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SPHEROIDAL TABLES, SHOWING THE LENGTH OF EACH DEGREE OF LATITUDE IN STATUTE MILES,

AND OF LONGITUDE IN MINUTES OF LATITUDE OR NAUTICAL MILES UNDER EACH PARALLEL OF LATITUDE.

LATITUDE
Length of one Degree in Statute Miles.

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LIGHTHOUSES. To find the height at which a Light should be put above the level to show a given number of miles :

Multiply the number of miles by itself, and by 4, and divide

the product by 7. Thus, a lamp required to show ten
miles- 10 x 10=100 x 4= 400

55$ feet.
Should be 554 feet high above the sea level.

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FOR ONE MAN,

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SCALE FOR VICTUALLING MERCHANT VESSELS AT SEA.

Without
With Butter.
Butter,

Rice

Tea and ead. Flour. P cas, or Mol: Salted Salted Salted | Salted

Coffee. Sugar. Mustard. Vinegar.

Tobacco.

Barley
Butter. Beef. Pork. Beef, Pork.
Ibs. Ibs. lbs. 1 lbs. lbs. Ibs. Pint. lbs.

Pint, 1

Lime Juice.

Water.

Days.

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Gall.

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oz. per week.

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I OZ, per day when crew have been on salt provisions 10 days.

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SUBSTITUTES.
1 oz. of Coffee,

Cocoa, or
Chocolate
may be sub-
stituted for

* oz. Tea.
2 Oz. Butter

equal to | Ib.
Salt Beef, or
Pork, or Pre-
served Roast

Beef.
Peas, Rice and

Flour equal
to each other
1 oz. Sugar for
2 oz, Molasses
lb. Preserved
Potatoes
equal to 1 lb.
raw.

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DIETARY SCALE (WITH FRESH BEEF) FOR CREW.

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THE VICTUALLING OF SHIPS.

(THOMAS GRAY, ESQ., C.B.) I. Scurvy has been on the increase in British ships since 1873.

2. Lime-juice, of itself, will not prevent scurvy, and too much reliance is placed on it, to the neglect of varied food scales.

3. Lime-juice, in connection with fresh or preserved meat and vegetables, may prevent scurvy.

4. The dietary scale of ships should therefore include a fair proportion of fresh and “preserved" meats, as distinguished from “salted ” meats.

5. More fresh vegetables should be carried, notably raw potatoes. No satisfactory reason is given why fresh potatoes cannot be carried on board British ships. The allegation that they will not keep good on board ship is clearly disproved by the fact that they do keep on board United States ships, and will keep for a fair time anywhere else.

6. It is not at present desirable to insert a statutory scale of diet in the articles of agreements with crews serving on long voyages ; though it may possibly be necessary hereafter, unless the shipowners themselves move in the matter,

LIST OF PORTS AND PLACES WHERE SHIPS

ARE SWUNG. Names of Firms at each Port who arrange for Adjustment of Ships'

Compasses for Deviation.

ABERDEEN. Berry & Mackay, Marischall-st., Aberdeen. In Bay.

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BRISTOL.

W. Langford & Son, 53, Broad Quay, Bristol. In Dock or in King Roads
C. W. Price,

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GT. YARM'TH. Mayston & Son, South Quay, Gt. Yarmouth. In Roads,

Day & Hawkins, Broad Quay, ,

CRIMSBY,

C.H. Bogen, Hamilton-st., NewClee, G.Grimsby At Sea or in Roads.
J. F. Lundy, Fish Dock-rd., Grimsby Docks.
10. T. Olsen,

POOLS'AP

, Chants

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MIDDLESBRI. Fokeng e Prais. Kistada
NEWPORT. C.EE. Vilizat. Cras raat. Here just news - Kerana kita
PLYMOUTUL 7. Smrit. 4. routz . Peymangat. for uk uw na
SOUTE-

- Latari

Kwenye * Salento

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THE VICTUALLING OF SHIPS.

(THOMAS GRAY, ESQ., C.B.) 1. Scurvy has been on the increase in British ships since 1873.

2. Lime-juice, of itself, will not prevent scurvy, and too much reliance is placed on it, to the neglect of varied food scales.

3. Lime-juice, in connection with fresh or preserved meat and vegetables, may prevent scurvy.

4. The dietary scale of ships should therefore include a fair proportion of fresh and “preserved ” meats, as distinguished from “salted” 'meats.

5. More fresh vegetables should be carried, notably raw potatoes. No satisfactory reason is given why fresh potatoes cannot be carried on board British ships. The allegation that they will not keep good on board ship is clearly disproved by the fact that they do keep on board United States ships, and will keep for a fair time anywhere else.

6. It is not at present desirable to insert" a statutory scale of diet in the articles of agreements with crews serving on long voyages ; though it may possibly be necessary hereafter, unless the shipowners themselves move in the matter.

LIST OF PORTS AND PLACES WHERE SHIPS

ARE SWUNG. Names of Firms at each Port who arrange for Adjustment of Ships'

Compasses for Deviation.

ABERDEEN. Berry & Mackay, Marischall-st., Aberdeen. In Bay.
BARROW. F. A. Palmen, The Observatory, Barrow. In Dock or in Channel.
BELFAST. F. M. Moore, 102, High-street, Belfast. Spencer Basin or in Lough.

S. D. Neill, Donegal-place,

BRISTOL.

W. Langford & Son, 53, Broad Quay, Bristol. In Dock or in King Roads
C. W. Price,

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