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VESSELS ARRIVED AT BALTIMORE DURING THE YEAR 1860, EXCLUSIVE OF Bay Craft.
NUMBER AND CLASS OF FOREIGN VESSELS ARRIVED AT BALTIMORE THE PAST YEAR, AND COMPARED WITH THE TWO PREVIOUS YEARS,
1859. 1858. British,
15 70 26 116 159 160 Bremen,
3 Other Nations,
I. The First LEGIBLATION IN MASSACHUSETTS IN BEHALF OF DOMESTIC INDUSTRY. II. INTEO.
DUCTION OF Tile COTTON Gin. III. The First EXPORTS OF COTTON FROM THE UNITED STATES. IV. INDIA COTTON AND SILK GOODS. V. THE USE OF FLAX FIFTY YEARS AGO. VI. EFFECTS OF THE EMBARGO AND TUE WAR WITII ENGLAND. VII. STEAM NAVIGATION AND RAIL-Roads. VIII. TIE IMPULSE GIVEN TO MANUFACTURES BY THE DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA.
THE MERCHANTS' MAGAZINE for May contains some instructive statistics relative to the growth and manufacture of cotton. I propose to add some remarks as to the early operations in this article.
I. In the year 1752, the General Court of the colony of Massachusetts Bay passed an act for the encouragement of industry, and in the year following a spinning-bee was held on Boston Common, and the Boston Post, printed in that year, says, five hundred spinning-wheels were there displayed, and the daughters of some of the first families were there engaged in spinning.
The cultivation of cotton in the southern portion of the United States has increased enormously since 1792, when the cotton gin was first used.
II. Some few years since the late Professor OLMSTEAD, of Yale College,
Connecticut, presented me a copy of his memoir of Eli Wutney, inventor of the cotton gin. In the memoir, he says:
“Eli WHITNEY was born at Westboro', Worcester County, Massachusetts, December 8, 1765. Mr. WHITNEY left New Haven, Connecticut, for the State of Georgia, in 1792, for the purpose of undertaking the business of a teacher in a private family in that State; the person who contracted with him disappointed him, and avoided the engagement, and he was left a guest in the family of General Green. While under their hospitable roof he discovered a plan for constructing the cotton gin, now extensively used. How wonderful are events; how often the disappointments in one concern pave the way for success in others, which, but for the particular disappointment, might have remained dormant.
“In 1784 an American vessel arrived at Liverpool, England, having on board, for part of her cargo, eight bags of cotton, which were seized by the officers of the custom-house, under the conviction that they could not be the growth of America. The following extracts from the old newspapers will exhibit the extent of the cotton trade for the subsequent years :
III. Cotton from America arrived at Liverpool, England, 1785, January, Diana, from Charleston,
“ The whole domestic exports from the United States in 1825 were valued at $66,940,000, of which value $36,346,000 was in cotton only. In general, this article is equal to some millions more than one-half of our exports. The average growth of the three previous years to 1828 was estimated at 900,000 bales, which is near 300,000,000 lbs., of which onefifth was consumed in our manufactories."
In the first few years of the present century, and prior to the declaration of war against England in 1812, the common white cotton goods used in New England were imported from the East Indies, and consisted of long cloths, lawns, emerties, baftas and gurrahs. The fine were jaconet, mull, shear and book muslins, some of which were very superior goods.
IV. Blue, yellow and white nankeens were imported from China, and those called company nankeens were beautiful fabrics.
Bandanna and silk-flag handkerchiefs were imported from India, and those known as company flags and bandannas were of excellent fabric and bright fast colors, and the goods were very durable.
Nankin and Canton crapes for ladies' dresses, crape shawls and scarfs, were also imported from China, and those first imported were of an excellent quality, and the colors bright and good; but importers thought to make the trade more profitable by ordering crapes of a lighter fabric, inferior in quality and at less price, and this system was pursued until these goods became so poor as to become unfashionable and of little value.
V. I was a clerk in a country store in New-England for five years prior to the war of 1812, in which all kinds of goods were usually sold, and there I obtained a particular knowledge, by the daily sales of such goods to customers. At this time flax was raised abundantly in NewEngland, and farmers exchanged flaxseed and dressed and hackled flax raised on their farms, and the farmers' wives and daughters linen and tow cloth, and linen thread and tow wrapping twine, for store goods. The linen sheetings and shirtings, thread and wrapping twine were made in farmers' houses; then the female portion of the family were accustomed to the labor of spinning, weaving and knitting, and in many families the prosperity of the household was as much owing to the labors in-doors as that of out-doors on the farms.
VI. The embargo and the non-intercourse acts which preceded the declaration of war against England, in 1812, stopped the East India and English trade, and then factories were first erected in New-England for the manufacture of cotton and woollen goods. The cotton factories multiplied rapidly, and afforded a home market for the cotton which the embargo, non-intercourse and war had accumulated in the warehouses of the Southern States.
This brief statement, thus chronologically presented, shows an extraordinary progress; and, when the causes and results are compared, are instructive to the meditative as well as the contemplative mind.
VII. Only five years prior to the introduction of the cotton gin the first steamboat made a trip from Burlington, N. J., to Philadelphia, Pa., in fourteen hours, and that steamboat was the invention of a New-Englander, John Fitch, a clock-maker by trade, born at Hartford, Conn. The rail-road followed, and the first I recollect to have seen was that invented by Dr. Calvin Conant, of Brandon, Vt., put in operation on the banks of the River Muskingum, in Ohio, for transporting coal; and after that, in due course of time, came the telegraph wires, an invention by a son of the Rev. JEDEDIAH Morse, of Charlestown, Massachusetts. The
progress of change since the termination of the American Revolution has been remarkable.
I will here mention, as an illustration of the effects of change, the cultivation of the potato as an article of food. Potatoes were first used for food subsequent to the settlement of America by white men, and such was the increase, that in the year 1847–48, a failure of the potato crop in Ireland, by reason of the potato rot, the Bank of England, the mammoth money concern of the civilized world, became a borrower of the Bank of France.
VIII. In the month of June, 1848, an humble laborer, while occupied in digging a mill-race for Colonel SUTTER, at Sutter's Fort, first made the discovery of gold in California, and from that time to the present more than six hundred million dollars in value of gold has been received from this section of the continent.
The silks, now so extensively worn in every part of the civilized world are the product of industry—the worm, an humble insect, produces all the silk.
The recent experiments made in the cottonizing of flax have acquired additional importance from the present disturbed state of the cottongrowing districts of the United States, and these misfortunes may be the means, under Providence, of renewing the cultivation of tax in NewEngland, so long neglected.
The great export of flaxseed in India evidences that flax is raised in great abundance in that part of the globe. In France the finest cambrics are made of flax, and the richest laces are of that material. The French linen cambrics are beautiful goods.
In the year 1812 it was deemed PATRIOTISM to clothe in homespun; and the President of the United States wore a broadcloth suit of clothes, the wool and the fabric of which were from New-England. E. M.
STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES IN THE UNITED STATES.
The Superintendent of the census has recently published (under an act of Congress, passed June 12, 1858) an abstract of the statistics of manufactures gathered in the seventh census, (year 1850.) These statistics are for the year ending June 1, 1850, and include the number of establishments, capital, cost of raw material, number of hands employed, cost of labor and value of products of the manufactories in this country.
On the ground of “better late than never” we are glad to see this compilation, although the length of time since the materials were gathered confines its value to comparison with previous statements; for, in the rapid growth of our country, statistics of ten years ago have no value as positive information of the present. We hope the same summary of statistics from the eighth census will be given in time to secure the purpose of present information as well as future reference. It is on the latter ground, and as showing some curious results, that we publish an abstract of the results, for we can hardly suspect the seventh census of giving anything new or particularly accurate. Its compilation was too consistent with “red tape;" and the unavoidable results of having politics mixed with statistics to obtain either of these essential elements of a proper census, are shown in this new document.
The statistics of manufactures show some curious results. We have culled a few of these, but would repeat the caution, that facts and the figures of the census may not always agree. Taking manufactures in their alphabetical order, we find that first, New-York, and secondly, Pennsylvania, have the largest manufactures of agricultural implements, and together manufacture one-third of the total product of nearly seven millions of dollars. Artificial flowers are manufactured almost entirely in New-York. Ashes come four-fifths from New-York and Ohio. Bagging and cordage are mainly manufactured in Kentucky, New-York and Massachusetts. Bakeries are generally in the order of the trade and population of a State, except in Maryland, which has about 10 per cent. of the total, and ranks fourth, or next to Pennsylvania. The singularity with blacksmiths is in liking California, almost eight per cent. of the total being there, and that State ranking third on the list. Ninety per cent. of the bonnets are made in New-York-Pennsylvania making the balance. Three-fourths of the boots and shoes are from New-England, and one-half from Massachusetts. Breweries and bricks are in New-York and Pennsylvania greatly in excess of their proportionate population. Buttons are over one-half from Connecticut. Calicoes are mainly a product of Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The manufacture of rail-road cars is the first article in which the West makes its appearance as a large manufacturer; Indiana manufactures almost one-cighth of the total. In cement we find that New-York and New-Jersey are the only States showing any considerable production. Charcoal is mainly a New-Jersey product. Chemicals and clothing chietly come from New-York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maryland and Ohio. Carriages are made by New-York, Ohio, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and New-Jersey in about equally relative quantities. The number of carriages vary, however, much ; Ohio has more than double any other State, but at a less cost for each. Coal is put down almost exclusively to Pennsylvania, erroneously leaving Illinois, Maryland and Ohio out. In copper and brass Connecticut is first. In cotton manufactures Massachusetts has one-third, New Hampshire one-eighth, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and New-York one-eleventh, and Connecticut one-sixteenth of the total. Maine and Maryland have each over two millions of dollars; Virginia, New Jersey and Georgia over one million of dollars in annual production. Cotton and wool mixed are nine-tenths from Pennsylvania. Cutlery, against common belief, is manufactured almost in proportion to the general manufacturing business of each State. Glass is from Pennsylvania first; Massachusetts and New-Jersey next; and New-York fourth. Hardware is from Connecticut and New-York mainly: Hats and caps are from New-York first; then New-Jersey; and Pennsylvania, Connecticut and Massachusetts next. Half of the hosiery is from Pennsylvania. India rubber goods me from Connecticut, New-Jersey and New-York. Rough iron comes from Pennsylvania; the finer manufactures from New-York. Lead is from Wisconsin and Illinois. Lumber is from New-York, Pennsylvania, Maine and Ohio in their order. Millinery is from New York. Millstones are from Ohio. Castor oil is manufactured four-fifths from Missouri, and hence we suppose the name of the people. Music dwells in New-York according to the census. Nails come mainly from Massachusetts. Lard oil from Ohio. Whale oil nine-tenths from Massachusetts and NewYork as commercial centres, and one-tenth from New-Jersey. Paper is first from Massachusetts; then Connecticut and New-York; and fourth from Pennsylvania. Perfumes are two-thirds from Pennsylvania, NewYork having only one-sixth of the production. Pork and beef is first from Ohio; then Indiana; then New-York, Kentucky and Missouri equally. Illinois, now high in rank, in 1850 had only three per cent of the total. Delaware leads in gunpowder, Connecticut second, and NewYork and Massachusetts next. New-York has half the printing and book