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FIG. 12.-Percentage weight-specific gravity curve for a refined steam-distillation turpentine.

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1464 6 8 1.470 2 4 6 8 1.480

FIG. 13.-Percentage weight-index of refraction curve for a refined steam-distillation turpentine.

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FIG. 14.-Percentage weight-steam temperature curve for a refined steam-distillation turpentine.

The specific gravity curve is shown in figure 12. The specific gravity of the first 92 per cent of the distillate varied within the limits of 0.8662 and 0.8685. This is almost exactly the difference found in figure 1. The vertical part of the curve is very straight, and change of direction does not take place until nearly all the oil has distilled. This indicates, then, that the product was of high grade, and consisted chiefly of a pure light oil.

The index of refraction curve, figure 13, is very similar to that for the gum turpentine shown in figure 7. This change over 92 per cent is from 1.4692 to 1.4722, a difference of 0.0032.

The steam temperature curve, figure 14, further shows marked constancy over a large portion of the oil, and although not quite so perpendicular as the curve shown in figure 8, still within 1.5° variation in temperature the same per cent of oil distilled, namely, 92 per cent. The inference, then, is that this turpentine is of a high degree of purity, being practically the equal of the gum turpentine previously described.

TURPENTINE NO. 22-A CRUDE DESTRUCTIVE-DISTILLATION TURPENTINE. The possibilities of this method are further shown in the results of an analysis of crude turpentine produced by destructive distillation of pine wood. Table 4 presents the data from this analysis. Figures 15, 16, and 17 are the curves made from this table for the specific gravity, the index of refraction, and the steam temperature, respectively.

TABLE 4.-Turpentine No. 22-A crude destructive-distillation turpentine. [Specific gravity, 0.9231 at 15°; index of refraction, too dark for a determination; weight taken, 500

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On reference to figure 15 the oil seems fairly uniform over 50 per cent of its composition, with a variation between 0.8678 and 0.8600, or 0.0078. The specific gravity, however, decreases with the distillation, whereas that of all the other samples has increased. This indicates a very different composition. The irregular form of the index of refraction and steam temperature curves (figs. 16 and 17) shows that the oil was one of very complex composition.

The odor, both of the sample and the fractions, was strong and disagreeable, while the color varied from a yellow to a red.

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FIG. 15.-Percentage weight-specific gravity curve for a crude destructive-distillation turpentine.

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