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disapproved by him: And provided, That the responsibility of the collector or his sureties to the United States shall not be thereby affected or impaired.

Sec. 58. And be it further enacted, That in case a collector shall die, resign or be removed, the deputy of such collector longest in service at the time immediately preceding, who shall have been longest employed by him, may and shall, until a successor shall be appointed, discharge all the duties of said collector, and for whose conduct, in case of the death of the collector, his estate shall be responsible to the United States.

Approved August 5, 1861.

AN ACT TO INCREASE THE CONSULAR REPRESENTATION OF THE UNITED

STATES DURING THE PRESENT INSURRECTION. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the President of the United States may, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoint consuls at any foreign ports where he shall deem it advisable for the purpose of preventing piracy, with such compensation, not exceeding fifteen hundred dollars per anuum, as he shall think proper, to hold their offices respectively during the pleasure of the President, and in every case such compensation to cease with the restoration of internal peace within the United States. And the President may, during the present insurrection, increase the compensation of any consuls in foreign ports, if he shall deem it necessary, so as not, however, to exceed the sum of fifteen hundred dollars in any case. But this power shall cease with the re-establishment of internal peace as aforesaid.

Approved August 2, 1861.

CIRCULAR TO COLLECTORS AND OTHER OFFICERS OF THE CUSTOMS.

Treasury Department, August 7, 1861. The act of Congress of August 5, 1861, entitled "An act to provide increased revenue from imports, to pay interest on the public debt, and for other purposes," so far as it relates to the duties on imports, goes into immediate effect, and I publish that portion of it for the information and government of officers of the customs and others concerned.

In executing the provision relating to drawback duties on the exportation of foreign imported merchandise, contained in the fifth section, collectors of the customs will, until otherwise instructed, be governed, in general, by the provisions of the collection act of March 2, 1799, in regard to drawbacks. The right of drawback will attach only to merchandise imported under the provisions of the said act of August 5, 1861, and exported in the original packages.

In allowing drawback of duties on the exportation of merchandise manufactured from imported raw material, as provided for by the fourth section, collectors will be governed by the regulations of the 27th of March last, relating to drawback on cordage. Adequate proof of the quantity, quality and value of raw material used in the manufacture, must, however, until otherwise directed, be submitted in each case for my

decision as to the rate of drawback to be allowed. Full and detailed instructions will be prepared and issued as soon as practicable.

S. P. CHASE, Secretary of the Treasury.

REPORT ON TIE SALT TRADE OP TIE'UNITED STATES,

FOR THE YEAR 1860.

By SAMUEL HOTALING, of New-York.

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In our report on Salt, for the year 1859, as set forth in the last annual publication of the Chamber of Commerce, the quantity of salt manufactured in the United States, in that year, was estimated at about 14,000,000 bushels. The quantity of salt manufactured in the United States during the year 1860 varies considerably from the quantity made the previous year; amounting to about three-quarters of a million of bushels deficiency. While some of our States have increased their production of salt, other States have decreased the manufacture of this article, viz: the State of New York produced, in the Onondaga Valley, 1,300,825 bushels of salt less in the year 1860 than was produced in the same district during the year 1859, and the production of 1859 was 138,947 bushels less than the production of salt in 1858. While, during the same time, the States of Michigan, California and Texas have considerably increased their production of salt during the same periods. We have found considerable difficulty in obtaining accurate information as to the amount of salt produced in the several States of our Union, so as to be able to give for public information, and satisfactorily to our own mind, reliable and accurate statistical facts pertaining to their salt production. We have, with a view to this object, applied to twelve of the salt-producing States for information upon this subject, and find, upon receipt of replies from them, that only five of the States require by law any report to be made of their own production of salt. It is certainly desirable that the legislative bodies of the salt producing States, and also the Territories, will not only imitate the State of Michigan in its efforts to encourage the production of this necessary article, but will also require, by law, an annual report to be made for public information, not only of salt but also of all their mining, agricultural and mechanical productions, with their cash valuation. Such information, made every year for public use, by each of the States and Territories of our Union, would be most valuable for all such citizens as desire statistical details. Ten years are too long a period for our citizens to wait for such very important and necessary statistical information from each division of the federal Union. ESTIMATED QUANTITY OF SALT MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES IN THE YEAR 1860. Bushels.

Bushels. Massachusetts,.. 325,000 Michigan,...

40,000 New-York, 5,593,447 Texas,..

50,000 Pennsylvania, 950,000 Florida,

70,000 Virginia, 3,650,000 California,.

250,000 Kentucky, 290,000 Utah,...

60,000 Ohio, .

2,050,000 Illinois, 60,000

13,388,447 The whole amount of salt inspected on the Onondaga Salt Springs Reservation, in the State of New-York, during the year 1860, was 5,593,447 bushels, being equal to 1,118,650 barrels of 280 lbs. cach. Of this quanVOL. XLV.-NO, III.

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tity 1,462,565 bushels have been the product of the Solar Salt Vats, and 4,130,882 bushels, usually termed fine salt, has been made in kettles by boiling.

The manufacture of salt is conducted under an arrangement for supplies of brine, and for convenience of inspection and supervision, which provides for a division of the Reservation into four manufacturing districts, each being under the immediate control and regulation of an independent suite of deputies. The following table gives the quantities and description of salt inspected in each division:

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An experiment has been made the past summer for producing a superior quality of fine salt for table use, and also for dairy purposes, particularly butter-making, adopted partly from the English method, which has proved very successful and promises beneficial results. This salt is brought to å finer crystalization and a more thorough separation from the impurities of the brine in the kettles than by the common mode, and is afterwards dried by artificial heat, and passed through rollers and seives to bring it to a state of complete pulverization. It is subsequently “medicated” by a patented application, recently discovered, which finishes the process. Salt produced by this method has a clear, dazzling white appearance, is always pulverulent and retains scarce a trace of impurity. This description of salt, which has received the denomination of "FactoryFilled," is admirably adapted to the curing of butter, and will doubtless prove, upon trial, to be equal to the best brands of English salt, of which a very large proportion is sold in this country.

By a careful analysis, made by Professor Cook, of Burlington, N. J., (as follows,) it will be seen that this salt is fully equal to the Ashton salt of Liverpool, England:

ANALYSIS OF THE “FACTORY-FILLED” SALT MADE AT SYRACUSE, N. Y.
Per Cont.

Per Cent. Chloride of sodium, (salt,)...... 97.600 Chloride of calcium,...

000 Sulphate of lime, (combined,)... 1.124 Chloride of magnesium,..

000 do. do. (free) 227 Water,...

810 Sulphate of magnesia,..

077 Carbonate of lime,..... 162

100.000

ANALYSIS OF " ASHTON Salt," OF LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND.
Per Ceni.

Per Cent. Chloride of sodium, (salt,)...... 97.660 Chloride of magnesium,....

059 Sulphate of lime, (combined,)... 1.381 Water,...

900 Chloride of calcium,.... 000

100.000 Rutgers' College, January 11th, 1861.

GEORGE H. Cook.

The legislature of the State of Michigan, in 1859, by law declared that there should be paid a bounty of 10 cents per bushel on salt manufactured from water obtained by boring in the State; consequently eight wells have been sunk upon the Saginaw and five at Grand Rapids, and a quality of water has been found, which for strength and purity is unsurpassed in the United States, and from which very rapid progress is now making in the manufacture of salt.

IMPORTS OF SALT INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR THE YEAR 1860.

Bushels.

FROM
Swedish West Indies,.
Danish West Indies,
Hamburg,..
Bremen,
Dutch West Indies,
England,
Ireland,
Canada,
Other British North American Possessions...
British West Indies,..
British Guiana,...
France on the Atlantic,
France on the Mediterranean,
French West Indies,.
Spain on the Atlantic, .
Spain on the Mediterranean,
Cuba,....
Portugal,..
Madeira,
Cape de Verde Islands,
Azores, .
Two Sicilies,
San Domingo,
Mexico,
Sandwich Islands,.
China,....

16,734
10,818

509
5,050
522,263
10,335,256

29,935
68,102

58,870
1,705,510

16,720

4,233 54,240

9,775 472,158

1,360 8,560 25,520

676 9,752

2,409 444,085

4,200 228,287 38,064

Value. $ 1,530

672

97

422 45,928 1,143,602

2,950 9,026

4,053 136,410 1,310

283 2,713

743 31,059

125 475 2,006

42 879

270 15,409

303 22,555 8,131

147

1,150

Total United States,.

14,094,227

$ 1,431,140

PRICES OF SALT AT THE SYRACUSE Salt WORKS IN 1860.

January,
February,
March,
April, .
May,
June,
July,.
August,
September,
October,...
November,
December,

Fine, bbls.
$1 50

1 50
1 40 to 1 50
1 50
1 40 to 1 50
1 40 to 1 50
1 40 to 50
1 35 to 1 40
1 40 to 1 50
1 40 to 1 50
1 55
1 75

Coarse, 10ls.

$1 60

1 60 $ 1 50 to 1 60

1 60 1 60 1 60 1 60

1 50 1 40 to 1 50 1 40 to 1 50

1 55 1 75

In our last report, as given in the annual publication, pages 43 and 44, was given a minute and careful statement of the mode of manufacturing salt in the different States of our Union; the different localities at which it is manufactured, and the various salt works; the depth of the wells; the cost of manufacture; the prices of the various modes of transportation through the country; the quantity made at each place; and the toll imposed on both domestic and foreign salt passing through our canals, &c., which preclude the necessity of any recapitulation this year, as the rates of prices and the quantity made have not materially changed since that period.

TOTAL ExportS OF SALT FROM THE UNITED STATES DURING THE

YEAR 1860.

Bushels, 475,445.—Value, $129,717.

It may be proper to remark in this connection, that there has been a gradual increase in the production of salt in those sections of the world having trade in that article with the United States since the year 1856, and a consequent reduction in the average rate of prices. The general supplies are now large, and gradually accumulating. The old tariff imposed by our government was 15 per cent. ad valorem. The present tariff fixes a specific duty on salt of 4 cents per bushel on bulk salt, and 6 cents per bushel on sack salt, which amounts to a considerable advance on the old rates; and even with this difference of tariff rates it is not likely that there will be any very serious check in the importations.

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