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TOTAL OF CHILDREN, Young PERSONS AND ADULTS IN ALL THE COTTON FACTORIES OF
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND IN THE YEAR 1835.
England. Wales. Scotland. Ireland. Number of factories at work,.... 2,555 .. 90 ... 425 .. 90 .: Between 8 and 12 years, males, 9,292 47 690
58 females,... 9,536. 29
842. Total, ......
18,828. 76 .. 1,632 .. Between 12 and 18 years, males,... 63,114 485 6,420 .. 1,150
females,.. 65,218 . 403 .. 14,722 .. 2,563
3, 10,087 10,501
20,548 61,169 82,906
The position of the cotton industry of Great Britain, and of the countries with which she carries on her commercial transactions, is very different now from what it was twenty-five years ago. The increase of population, the progress of colonization, the improvements in machinery, the spread of wealth consequent upon the gold discoveries and other causes, and the facilities of transport by means of rail-roads and steam navigation, have effected more in the last quarter of a century, especially for the commerce of Great Britain, than has been realized in any previous half century; and this prosperity has been fully shared by their cotton manufactures, as will be seen in the following table:
POPULATION, Cotton IMPORTS, Cotton Goods EXPORTED, NUMBER OF FACTORIES AND SPINDLES, REVENUE, &c., OF GREAT BRITAIN IN THE YEARS 1835 AND 1860.
1860. Population of Great Britain,..
450,000 Cotton production, United States, bales,..
4,675,770 Cotton imported into Great Britain, lbs.,.
363,702,000 1,390,938,000 Cotton worked up in Great Britain, lbs.,.
1,105,965,000 Cotton manufactures exported, declared value, . £22,128,000
£52,013,000 Cotton manufactures consumed in the United Kingdom, estimated,..
£29,504,000 £ 69,350,000 Capital embarked in cotton industry in England, £35,000,000 £100,000,000 Spindles at work in United Kingdom,...
33,000,000 Number of persons employed in cotton factories in the United Kingdom,
500,000 Aggregate value of the gross imports of United Kingdom.......
£48,911,000 £214,000,000 Aggregate value of exports of British produce and manufactures,
£47,372,000 £135,892,000 Revenue of the United Kingdom,.
COTTON MANUFACTURES OF THE UNITED STATES.
Statistics relating to the cotton manufactures of this country are not to be had of a recent or reliable character. The latest in reference to New-England have been furnished by Mr. SAMUEL BATCHELDER, Treasurer of the York Manufacturing Company, (of Saco, Maine,) for publication in the annual report of the Boston Board of Trade for 1861. From this statement we copy as follows:
It is very difficult to obtain any accurate information as to the extent of the cotton manufacture in the United States at the present time, or any data from which to estimate its increase. The census of the United States gives the quantity of cotton consumed, an estimate of capital invested and some other particulars, but neither the number of looms nor spindles. Of that in 1850 we had an “abstract” in 1853, and in 1854 a "compendium,” but it was not till 1858 that we had, by authority of an act of Congress, a “ Digest of the Statistics of Manufactures,” prepared by Mr. KENNEDY, no copy of which can be found either in the library at the State House, or the Athenæum, or the Board of Trade; and if found, at this late day, in this progressive age, it would be something like an old almanac, and all the different branches of business would have outrun the figures before the public could get the benefit of them.
As to the condition of the cotton manufacture in Massachusetts, I have been able to obtain, by favor of a member of the Valuation Committee, a statement of the number of spindles and looms in every town in the State in 1860, amounting to 1,688,471 spindles and 41,620 looms. From various other sources I collect the following particulars respecting the manufactures of Massachusetts at former periods:
Spindle8. Looms. From a report of a committee of Congress appointed in 1832,
to inquire into the progress of the manufacture of cotton goods, (De Bow's Industrial Resources, Vol. I., pp. 215, 216,) it appears that in 1831 there were in Massachusetts .
339,777 8,981 From a statement (supra, Vol. I., p. 220) based, as quoted, partly on the official census of 1840,.
665,095 From another document, perhaps more reliable, the number is stated at.
624,540 From the “Statistics of Massachusetts” for 1845, the number appears to be....
817,483 In 1850, from the foregoing statement of De Bow, p. 220,.. 1,288,091 32,635 From the Massachusetts Statistics for 1855,..
1,519,527 From the Valuation Committee, as before stated, in 1860,..... 1,688,471 41,620
In the foregoing statements, where we have an opportunity to compare the number of spindles with the looms, the proportion is 38, 39 and 40 spindles to the loom, which would confirm the general accuracy of the figures.
From the above statements we obtain the following results as to the progressive increase of the number of spindles in Massachusetts:
From 1850 to 1860, the number has increased 400,380, being 31 per cent. upon the number in 1850, in ten years.
In the Massachusetts Statistics for 1845, the annual consumption of cotton is stated at 56,851,654 lbs., which, divided by the number of spindles, 817,483, gives per spindle, per year, 69.54 lbs. According to the census of 1850, the consumption is estimated at 223,607 bales, which, multiplied by 425 lbs., the average weight of bales at that time, gives 95,032,975 lbs. ; this, divided by 1,288,091, the number of spindles at that time, gives, per year, 73.70 lbs.
According to Massachusetts Statistics of 1855, the number of pounds of cotton was 105,851,749, which, divided by the number of spindles, 1,519,527, gives 69.66 lbs. In Massachusetts, by the “Statistics of 1845,” the value was $11,264,212,
which, divided by 817,483 spindles, gives for value per spindle,. $13 65 By census of 1850, $19,712,461, divided by 1,288,091 spindles,.
15 30 By Massachusetts Statistics, 1855, $24,359,212, divided by 1,519,527 spindles, 16 03
These results agree very nearly with the actual value derived from the accounts of several mills in Massachusetts, New-Hampshire and Maine, varying from $12 75 to $16 60 per spindle for the value of product, or cost of material and labor per year, the variation being much less than in the pounds of cotton per spindle, because where the labor is less on the coarser article, the quantity and cost of material will be more.
As to the present extension of the business, we have a list from the Merchants' Magazine, Vol. 43, p. 378, of mills in progress in NewEngland and New-York since September, 1859, amounting to 273,500 spindles, proposed to be put in operation during 1860 and 1861. In some cases, the numbers in this list are under-estimated, so that about 350,000 would probably be the correct number, unless some of these enterprises should be reduced by the discouragements of the times.
There is much uncertainty in the estimates of the consumption of cotton for factory purposes. De Bow (supra, p. 210) sets down the spindles, in 1840, at 2,112,000, and estimates the pounds of cotton consumed at 106,000,000. This would be only 50 lbs. to the spindle. On the contrary, a statement in the Merchants' Magazine (March, 1859, p. 375) gives 67,500 as the number of spindles in Maryland, and 50,000 lbs. per day for the consumption of cotton, amounting to 15,000,000 lbs. per year, which would give 222 lbs. for the yearly consumption per spindle. De Bow (supra, p. 233) gives the number of spindles and consumption in the following States in 1850 :
Spindles. Bales. Tennessee,
36,000 12,000 Alabama,
16,962 6,000 Georgia,
61,140 27,000 South Carolina,
140,602 60,000 The report of the Philadelphia Board of Trade for 1860, p. 81, gives the consumption of cotton, of the crop of 1858–9, as follows: The manufacturing States north of Virginia, .
And says: “The quantity manufactured north of Virginia is deduced from the comparison of receipts with shipments abroad.” On the whole, the estimated consumption in the cotton factories is probably too high, as it must include all that is used in combination with wool, and for various other purposes, but would probably be, at this time, nearly 900,000 bales.
It is difficult to make any satisfactory estimate of the number of spindles at this time in different parts of the country. The Philadelphia Board of Trade gives the number within the business circuit of Philadelphia, probably including a considerable part of New-Jersey, at 420,968. The number in Maryland is stated at 67,500.
The Chamber of Commerce Report of New York, for 1858, gives the number of cotton factories at 86, and states the number of hands employed, capital invested and other particulars, but nothing by which any calculation can be made of the number of spindles; these matters must be left be revealed with the mysteries of the census of 1860.
THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1862.
Every succeeding day tends further to demonstrate the great interest which is felt in the forthcoming international exhibition, as shown by the fact that the guarantee fund now amounts to £369,200, progressively advancing about £10,000 per day, and there can be little doubt that in a few days it will reach £400,000. Some of the foreign powers have sent replies to communications addressed to them, stating that their governments will in every way in their power lend their assistance to promote the interests of the Exhibition, and friendly assurances from most of the ministers of the other countries who are resident in London have also been received, but as yet the time has not been sufficient to obtain answers to the notifications forwarded by them to their respective countries. In those foreign countries from which answers have been received local commissioners will be appointed similar to those who were chosen previous to the Exhibition of 1851, who will superintend the arrangements as to the mode of transit and other regulations to be carried out in concurrence with their respective governments. As the 12th of February is the first day for receiving goods, and the 31st of March the latest period at which they will be received, it is necessary that the commissioners should be appointed without much delay, as no article will be admitted from any foreign country without the sanction of such commissioners, and through whom all communications of her Majesty's Commissioners will take place. The portion of the building devoted to architecture, paintings in oil and water-colors and drawings, sculpture, etchings and the fine arts generally, is required by the contract to be roofed in by October, and the entire building to be finished and put into the possession of the commissioners by the end of December. . Already in the provinces plans are being organized to facilitate the visit of persons to the Exhibition, and clubs for that purpose are contemplated, so that there is every reason to believe that the Exhibition of 1862 will be equally well attended as that of 1851.
THE SOUTHERN HARBORS OF THE UNITED STATES.
THE SOUTHERN ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST, FROM CAPE HENRY TO THE
MOUTH OF THE RIO GRANDE.
BY AN OFFICER OF THE U.S. COAST SURVEY.
I. ALBEMARLE AND PAMPLICO SOUND. II. BEAUFORT, N. C. III. WILMINGTON, N. C. IV. GEORGE
Town, S. C. V. Bull's Bay. VI. CHARLESTON, S.C. VII. Beaufort, S. C. VIII. SAVANNAH, Ga. IX. BruxsWICK, Ga. X. FERNANDINA, Fla. XI. St. John's, Fla. XII. St. AugusTINE, FLA. XIII. KEY WEST, FLA. XIV. Fort JEFFERSON, FLA. XV. TAMPA BAY. XVI. CEDAR KETS, XVII. ST. MARK's, Fla. XVIII. St. George's SOUND, XIX. PENSACOLA, FLA, XX. MOBILE, ALA. XXI. MOUTIS OP TILE Mississippi. XXII. GALVESTON, TEXAS. XXIII. Brazos RIVERXXIV. MATAGORDA BAY. XXV. Brazos SANTIAGO, XXVI. MOUTH OF THE RIO GRANDE. XXVII. ESPIRITU SANTO BAY. XXVIII. SAN ANTONIO BAY. XXIX. MISSION BAY. XXX. HINES BAY.
Tue important cities of Virginia and Maryland have an access to the ocean only through the Chesapeake Bay, which, at its entrance from the shoals of Cape Charles to those of Cape Henry, measures eight miles in width. A single man-of-war could close the bay against the exit or entrance of the merchant marine, provided there was no naval armament to act against it. It is probable that one of our larger vessels, with the aid of a small war-sloop like the Perry, could close the bay against all commerce, especially while Fort Monroe, which is not far from the entrance, remains in the possession of the United States government.
North CAROLINA. I. Albemarle and Pamplico Sound.-After passing Cape Henry, for two hundred miles, low sand islands and shoals lie between the shore and ocean, forming the Currituck, Albemarle, Pamplico and Core Sounds, navigable for vessels of light draft. The Dismal Swamp Canal connects the Chesapeake with these sounds; the first practicable ocean inlet is one hundred and thirty-five miles from Cape Henry, a narrow and difficult entrance, known as Hatteras Inlet, with only seven feet water on the bar. A single vessel of light draft would be sufficient for the closing of this channel. Eighteen miles southwest of it is Ocracoke Inlet, of the same character; both open into Pamplico Sound. Ocracoke Bar gives ten feet at mean low water.
The only opening into Albemarle Sound is by a shallow, winding channel through Ôregon Inlet, about forty miles north of Cape Hatteras. The depth of water at the bar of the inlet is probably about five feet.
II. Beaufort.-Following the coast southward for fifty-five miles below Ocracoke Inlet there are no connections with the interior sounds until the old Topsail Inlet is reached, which leads to the harbor of Beaufort, North Carolina. This harbor is about eight and a half miles westnorthwest from Cape Lookout. It is a fine haven, having full fifteen feet of water on the bar at the entrance of the channel, at low tide, or eighteen at high water. The town of Beaufort is commercially important, having a rail-road connection with Raleigh, and at that point with the
VOL. XLV.-NO. I.