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· be a victim of the unmixed sentimental temperament, may find everything interesting, æsthetically pleasing, promising continued kindness of feeling, and unwearied delightful politeness of address. But the more profound student will take note of the clear indications, that beneath this thin, fair crust, there are smouldering fires of national sentiment, uncontrolled by solid moral principle, and unguided by sound, practical judgment. As yet, however, we are confident in the larger hope for the future of this most interesting' of Oriental races."

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Rein's “Japan,” “ The Gist of Japan” (Peery), “Japan and its Regeneration” (Cary), “ The Soul of the Far East” (Lowell), “Feudal and Modern Japan" (Knapp), “LotosTime in Japan ” (Finck), and Hearn's works discuss the subject of Japanese characteristics with intelligence from various points of view. The most interesting and instructive Japanese writer on the subject is Nitobe in his “ Bushido, the Soul of Japan.” Dening's paper in vol. xix. Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan is very valuable. “The Evolution of the Japanese ” (Gulick) should also be carefully studied, especially as he differs from Lowell and others, who contend that Orientals in general, and Japanese in particular, have no “soul,” or distinct personality.



OUTLINE OF Topics: Outline of mythology and history; sources of material ; earlier periods; Japanese and Græco-Roman mythology ; prehistoric period; continental influences ; capitals; Imperialism ; Fujiwara Epoch; Taira and Minamoto; Hõjö tyranny ; Ashikaga Period ; Nobunaga and Hideyoshi ; Iyeyasu ; Tokugawa Dynasty. — Bibliography.

OTHE mythology and history of Japan may be

outlined in the following manner:

A. Sources of material.
1. Oral tradition.
2. Kojiki [711 A. D.].

3. Nihongi [720 A. D.). B. Chronology. I. Old Japan. 1. “Divine Ages.” Creation of world; Izanagi and

Izanami; Sun-goddess and brother; Ninigi; Princes

Fire-Shine and Fire-Fade; Jimmu. 2. Prehistoric Period [660 B. C.-400 (?) A. D.]. Jimmu

Tenno; “Sūjin, the Civilizer”; Yamato-Dake; Empress Jingu ; Invasion of Korea; Õjin, deified as Hachiman, the Japanese Mars ; Take-no-uchi. Native

elements of civilization. Chinese literature. 3. Imperialistic Period (400 (?)-888 A.D.]. Continental

influences (on language and literature, learning, government, manners and customs, and religion); Buddhism ; Shotoku Taishi; practice of abdication ; Nara Epoch ; capital settled at Kyoto; Sugawara; Fuji

wara family established in regency (888 A. D.). 4. Civil Strife [888–1603 A. D.]. Fujiwara bureaucracy;

Taira supremacy (1156–1185); wars of red and white flags; Yoritomo and Yoshitsune ; Minamoto supremacy (1185–1199); first Shogunate; Hōjō tyranny (1199-1333); Tartar armada ; Kusunoki and Nitta ; Ashikaga supremacy (1333–1573); “War of the Chrysanthemums”; tribute to China; fine arts and architecture; cha-no-yu ; Portuguese; Francis Xavier; spread of Christianity; Nobunaga, persecutor of Buddhists (1573-1582) ; Hideyoshi, “Napoleon of Japan” (1585–1598); persecution of Christianity; invasion of Korea; Iyeyasu ; battle

of Sekigahara (1600 A. D.). 5. Tokugawa Feudalism (1603-1868 A. D.). Iyeyasu

Shogun (1603); capital Yedo, girdled by friendly fiefs; perfection of feudalism; Dutch; Will Adams; English; extermination of Christianity ; seclusion

and crystallization (1638–1853); Confucian influences. II. New Japan. 5 (continued). Perry's Expedition ; treaties with for

eign nations; internal strife; Richardson affair; Shimonoseki affair; resignation of Shogun; abolition of Shogunate; Revolutionary War; New Imperialism;

Imperial capital Yedo, renamed Tōkyō; Meiji Era. 6. New Empire (1868– ]. Opening of ports and

cities; “Charter Oath"; telegraphs, light-houses, postal system, mint, dockyard, etc.; outcasts acknowledged as human beings; abolition of feudalism; first railway, newspaper, and church ; Imperial University; Yokohama Missionary Conference; Gregorian calendar; anti-Christian edicts removed; Saga rebellion; Formosan Expedition; assembly of governors; Senate; treaty with Korea; Satsuma rebellion ; bimetallism; Loo Choo annexed; new codes; prefectural assemblies ; Bank of Japan; Osaka Missionary Conference; new nobility; Japan Mail Steamship Company; Privy Council; Prince Haru made Crown Prince; anti-foreign reaction ; promulgation of Constitution; first Diet; Gifu earthquake; war with China; Formosa; tariff revision ; gold standard ; freedom of press and public meetings; opening of Japan by new treaties; war with China ; Tokyo Missionary Conference; Anglo-Japanese Alliance.

The student of Japanese history is confronted, at the outset, with a serious difficulty. In ancient times the Japanese had no literary script, so that all events had to be handed down from generation to generation by oral tradition. The art of writing was introduced into Japan, from China probably, in the latter part of the third century A. D.; but it was not used for recording events until the beginning of the fifth century. All these early records, moreover, were destroyed by fire; so that the only “reliance for information about ... antiquity” has to be placed in the Kojiki,1 or “Records of Ancient Matters," and the Nihongi,2 or “Chronicles of Japan.” The former, completed in 711 A. D., is written in a purer Japanese style; the latter, finished in 720 A. D., is “much more tinctured with Chinese philosophy"; though differing in some details, they

Society of Japan, vol. x., Supplement.

2 Aston's English version is found in Transactions Japan Society, London, Supplement.




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