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Herod was from the building of the City Having thus settled the beginning of Herod's (Rome) 750. of Augustus 41. before the Reign beyond all doubt, let us now fee in Vulgar Æra 4.

what year of his Reign he died, which the The chief ground of this Opinion is taken fame Historian tells us in the following words, out of Josephus, who having the History of Ant. Jud. lib. 17. c. 1o. He died in the 34th this King written by his Friend Nicholas of year of his Reign, after he had cut off AntigoDamascus, mighe very well be accurate in the nus but the 37th after his being declared Chronology of this King's Life. Now Jose- King at Rome. And left any one should sufphus speaks thus of the Year in which he was pect some mistake in the numbers, he repeats declared King of Judea at Rome, Ant. Jud. the same in his first Book, cap. 21. of the lib. 14. c. 29. So he took the Kingdom, which Wars of the Jews. be obtain’d in the 184th Olympiad, during the Now, if to the Year from the building of Consulate of C. Alinius Pollio, and C. Domitius the City 713, you add 37, taking in the Year Calvinus, who was this year the ad time Consul. 214, in which Herod began to reign, you will Which Consuls exercis'd their Office in the fall upon the Year 750, which ariles also froin year from the building of the City 714. In the addition of 34 to 716, at the conclusion the 27th Chapter of the same Book he tells of which Antigonus was cut off in favour of us of Herod's besieging Jerusalem in the third Herod, who alone from that time could be year after his being declar'd King at Rome. called the King of the Jews. This (1ays he) was the third year after he was But there is another most certain way of declar'd King at Rome : and in the Chapter finding out the Year in which Herod died, and following, speaking of the time when feru. is set down Ly Josephus, viz. In that same Salem was taken, This Calamity befel the City Year in which he died, there was an Eclipse of Jerusalem in the 185th Olympiad, M. Agrip- of the Moon, as appears from the Jewish Anpa and Canidius Gallus being Consuls at Rome. tiquities, lib. 17. c. 8. which Eclipse happen'd Now ’ris certain that between those Consuls, at Jerusalem, according to the calculation of during whose Magistracy Herod was declared Attronomers, the 13th day of March, ac 3 King, and those he here nientions, there were a clock in the morning, in the year 750 V.C. but cwo pair of Contuls; 10 that if Herod be Other Arguments might be produc'd to gan his Reign in the Summer of the year 714. prove that Herod died this very year, neither 0. C. as I shall atterwards prove, he muit sooner nor later, which have been made use have taken Jerusalem before the third Year was of lately by some learned men in France ; buc quite expir'd,' or at least at the end of it: what has been said may fuffice, since we are for he took the City in the third month, chat wone to estimate the force of Arguments by is, in the beginning of the Summer, as fo- the weight of each, and not from the number fepbus himself cells us in the words immediatly of them. Let us now inquire at what cime following ; In the third month (from the ver: of the year Herod began his Reign.

nal Equinox) on a Fast-day, as it were by a This may easily be made out by remem- periodical return of the Calamity the Jews had bring that josepius places the first year of his formerly Suffered under Pompey: for on the same Reign in the 184th Olympiad, from which it day of the year, 27 years before, Jerusalem was appears that Herod was declared King at Rome taken by him that is, in the year V.C. 691. before the Summer Solstice of the year 714, C. Antonius and M. Tullius being Consuls, as from the building of the City; for the 185th Josephus informs us in the 8th Chapter of the Olympiad begins immediatly from the Summer Lime Book, herein agreeing with the Roman Solstice of that year, and was celebrated, acAnnals. As for the Fast he mentions, I take cording to the calculation of Sethus Calvisius, it to be that which was celebrated on the 23d the 17th of August. Hence we may collect day of the third Monch called Sivan, upon by the by, that those are in a great inistake the account of Jeroboam's Idolatry. See the who put off che regal Digaity of Herod to the Calendar of the Jews publish'd by Selden in Autumn of that Year, whose Arguments his Book de anno civili Judeorum, cap. 7. nevertheless I will not now confute.

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'Tis certain Josephus has nor any thing that matter I chuse wholly co omit tliem rather can persuade one Herod was proclaimed King than to heap up one Conjecture upon anoof the Jews later than this : for in his 14th ther. Book, cap. 26. of his Jew. Antiq. he cells us, Every one knows that it was the general

that he failed from Alexandria in the Winter, Opinion of the Western Churches, that Christ XetumvG ØrtG; and in the ift book, cap. 11. was born on the 8 Cal. Jan. or the 25th of thac he was not at all afraid of Tio a xuívom xer December ; whereas the Churches of the Eart puovo, the heighth of Winter, which is fiercest contended for the 8th Id. fan. or 6th of fan. in the month of January ; that lie was in alledging chat they must needs have a better danger of being shipwrack'd about Pamphilia, insight into this Affair than the Western and with much difficulty got to Rhodes, from Churches, who were at so much a greater whence, having refitted his Vessel, he ser fail distance from the place of his Birth than themfor Italy, whicher he might probably arrive selves. J.Ger. Voffius, in his Dissertation conin the month of April, and in the Summer cerning the time of Christ's Nativity, hath colfollowing obtain the Regal Dignity.

lected a great many Testimonies of the An. From hence 'tis evident, it we stare che tients to this purpose ; but whoever will diliDeath of Herod about the end of the Summer gently examin this matter, and conliders, that of the Year from the building of the City in the most primitive times of Christianity 750. that he died in the beginning of the this particular Day was not consecrated as the 37th Year of his Reign, if we begin from day of his Nativity, will readily be convinc'd the Summer of the Year from the building of that neither of them had any certain grounds che City 714. And certainly he must have for their determination in chis particular

. reign’d so long, if he reign'd 37 Years, for There is no man of Letters that will make any che last Year could not be reckoned unless it doubt of this, and so I urge it no farther. had been begun ; and no one is ignorant that I will not affirm or deny that Christ was born the current Year is frequently by writers ad- in this or that month of the Year Ful. 41. ded to the intire ones, and therefore does because the matter is doubtful : But I think not stand in need of any confirmation. this one thing certain, That he was born this

year, altho we know not the particular Month. II. Having thus settled the Year of Herod's For which reason I have entitled the following Death, our next inquiry is by how many Year 41. the first after Christ's Birth, without Months the Nativity of Christ preceded the taking norice of the Months and Days preDeath of Herod? For my part, I don't think ceding it, as is usual also in the Dionysian there can be any thing certainly conclud- Æra. ed concerning the number of Months ; My chicf Reasons for referring the Year of but this however we may lay down, chat Christ's Birth to the 41 Fulian, are in short Christ was born in the year 749. V.C. or these ; for they have been already set forth Julian 41. the latter half of which is to be at large, and illustrated by others. St. Luke, accounted into the 33d year of Herod's Reign, in chap. 3. v. 1. of his Gospel, tells us that reckoning from the taking of Jerusalem. It John began to baptize in the 1st Year of the appears indeed from St. Luke's Gospel, that Reign of Tiberius; and thác many flocking to Fesus was born six months after John the Bap. him from all parts, Jesus himself came thither čist; but since 'tis uncertain in what month he alto to be baptiz'd by him: He then adds, was conceived and born, nothing of any cer Και αυτός ο ο Ιησες ώσει ετων τριάκοντα tainey can be inferred from it. I am not ig- eggoper , And Jefus himself was about 39 norant what fome learned men have conjectu- years, beginning, viz, to enter upon his Minired concerning the Week in which the Clafs stry. For I think there is no obfcurity in those of Abias (to which Zechari:1 the Father of words, neither could any one have ever found John belonged) executed the Priett's Oifice in any, but by straining the Text, for reasons the Temple ; but what they say is built upon which do not at all relate to my presenr purfuch weak Foundations, that in fo ferious à pose. This one thing is uncertain, in whae


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Month of che i sth Year of the Reign of Ti- the Conquest of Jerusalem, as is plain from
berius, Christ refolv'd to be baptized by John. Petavius's Annals. From which time Herod
Now the isth Year of Tiberius begins the was without all dispute King of Judea, for
28th day of the Month Sextilis, in the Year which reason Josephus made use of this ac-
779 V.C. But it is not much matter whe- count, which I have also followed.
ther we refer this Bapcism to the last month But this 18th Year of Herod falls partly
of this Year, or the beginning of the fol- upon the 26th, and partly upon the 27th
lowing ; for indeed nothing can be certainly Julian : So that reckoning from the 26th
stated about it. I have therefore referr'd it Julian, the Year of the Foundation of the
to the beginning of the Year following, ra- Temple, unto the 71, or of the Vulgar Ac-
ther to comply herein with the Custom of the count 26, which is the first of Christ's Mini-.
Churches of the West, chan as having anystry, there will be just 46 years, counting
thing certain concerning this Affair.

che first and last for whole ones, as is usual
But since Christ was not born later than the in leis accurare Calculations.
last Year of Herod's Reign, which happen'd, as Now according to this Calculation we can-.
I laid, on the 750th V.C. Jejus must needs nor fix the time of Christ's entring upon his
have been about 30 years old in the year 779. Ministry sooner or later.; for if he began
or else he must have been above 30, it we sup- it looner, the Jews could not have said that
pose him born in the year 479 V.C. I am noc it was the 4sih Year from the building of
ignorant that this Word wire, about, may be the Temple : If later, it would have been
taken in a larger sense ; but no one wiil deny above 46 years. 'Tis crue, this account might
that it has a more proper signification in this be adapted to the Year ensuing by omitting a
place, if Jesus was actually at that time in the few months in the Calculation, but certainly
zoth Year of his Age. Upon which ac- it could not be later : besides, this Opinion is
coline there is no reason why we should not inconsistent with the number of Pafiovers that
understand it in this fenfe ; for the objection happened during our Saviour's Ministry, of
which they urge from the 15th year of Tiberius's which we thall treat hereafter.
Reign is of no force, as I shall ihow hereafter.. From hence it inay be infer'd that Chrift:
It appears therefore that I have rightly fix'd was born in the last Year but one of Herod's
the Year of Christ's Birth, and agreeably to Reign, since he was about 30 years of age
the Holy Scriptures.

45 years after the Foundation of the Temple. There is also another mark of the time And this also confirms what Josephus tells us of taken from St. John's Gospel, c. 2. v. 20. the cwofold beginning of Herod's Reign, and where in the first Year of Christ's Ministry, of the year of his Death. For the more aaccording to my Harmony, the Jews are in- greement there is in matters of this nature,, troduc'd, saying, Forty and fix ycars was this the greater is the probability of the consequenTemple in building. By which words they ces deduced from it. mean, that the Temple began to be built 46 years before, and afterwards received conti II. Elit here 'cis ask'd how it is possible: nually till that rime some additional Ornament; Christ should be but 30 years old when he en-. for the main body of that Edifice was finished tred upon his Ministry, which he did in the by Herod the Great within the space of 9 15th year of Tiberius, as appears from St. Luke's years and a half, as appears from 7ojephas's Gospel, this Year of Tiberius falling apon Antiquities, l. 15. C, 14. And thus alto l the 73 Julian, and beginning the 20th of think Pliny is to be understood, when speaking Auguft, whereas the Year in which our Saof the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, l. 33. C.14.. viour was born was the 41 Julian? They' he says, it was ducentis viginti Annis fa&tum a seem to give the most fatisfactory Answer to totâ Asiâ, two hundred and twenty years in this Query, who ateribute a twofold beginbuilding by all Asia. Now Josephus tells us ning to Tiberius's Reign, the one when he Herod began that Work in the 18th Year of was made Collegue of the Empire by Ano his Reign, dating the beginning of it from guftus, the other when after the Death of.


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Augustus he had the sole management of the the Diffenfions of the Inbabitants of Vienne,
Empire ; to the former of which they refer rather by prudently guarding against the ill Coma
this Paffage of St. Luke. Now Tiberius was sequences than exercising Severity againft them;
declar'd Collegue of the Empire in the uth and the Senate and people of Rome, at the
Year of the Vulgar Ærd, and on the 28th request of Augustus his Father, bad decreed
of August ; from whence it follows that in that he mould have an equal Power with Au-
the 25th Year of the fame Æra, on the same guftus himself over all the Provinces and Ar-
day of the month, began the 15th Year of mies ; he returned into the city, and tri-
Tiberius, at which time John the Baptist seems umph'd for his Vi&tory over the Pannonians and
to have entred upon his Onice. I would not Dalmacians, an Honour that long before was due
however be to understood, as if I laid it to him, but deferred upon the account of the con-
down for a certainty chat John the Bapcist did tinuance of the War. This Triumph ivas in the
not begin to baptize till toward the end of 12th Year of the Vulgar Æra.
the 25th Year of the Vulgar Æra ; for no Our Learned Author has collected a two-
thing hinders but that he might begin some fold beginning of Tiberius's Authority from a
months tooner, which are not taken notice of Passage in Clemens Alexandrinus Stromat

. L.l. by St. Luke, as is very usual.

P: 330. where we have the Chronology of I might here refer my Reader to chat Lear: the Roman Emperors down to Commodus; in ned Person who has undertaken to correct the which having, according to the Vulgar AcAnnals of Baronius, and who ac the 11th court, allotted 22 years to the Reign of TiYear of Christ has at large demonstrated berius, he adds, according to the Sentiments that Tiberius was made Collegue of the Em- of others, (tuta T166ptix s', pas s', pire in that very Year, and has fully answer'd spécus @: (where this Learned Person all Objections to the contrary; and indeed he reads étn xé, not xs'; that is, 25, not 26) seems to co have exhausted that matter, as Afterw.irds Tiberius 26 Years, 6 Months, 19 not to leave room for others to lay any Days. From which words arises chis Calcuthing aboue it. However, it will not perhaps lacion : Tiberius died March 16th, in the year be amiss briefly to Thew after what manner 37 Æ.Vulg. From the 28th Aug. in this this time of Tiberius's Proconfular Authority year, to the same day of the year 11 Æ.Vulga may be found out.

are included 25 years compleat: From which Dion Casius, in his 55th Book of the Ro- day to the 25th Feb. are six months, and from man History, having defcrib'd what happend the 25th Feb. to the 16th March, in which during the Consulate of P. Sulpicius Cameri. Tiberius died, are 19 days. From whence it nus, and C. Poppeus Sabinus, Anno Ære Vulg.9. appears that some Writers plac'd che begin. Tubjoins p. 400. Ed. Rob. Steph. Tậde ebris ning of the first year of Tiberius in the lith $74, &c. The following-Year the Temple of Con- year Æ.V. and therefore that according to cord was consecrated by Tiberius. Immediatly their opinion the beginning of the Isth year of after follow the Transactions of the uth year, Tiberius must refer to 25 Æ.Vulgi which aM. Æmilius Lepidus and T. Statilius Taurus grees with our Account. There are also other being Consuls i When the Consuls M. Æmilius Arguments to convince us that Augustus pitch'd and Statilius Taurus entred upon that Office, Ti- upon the 28th Aug. to chuse him Collegue, in berius and Germanicus the Proconful went into thar Learned Author, to whom I refer my Gail. Then follows a Description of the Affairs Readers, who will there also find a great deal in Germany. Whilft Tiberius was absent in this more to the same purpose. Expedition, he was created by Auguftus Col Now that a twofold beginning should be degue of the Empire, and Confort of the Trio attributed to Tiberius; is no more to be won. bunitian Power, as Tacitus tells us, Annal. lib.i. dred at than that a chreefold one should be C. I. And Velleius Paterculus gives this ac- given to Augustus : for some there are who count of it, Lib. 1 1. c. 120. The Enemies For- date his Authority from the year in which ces being routed both by Sea and Land, after he 3. Cafar was killed ; and others from his first had seirled the Affairs of Gaul, and appeas'd Consulate in the year following; and a chird

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fort do not begin it till after his victory off ples, among whom was Pbilip, went into of Allium, as Petavius tells us ac large in his another part of Judea, where he abode until Toth Book, c. 64. De doft. Temp. which it is John the Baptist was cast into Prison. Afternot necessary to transcribe.

wards he went into Galilee: thro Samaria, There can be then no reason given why where he more openly declar'd his Gospel. Luke might not follow their Opinion who Having published it at Nazareth without efdate Tiberius's Principality from the time that fect, he went on to Capernaum, where he he was made Collegue of the Enipire with began to carry longer than at any other place. Augustus, especially considering that in the Here he got several Disciples, particularly Roman Provinces he was accounted of equal Peter, Andrew, John and James. Thence he Dignity with Augustus himself. 'Tis true, he travel'd thro the Cities of Galilee, in which behaved himself in the City as inferior to him, on the Sabbath-days he preach'd in their Sy.. and rather as his Legate and Administrator nagogues the Kingdom of Heaven :. To acthan Collegue, so that he did not seem to complish all which a year's time is not too act there as Sóveraign cill after the Death of much; for to instruct men who were difAugustus; but if we look narrowly into the perfed thro the Fields and Villages, and bumatter, we shall find this was a mere Artifice sied about their worldly Affairs, it was necefand trick of Dissimulation, and as such accu- fary that Jesus should wait for the Sabbath rately described by Tacitus in the ift Book of Days, in which they met together in their his Annals. But the plain meaning Provinces, Synagogues. as soon as they heard that he had gotten the The second Passover is that which we meer Proconfular Authority, suppos'd, and that with in the sth Chapter of St. John, v. 1. truly, that he was now a sharer in the Supre called fogth Trv Podziwy, emphatically, The macy, and had then entred upon his Princi- Feast of the Jews ; by which Phrase, the pality. With the same fimplicity they callid Paliover, the chiefeli of all the Jewish Festi.. those Reges,who at Rome by a feigned Modesty vals, was wont to be denoted, as Grotius shews were fild only Principes and Imperatores in his Annotations upon thac Passage, altho For which reason Eusebius, in his Chronicon, the Particle be not prefix’d. During this calls the TRIBUNITIA POTESTAS, Feast Jesus carried at Jerusalem, and thence which is attributed in the Coins to Drusus the returned to Galilee, where he made choice Son of Tiberius, igans xorvwvor TCGTA266 of 12 Apostles out of his Disciples, who Vedt, to be made partaker in the Soveraignty; were constantly to attend on him, and be in a and ferom to the lame effcct, Consortem Recni readiness to be dispatch'd by him whitherfofieri.

ever he pleas’d.. From which time he began :

more plainly and largely to divulge the PreIV. I come now to say something of the cepts of his Gospel, as is manifest from those Paffovers by which the time of Christ's Mini- Sermons of his which I have comprehended stry is distinguish'd, I shall not here repeat in the 21st and 22d Chapters of my History, what others have said of this matter, since and from all those Discourses which are afterthe Collections of Ger. Joh. Voffius and others, wards related. Here he caught the Muli.. are in every ones hands. . Whoever peruses tude that Hock'd to him from all parts, workmy Paraphrase, will easily perceive that I ing many Miracles among them, particularly have truly reckoned 4 Passovers during the at Capernaum, and about the Lake of Genné- . time of our Saviour's Ministry, agreeing here- fareth. From thence he went to Nazareth, in with several learned men ; however ic will. from whence passing through Galilee, he sens : perhaps be convenient to give a short Scheme atvay the Apostles to preach the Gospel, of it in this place.

whilst he himself wear to other places. The The first Passover then is that which St. Apostles having discharg'd their Commission, John mentions, ch.1p. 2. 13. during which return’d to him, who was at that time ac Jesus first drove che Traders out of the Temple. Capernaum, or fome ocher Town near car After which Jesus, with a few of his Diicia the Lake of Gennefareth. It can be. no


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