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One of the three bases will probably be adopted, whereby a revenue exceeding twenty millions may be realized. There is no reason, however, why the South should be exempt. The Southern States must contribute, first or last, their due proportion of the direct tax.

The public debt on the 1st of July, 1861, was $90,867,828, or less than three dollars per capita of the whole population of the United States.

The Sugar Trade. — The Secretary of the Treasury proposes a duty of 2} cents per pound on brown sugar; 3 cents on clayed sugar; 4 cents on loaf and refined ; 24 cents on syrup; 6 cents on candy, and 6 cents per gallon on molasses. The stock of sugar on hand on 1st July, 1861, was larger than for some years:

STOCK OF SUGAR AT THE FOUR PRINCIPAL PORTS.

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Total, July 1st, 93,283 .. 5,364 ... 7,632 40,913 .. 389,191 4,505

The stock of sugar on hand July 1st, 1861, compared with previous years, was as follows:

TOTAL Toxs.

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91,140 33,169 83,658 39,644 The imports of foreign and domestic sugars for four years, January to June, (six months,) were as follow :

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Total in six months,.. .195,515
July,....

.tons,
August,
September,
October,
November,
December,..

203,916

52,262
40,232
27,915
19,149
12,110
8,879

206,667
32,646
18,820
9,642
7,836
8,076
11,742

173,033
29,869
32,546
16,711
10,903

8,011 11,802

Total in twelve months,.

364,463 295,429 281,064 Congress, on the 17th July, passed an act authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to raise $250,000,000, by loans and Treasury notes, for war expenses. Two tariff bills are now under consideration in Congress as we go to press with the concluding portions of this No. The results we will publish in our September No.

THE BOOK TRADE.

1. The Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Lord High Chancellor, &c.

Collected and edited by James SPEDDING, M. A. 12mo., Vol. vi. Boston: Browy & TAGGARD.

The present volume of the Complete Works of Francis Bacon, while it forms the sixth volume in the order of publication, is the first volume of the entire series and also the first volume of the Philosophical Works. The remaining volumes will be published in regular order from volume one to ten, inclusive. In the first volume issued (volume xi.) was given a portrait of Francis Bacon, when a youth. The present volume, as the first of the series, properly contains his portrait at that period of life when these works were chiefly composed. The list of subscribers numbers nearly one thousand.

2. The North American Review. July, 1861. Boston: Crosby, Nichols, LEE & Co.

The July number of the North American is just out. The following is the table of contents:--The Public Lands of the United States ; Mrs. JANE TURRELL; The Venerable BEDE; Bouvier's Law Dictionary and Institute; Life of Major ANDRE; French Critics and Criticisms; M, TAINE; Burial; The Attic Bee; Francis Bacon; Michigan; New Books on Medicine; The Right of Secession; Hugu LATIMER ; Crit. ical Notices; New Publications. The original paper on the Right of Secession, which is a review of JEFF. Davis' message to the rebel Congress, will be read with much interest.

3. Cyclopedia of Anecdotes of Literature and the Fine Arts. By KAYLITT ARVINE.

One vol. octavo. Published by Gould & Lincolx, Boston.

It is hardly possible to speak too highly of this excellent work. The laborious industry of the author, has brought together an innumerable host of anecdotes from every attainable source. It is a charming volume to read, and after one has read it, invaluable as a book of reference; affording every facility for the latter purpose by its admirable arrangement and copious indexes. We can heartily commend it to all who like to be amused or instructed.

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4. The American Tract Society, Boston, have published recently the following

volumes: 1. Life of DANIEL SAFFORD. 80 cents. 2. SWEDENBORG and his Doctrine. By

Professor Pond. 50 cents. 3. Songs for my Children. Illustrated. 30 cents. 4. Sunday Alphabet of Animals. Illustrated. 30 cents. 5. Aunt Katie's Talks at Bedtime.

25 cents. 6. Walks and Talks. 25 cents. 7. Stories for Little Ones. 25 cents. 8. 48 Envelope Tracts, in neat package. 10 cents. 9. Books for the Soldiers: Sketch of Capt. HEDLEY Vicars; Sir Henry HAVELOCK; The Soldier's Mission ; The Soldier's Text Book; and other books in flexible covers, for the pocket and knapsack, each 10 cents.

These recent publications of the Tract Society, instituted at Boston, in 1814, will be found unusually interesting. Among those for children, The Sunday Alphabet, Stories for Little Ones, and Songs for my Children, are especially attractive; the latter possess all the charm of Mother Goose, with far more wisdom in its rhymes. SWEDENBORG and his Doctrines is a revised edition, in very neat form, of Professor Pond's well known work. The Memoir of DANIEL Safford is one of the best reli. gious biographies that we have ever read; it is a pleasantly written story of the outward and inner life of a devoted Christian. The books for soldiers, are also excellent, and we should be glad to have thousands of them distributed among the men of our army.

T I E

MERCHANTS' MAGAZINE

AND

COMMERCIAL REVIEW.

Established July, 1839.

EDITED BY

J. SWITH DOWANS, (SECRETARY OF THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF TIIE STATE OF NEW-YORK,)

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PAGX

Aer.
I. THE RAIL-ROAD SYSTEM OF MASSACHUSETTS.-1. Wealth of Massachusetts.

2. The first Canal and the first Rail-Road. 3. Early Rail-Road progress in the Com-
monwealth. 4. Financial Policy. 5. Rail-Road Extension to Albany. 6. The Re-
vulsion of 1957. 7. Horse Rail-Roads. 8. The Boston and Worcestor Rail-Road. 9.
The Boston and Lowell Rail-Road. 10. The Boston and Providence Rail-Road. 11.
The Eastern Rail-Road. 12. The Boston and Maine Rail-Road. 13. The Fitchburg
Rail-Road. 14. The Fall River Rail-Road. 15. The Boston and New-York Central
Rail-Road. 16. The Western Rail-Road. 17. The Troy and Greenfield Rail-Road.
18. Conclusions. 19. Recent Dividends,

113

II. INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL CITIES.–No. Lxxx. BALTIMORE Imports and

Exports. 2. Flour Inspections. 3. Tobacco Inspections, Exports and Stocks, 1848– 1860. 4. Imports of Guano, 1919---1860. 5. Iron. 6. Coffee. 7. Coal Trade. 8. Oyster Trade. 9. Arrivals and Clearances,..

181

III. COTTON, FLAX, WOOL AND SILK.—Their early History in the United States. 1.

The first Legislation in Massachusetts in behalf of Domestic Industry. 2. Introduc-
tion of the Cotton Gin. 3. The first Exports of Cotton from the United States. 4.
India Cotton and Silk Goods 5. The use of Flax Fifty Years ago. 6. Effects of the
Embargo and the War with England. 7. Steam Navigation and Rail-Roads. 8. The
Impulse given to Manufactures by the Discovery of Gold in California,

136 IV. STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES IN THE U. S. AND IN EACH STATE,.... 139 V. PATES OF TOLL ON THE NEW-YORK CANALS, 1861.- Established by the Canal

Board on Persons and Property Transported on the New York State Canals,.... 145 VI. COMPARATIVE PRICES OF LEADING ARTICLES IN THE NEW-YORK MARKET, on the 1st of May, in each year, from 1849 to 1861,.

150

VII. IMMIGRATION OF THE PORT OF NEW-YORK.—The Ports whence Emigrant

Passenger Vessels have arrived, together with the nationality and number of Vessels, and number of Emigrant Passengers and others from each Port,.......

162 VIII. THE NEW-YORK CLEARING HOUSE.--Exchanges and Balances each Month to

October, 1860. Deposits, Circulation and Loans of the New-York Banks,....... 157 IX. REPORT ON THE HARBOR OF NEW-YORK.—1. Report on the Physical Surveys

of New-York Harbor and the Coast of Long Island, with descriptions of Apparatus for observing Currents, &c. 2. Tides and Currents of New York Harbor and its Approaches,.....

160 X. THE PRINCIPAL HARBORS AND RIVERS OF THE UNITED STATES.-Ta

ble showing the least water in the Channels of Harbors, Rivers and Anchorages on

the Coasts of the United States. By an Officer of the United States Coast Survey,.. 168 XI. SHIP-BUILDING AND TONNAGE OF NEW-YORK AND THE U. S.--1. State

ment exhibiting the number of American and Foreign Vessels, with their Tonnage and Crews, which entered into the several Districts of the State of New York from Foreign Countries, during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1860. 2. Statement showing the Number and Class of Vessels built, and the Tonnage thereof, in the State of New-York, during the year ending June 30, 1860. 8. Statement showing the Number and Class of Vessels built, and the Tonnage thereof, in the several States and Terri. tories of the United States, from 1815 to June 30, 1860, inclusive. 4. Recapitulation of the Number and Class of Vessels built in each State of the Union during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1860. 6. Statement exhibiting the amount of the Tonnage of the United States at various periods, also the Registered, and Enrolled and Licensed Tonnage employed in Steam Navigation each year,...

175 XII. COMMERCIAL TREATIES WITH FOREIGN NATIONS, YEAR 1860.-1. Treaty of Amity and Commerce with Japan. 2. Paraguay,..

184

CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND BOARDS OF TRADE.

The New-York Chamber of Commerce,

200

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.

1. Statistics of Lowell. 2. Michigan Copper Mines. 3. French Wines. 4. Flax Cotton, 5. New Mineral Discoveries in California. 6. New Silver Alloy,...

205

FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE OF THE MERCHANTS' MAGAZINE,

Stock of Cotton in England-W. S. LINDSAY-European Exchanges Bank of England-Bank of France-Advance in Railway Shares-Failures--Great Fire-New Iron Steamer Scotia

205 Board of Trade Returns Social Science Association of August, 1861,....

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW.

Meeting of Congress - Fiscal Year Ended—Foreign Imports at New-York, June, 1861—Same

Years 1857-1861--Heavy Exports of Produce to Europe-Foreign Trade of New York, 18511861 ---Export of Grain, 1861–Estimates of Revenue by the Secretary of the Treasury-Imports of Dry Goods at New-York-Foreign and Domestic Exchanges-Rail-Road Dividends, 214

THE BOOK TRADE.

Notices of new Publications in the United States,..

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COMPARATIVE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE AND THE UNITED STATES.

- SOURCES OF REVENUE IN FRANCE.—HEADS OF EXPENDITURE.-HEADS OF Taxation IN GREAT Bertain.-New SOURCES OF REVENUE IN THE UNITED STATES, For War PURPOSES ONLY.

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In an examination of the bearings of the war tax and the revenue bills which have just become law in the United States, it may be well to compare the results with the usual revenues raised by two of the great European governments in times of peace. Such a comparison will show that, with a war on our hands, we are scarcely taxed to an amount equal to that raised from the people of France and England, when those nations are at peace.

England is now in a state of profound peace, so is France; yet their ordinary annual expenditures are, as compared with the United StatesGreat Britain,...

.£ 70,000,000 or $ 330,000,000 France,

1,800,000,000 francs, or 340,000,000 The United States,.

80,000,000 The ordinary expenditures of the United States in times of peace are seventy to eighty millions of dollars; and now, with a costly war to carry on, the

expenses for a single year are estimated at less than those of Great Britain or France.

The government of Great Britain realized last year nearly seventy millions sterling from duties, internal taxes, excise, stamps, &c., viz. : From Custom-Hlouse duties,...

.£23,000,000 or $ 111,550,000 From excise,....

18,000,000

87,300,000 From property tax,.

12,000,000

68,200,000 From stamps, . .

8,000 000

38,800,000 From small taxes,.

2,800,000

13.580,000 Miscellaneous,

6,200,000 30,070,000

or

or or

or
or

£ 70,000,000 or $ 339,500,000

VOL. XLV.-NO, III.

15

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