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extraordinary, but may be accounted for by the compulsory migration from Manchester arising out of the causes mentioned. population of the city and its suburbs is 357,000—a gain of 40,000 in ten years.
The census superintendent in Manchester reports, that while the decrease in the city proper is going on, the conversion of the property out of which it arises increases the gross assessment of the township, by better buildings, in a remarkable way. The effect will be to reduce the poundage on the poor and other rates, and eventually to reduce pauperism by the sweeping away of the lower descriptions of dwellings.
Glasgow. The analysis of the census of the city of Glasgow has been published. The population of the "ancient burg" of Glasgow amounts to 403,142 ; of whom 189,220 are males and 213,922 are females. The population of the district known as the "ancient burg” and the suburbs is 446,395 ; of whom 209,999 are males and 236,396 are females. The amount of the population in 1851 was 360,138; thus showing an increase, in 1861, of 86,257. In 1861 the number of inhabited dwellings was 82,609, and of uninhabited, 4,002, compared with 63,153 and 1,547 in the year 1851, being an increase, in 1861, of inhabited dwellings, to the extent of 19,456, and of uninhabited, 2,455. The population is composed of 326,374 Scotch, 10,809 English, 63,574 Irish, 827 foreigners, 1,440 colonists, and 118 not ascertained. The number of males between the ages
of five and fifteen amounts to 40,694, with 40,118 females; and of this number 116,868 males and 16,214 females were not, at the taking of the census, at school. The number of domestic servants within the city was 218 males and 12,856 females; total, 13,074.
EMIGRATION FROM GREAT BRITAIN. Some surprise may be excited by the fact, made apparent by an official return, that in the last fifteen years 3,504,062 persons have emigrated from the United Kingdom. This prodigious exodus has in great part taken three directions—the North American colonies, the (dis) United States and the Australian colonies. But an analysis shows that Brother Jonathan has, notwithstanding the powerful allurements of the antipodean gold discoveries, obtained by far the lion's share of our surplus strength. Thus, every one hundred emigrants selected their future homes in the following proportions :
2 2 9 11 6
1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851,. 1852, 1853, 1854,. 1855, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860,
9 10 14 10
1 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1
24 19 25 29
9 10 8 6 7
29 35 26 19
2 1 5 10 6
The great preponderance obtained by the United States was derived from the Irish emigration, through religious and political influences, and, subsequently, family ties. What influence the present disturbances may exert upon the Republican territory, as an emigration field, it is of course impossible to predict; but they can hardly exercise a favorable effect. Canadian journals are evidently of this opinion, and are doing their utmost to divert the tide of emigration to their own shores. The advocates of emigration to Canada have, however, it will be seen, met with singular ill success,
for it is now only one-fourth as popular as it was fifteen years since—the emigrants to British America having numbered 43,439 in 1846, as compared with 9,786 in 1860. This, no doubt, is due to the superior attractions now presented by Australia, New Zealand, the Cape and other emigration fields.— Times.
POPULATION OF THE WORLD.
M. DIETRICI, director of the office of Statistics at Berlin, has published in the annals of the academy of that city the result of his researches relative to the present population of the globe. An addition to his calculation of the total number of inhabitants, which he puts down at upwards of 1,288,000,000, M. DIETRICI estimates the number of the different hu
races as follows: the Caucasian, 369,000,000; the Mongol, 552,000,000 ; Ethiopian, (negroes,) 196,000,000 ; the American, (Indians,) 1,000,000; the Malays, 200,000,000. The leading religions he divides as follows: Christianity reckons 335,000,000 adherents; Judaism, 5,000,000; the Asiatic religions, 600,000,000; Mahometanism, 160,000,000; and Polytheism, 200,000,000. Of the Christian population, 170,000,000 belong to the Roman Catholic church ; 80,000,000 to Protestants, and 76,000,000 to the Greek church.
CURIOSITIES OF THE ENGLISH CENSUS. Relative Population of London and the Provincial Towns—Excess of Females in England.-The Registrar-General estimates the number of English emigrants from the United Kingdom in the ten years between 1851 and 1861 at 640,210, and returns the number of registered births over registered deaths in the same period at 2,260,576. This would leave an increase of 1,620,366, but the actual augmentation enumerated on the 8th of April was 2,134,116, showing that 513,750 births must have passed unregistered in the ten years. It appears that the population of London is nearly equal to that of the twenty leading provincial towns, having a population of 70,000 and upwards—Bolton, Birmingham, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Hull, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Norwich, Nottingham, Oldham, Portsmouth, Preston, Salford, Sheffield, Stoke-upon-Trent, Sunderland and Wolverhampton, all put together—the metropolis having 2,803,034 inhabitants, and the great provincial centres, 2,963,945. The population of the latter is, however, increasing more rapidly than that of the metropolis, the augmentation having been 440,798 in London, as compared with 591,058 in the provincial towns, so that COBBETT's "great wen,” is not, as some assume, absorbing all the power of the State.
With regard to forty-three secondary towns, the population of which ranges between 20,000 and 50,900, an advance has been made from 1,414,093 in 1851, to 1,653,386 in 1861, showing an augmentation of 239,293 ; and one hundred and seven still smaller towns, including, as in the case of their larger brothren, the additions made to many of them for parliamentary purposes, having a population of from 5,000 to 20,000, had in 1851, 954,038, and in 1861, 997,389 inhabitants, showing an augmentation of 43,351. The metropolitan district consequently increased in population at the rate of eighteen per cent. ; the great centres of manufacturing industry at the rate of twenty-four per cent. ; the second-class towns at the rate of seventeen per cent. ; and the little boroughs at the rate of four
cent. In fourteen still smaller townships, having less than 5,000 inhabitants each, the population remained all but stationary, being 52,108 in 1851, and 52,559 in 1861; so that the lower one gets in the scale the more stagnant one finds the tide of human life.
The excess of the fair sex in England amounts to the alarmingly large total of 544,021 ; but this disproportion between the sexes is not universal, the rougher section of humanity being in a majority in Derbyshire, Durham, Essex, Herefordshire, Kent, Hampshire, Staffordshire and Westmoreland. In Middlesex there are 165,389, and in Lancashire, 86,100 more women than men, and the agricultural counties also reflect the continuous drain of emigration upon their adult male population.—London Times.
VITAL STATISTICS OF 18 6 0. The Registrar-General for England has issued his annual tables of the number of births, deaths and marriages of 1860. The number of births and deaths had been already stated in the last quarterly report, but the number of marriages (170,305) had not then been ascertained. It is larger than in any previous year; the nearest approach to it was in 1859, when the number was 167,723. The births in 1860 (683,440) were fewer by 1,441 than in 1859, but that is the only year in which they were exceeded; the deaths (422,472) were happily less by 18,777 than in 1859, and less also than in 1858, 1855 or 1854. Allowing for the estimated increase of population, the births in 1860 were slightly above the average rate of the preceding ten years, the marriages were more above it, and the deaths were still more below it, all movements in the right direction. As usual the first half of the year saw the greatest number of births, about ten per cent. more than the last half, and the deaths in the first moiety were greater than in the last by the large ratio of 23 per cent. The last quarter was, as usual, the marrying season ; there were 50,702 marriages, and only 35,198 in the first quarter. Lincolnshire is always a notable exception to this last rule; there the spring quarter is the chief time for marriage. The termination of the ordinary periods of service has, doubtless, much influence in this matter.
VITAL STATISTICS OF SCOTLAND. The Registrar-General for Scotland, who has hitherto issued no detailed annual reports, has just commenced the series, beginning with his first
year of office, 1855. Taking first the births, the superintendent of statistics calls attention to the circumstance that the proportion of boys born to girls is greater in the rural districts than in the towns, in which, indeed, in that year, the illegitimate boys born were absolutely fewer in number than the girls. This is attributed to a residence in towns weakening the physical strength of parents, and it is considered a rule so established as to “afford a valuable hint to those who desire male progeny." With reference to incontinence, the report states that it is found most prevalent in those districts in which farm-work is done by unmarried young men and women, who sleep in the farm-house, or sometimes in bothies set apart for that purpose. It is contended that in many of the irregular connections which too often in Scotland are substituted for marriage, the parties are true to each other, and that, indeed, the vice of unchastity seems greatly owing to the excess of a Scottish virtue, for the proportion of illegitimate births is highest where the test of signature of the marriage register indicates the greatest prevalence of education, and where, therefore, it may be supposed that the prudential check operates most to prevent improvident marriages. It would appear from the year's returns that, though marriages are much fewer in Scotland than in England, yet when Scotchwomen do marry they are more prolific than the English. Some rather curious matrimonial statistics are supplied. It is remarked that widows, marrying bachelors, selected, as a general rule, husbands younger than themselves; “the status which the widow had acquired by her former marriage presented inducements to the unsettled bachelor, which gave the widow a great advantage over her unmarried sisters; and, as power is dear to every heart, a younger member of the opposite sex was selected, as more likely to leave that power in her hand than if the chosen second husband had been her senior in years.” The Scotch stand the educational test well; 88.6 per cent. of the men who married, and 77.2 of the women, signed their names. In England, in the same year, the proportions were 70.5 and 58.8. The deaths in the year (a year of more than average mortality) were only 206 in 10,000 persons, showing Scotland to be one of the very healthiest countries on the face of the globe. The annual per centage of deaths to population is stated thus: Scotland, 2.06; England, 2.21 ; France, 2.36 ; Belgium, 2.52 ; Holland, 2.76 ; Prussia, 2.83 ; Spain, 2.85 ; Sardinia, 2.91. Some points of interest in relation to disease and mortality are noticed. Including the secondary diseases, twice as many women died from childbirth as in England. This is thought not much attributable to distance from medical aid, and the question is raised whether it is not owing to certain anatomical conformations. It may seem strange to speak of Scotland as a place for the consumptive, but Argyll and the Western Isles enjoy a remarkable immunity from consumption; those islands have a mild winter climate, with a more humid atmosphere than the main land when the arid easterly winds prevail in spring. Of the influence of weather, we learn that in Scotland, with the single exception of diarrheal complaints, all the ordinary epidemics of the country increase with the increase of cold, and it is the cold that kills. The diseases induced by heat seldom prevail anywhere until the mean monthly temperature rises above 60 degrees, and that is a rare occurrence in Scotland.
BUFFALO AND NEW-YORK CITY RAIL-ROAD.
The New-York and Erie Rail-Road Co. has purchased the above road for $125,000. The road thus purchased is 91}
miles long, from Hornellsville to Buffalo, and has been run by the Erie Rail-Road under a running arrangement.
This road was first commenced in 1850, and opened for business between Attica and Hornellsville in 1852, at which time its funded debt in bonds secured by mortgage on this section of road, 60 miles long, amounted to $700,000, payable in fifteen years. The company then purchased the portion between Buffalo and Attica, 314 miles, and made à further issue of $500,000 bonds, having eight years to run, secured by this section. In 1853 the company made a further issue of $500,000 bonds, payable in twelve years, secured by second mortgage on the whole road. After this issue the company failed to pay interest, and
in 1855 suit was commenced by the second mortgage bondholders. The road was sold in 1856 for $379,568. The purchasers conveyed it, in 1857, to the Buffalo, New-York and Erie Rail-Road Company, and this company assumed the payment of the first mortgage on the Buffalo and Attica section. At the date of the report, in 1855, the cost of the road stood as follows: Stock, ...
$ 798,439 Funded debt..
1,720,000 Floating debt,
$ 3,386,288 The earnings in the same year were, Gross earnings,
$ 288,392 Expenses,
256,496 Net earnings,....
$ 31,896 By the present sale the whole property brings $125,000.
MICHIGAN. The Detroit Daily Advertiser states that the last legislature of Michigan not only passed a law extending the time for completing the landgrant rail-roads the full time allowed by the act of Congress making the grant, but also one giving them two hundred and forty sections as soon as they shall complete twenty continuous miles of road, provided that the Lansing, Amboy and Traverse Bay Road shall be completed to Lansing City from Owosso before being entitled to the additional one hundred and twenty sections. This last law, it is confidently asserted, will enable the companies to make such negotiations as are alone required to finish these important roads.