke about the dismal situation of the Captain and his companions. This raillery, increased Christian's agitation, which became so great that he w.as unable tor conceal it. He staid on deck till the launch was out of sight, but he never looked at it without the strongest emotions. He began to be afraid even of his own party, and when he went down to the cabin to examine the stores, he enjoined Churchill and Heywood to stay on deck and be particularly vigilant.
The thought of what was past prevented them of thinking of what was to come. They were now returning to Otaheite, but never once consulted among themselves what they should fay to the natives. Indeed Churchhill hinted something of it to Christian, but he seemed quite indifferent about the matter, imagining that any story they thought proper to tell would be credited by the natives.
They were determined not to stop at any of the Islands, but make the utmost expedition to reach Otaheite. The weather however becomingtempestuous, and the wind unfavourable, they were obliged to anchor at an Island about seven leagues from their intended port. They tarried here three days, during which time they saw no inhabitants, and the land wore 1 dreary appearance. Having now I afrelh a fresh breeze, they weighed and stood for Otaheite.
While passing Annamcoka they were vilited by several canoes from the neighbouring islands. These natives, who knew them, expressed great astonishment at their return, while Christian pretended that some very urgent reasons required their longer stay at Otaheite. Nothing material occurred during the remainder of their passage.
Ail the mutineers agreed that Christian should take the command, which at first he seemed to' decline, wiihing to resign it to Stewart. He however accepted it, while Stewart acted under him.
On their approaching the island he ordered every man to remain under arm's, lest the Captain might have contrived to visit some of the neighbouiing districts, and communicated his misfortunes, more particularly to
were soon followed by others, wrio were equally surprised at meeting with their old friends; but Tinah and Foeeno alternately inquired the meaning that Captain Bligli lent them back ; why also he did not come with them and bring Captain Ccoke, for whom they entertained so great a regard. To these questions Christian returned very sorry answers, and with some equivocations evaded others.
The chiefs understanding that these people were come to letlle among them, immediately began, according to custom, to choose each his Tayo, or friend. Their notions of friendship are indeed very extraordinary. When a person becomes a Tayo, to any one, it is expected o( that person that he will chcnlh his friend's wife, the neglect of which would occasion much coolness and indifference. They are however exceedingly faithful to their friends, for they would shudder
Tinah, a chief of Otaheite, who was at-.the thoughts of betraying them*
exceedingly partial to him. Christian of course knew that the natives would be inclined to take his part, and perhaps unite their sorec to recover the vessel. These appichcnsions were soon removed by Churchhill, who remarked the impossibility of Captain Bligh's reaching Otaheite, or any of the adjoining islands, without their observing the launch; notwithstanding, it was deemed advisable that they should all lcruain en their guard.
They are likewise ready to supply their wants even to their own injury; and when thole who have Tayos die without issue, their titles and estates, agreeable to the law of Tayostiip, devolve to their chosen friends, with whom, according to custom, they change names at the time their friendships are contracted.
The mutineers now landed, while the best refreshments that the place afforded were immediately providedIt is impossible to describe the plea
As soon as they were in sight of sore which some of the females felt
Otaheite several ot the natives came off in canoet to learn the cause of their unexpected return; Christian told them that Captain Bligh had discovered that Captain Cooke was alive and at Whytutakee, and that both he and his officers were determined to remain there with him. This news accordingly spread, but the •story created much surprise.
upon seeing their former gallants: they were particularly assiduous in preparing the most agreeble food for their if ception.
Captain Bligh while he was here had a tent erected for his own use: Christian immediately took possession of this, telling, the chiefs that he was now Captain Christian during Bligh's absence. To this all his accomplices into two parties, one to remain on board the vessel, the other on shore by turns. ,
Tinah and Poeeno, iwo chiefs re- .assented and behaved to him with afTOarkaMy at!?.ched to captain Bligh, somed respect.
immediately hastened en beard They The (hip's company were divided
1 - into the upper districts, and received an plain or mutter at their present situ
A (hoTt time after they had landed, Churchill, whom Christian had made his most constant companion, became the Tayo of a great chief in
the men dared to sliew the least disapprobation of what was done, for fear of being immediately destroyed; for several suspected that Christian had given secret orders to some of his most particular friends to put to instant death any who fliould com
invitation to his house. Christian, in order to court the favourof the chiefs, ■was remarkably profuse in his presents; he was likewise cunning enough to take the merit of all the donations, which created a degree of jealousy between him and his confederates.
Tinah regularly visited Christian every day, both on shore and on board. This chief, however, could riot conceal his dissatisfaction at the absence of Captain Bligh and the other officers; nor could he indeed reconcile it to himself why the Captain would not return and abide in Otaheite in preference to any other island. "Iddeah, Tinah's wife, who had been remarkably attached to Captain Bligh, became exceedingly melancholy at his seeming indifference. On this account she entertained an aversion to Christian and his accomplices, and seldom accompanied her husband in his visits.
During the intervals of solitude, Christian was frequently seized with remorse and horror at what he had done. Reflection almost set him mad, and he certainly felt more anguish at the commission of the mutiny than any of his confederates. Whenever Churchill or Stewart were in his company he endeavoured to resume his vivacity and (hake off those gloomy terrors which occasionally clouded his mind. Churchill was naturally possessed of a sprightly disposition; his presence, therefore, 10 a great measure, dispelled the other's uneasiness, and helped to keep up his spirits.
Martin likewise expressed much unhappiness when alone, but none of
ation, lest the natives should discover what had happened, and of course revenge their ill-treatment of Captain Bligh.
Some os the natives who visited the Bounty committed several depredations. Christian complained to Tinah of his people's thefts and misbehaviour; This chief, when Cap. tain Bligh was in the island, had been very assiduous in lecovering whatever was stolen; but now affairs seemed to wear a different complexion. Tinah paid little or no attention to Christian's complaints, nor seemed to be in the least concerned for whatever loss he sustained. The fact was, the natives thought they were at liberty to do whatever they liked, since the Captain, whom they looked upon as the chief of those Englisti, was absent: and Christian was afraid to assume too much authority, for fear he might incur their displeasure, and be consequently abandoned by them.
It was observed that Christian had, previous to his departure from this island with the Captain, entertained a passion for some of the female natives; to one he was particularly attached. She was young, affectionate, genteel, and setting aside the disfigurements which the customs of the country render general, she might well be accounted handsome. Their mutual affection was remarkable, and the sincerity of their loves indisputable. In short, they were married, according to the fashion, which is no more than making a bargain with die parents and exchanging- mutual promises before all the friends who are on the occasion invited. Among