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direction of five trustees, to hold their office for the term of five years, and three of whom shall be designated and appointed by the Chamber of Commerce of the City of New-York, and two of whom shall be appointed by the governor. The term of office of the said trustees shall begin on the first day of May, eighteen hundred and sixty-one.

Sec. 3. The said trustees shall make such by-laws for the transaction of their business as shall be, in their judgment, expedient, and not inconsistent with the laws of this State, and shall determine the number, station, term of office and duties of the officers proper for the management of said school, and their compensation, and the manner and time of their appointment, and shall appoint the same.

Sec. 4. The said trustees shall have power to receive such funds or property as shall be subscribed, or loaned, or bequeathed for the organization or maintenance of said nautical school, and execute all necessary agreements for the faithful application of the same, and to receive such boys as shall be sent to said school by their parents or guardians; and all such boys, when so received into said nautical school, shall be subject to such regulations of conduct and discipline as, in the judgment of the trustees, are best adapted to their proper government; and the receiving and discharging of said boys shall be only in accordance with the by-laws and rules of said school, as may be by said trustees adopted.

They shall have control of the school-ship of said institution, and shall exercise, in relation thereto, and its care, supervision and management, all necessary powers and duties. They may also send any boy in education at such school on such voyage as they shall deem advisable for his proficiency and welfare, and may declare such sending a discharge of said boy from such institution. The trustees shall also determine what shall be the age at which boys may be taken into said school, with the consent of his parents or guardian, and under what circumstances fees for board in said school-ship, and education and tuition may be charged and taken, and the rates of said board and education and tuition, and to extend to persons qualifying for stations beyond ordinary seamen the advantages of such school.

Sec. 5. Whenever the trustees shall receive, in valid subscriptions, the amount of thirty thousand dollars, they shall proceed to organize the said school, and they may determine in what manner and at what time such subscriptions shall be paid, and may appoint a treasurer and determine his specific duties, and provide for the safe-keeping of the funds committed to his care.

Sec. 6. The said nautical school shall at all times be open to the inspection and examination of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and a full report of its affairs shall be made to said superintendent, at such time in the year as he shall designate.

Sec. 7. This shall take effect immediately.

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NEW LIGHT-HOUSES IN EUROPE, & C.

Baltic—GULF OF FINLAND. New Light at South end of Hogland.-Official information has been received by the Light-House Board, Washington, that the Imperial Ministry of Marine at St. Petersburg has given notice that on and after the first day of August, 1861, a light will be exhibited from a light-house recently erected on the southern point of the Island of Hogland, in the Gulf names of persons who have made themselves liable for a sum of £243,000; others have yet to sign who will bring up the total to £383,000. The charter of incorporation has been issued, and in little more than twelve months from the present time we shall probably be in a position to announce the opening of the great exhibition of 1862.

The building for the display of 1862 differs in many essential particulars from its predecessor. " It will be much larger, more commodious, much more imposing in its exterior, while from without its aspect will be of almost impressive magnitude and grandeur. Glass and iron are no longer to be the chief features in the design. Externally they appear only to be used where lightness with ornamental effect is needed; and, therefore, when they are introduced with these ends in view they are managed with a good taste and architectural effect which, viewing the design as a whole, makes it one of the most beautiful of the kind that has probably ever been reared. This remark as to the comparatively limited use of iron and glass of course applies only to the exterior. The inside, as heretofore, will be entirely fitted with iron columns and girders, but arranged in more gothic form and style, and with a keener view to picturesque effect than in 1851. The exhibition building of 1851 ocenpied in all nearly 23 acres; that about to be crected will cover a little over 26. The flooring space in 1851 was just short of a million feet. In the proposed building there will be 1,140,000, but, as it is intended to exhibit machinery and agricultural implements in a wing especially built for the purpose, the space occupied in 1851 by these classes will be at the disposal of the commissioners for other works, so that practically there will be some 500,000 feet of flooring more in 1862 than in 1851. The greatest height in 1851 was 160 feet, and the main nave running from end to end was 60 feet high by 72 wide. The greatest height of the proposed building will be 260 feet, and the nave will be 1,200 feet long by 85 wide and 100 feet high. The total length of the first exhibition building was 1,800 feet by 400 broad. The dimensions of the present are to be 1,200 long by 700 broad, exclusive of the space set aside for the display of agricultural implements, which is, in rough numbers, 1,000 feet long by 220 broad. The contractors' price in 1851 was £80,000; in this instance, £200,000, though in reality it will cost £300,000, but the payment of the extra £100,000 is conditional on the gross profits exceeding £500,000, as they did in 1851.

The building will be erected at Kensington, in front of the new grounds of the Horticultural Society, which they will enclose. Externally the building will be 1,200 feet by 700, though the ground plan shows that in some parts the width is diminished to 500 feet. The average height will be 100 feet, nearly 60 of which will be solid brickwork. A Resolution relative to the exhibition of the industry of all nations, to be holden in

London in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-two. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President be and he hereby is authorized to take such measures as shall to him seem best to facilitate a proper representation of the industrial interests of the United States at the exhibition of the industry of all nations, to be holden at London in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-two; and the sum of two thousand dollars is hereby appropriated for the incidental expenses thereof.

Approved July 27, 1861.

SUBSTITUTE FOR PLUMBAGO. In a paper presented to the Royal Society by Professor Crace-Calvert, an interesting discovery was announced-that from cast-iron a substance is procurable which is a substitute for plumbago. The professor soaks cubes of cast-iron in weak acid—vinegar being the most suitable—until the iron is dissolved out and the carbon remains. By this process the cubes lose in weight, but not in dimension, and retain their form unaltered; but the quality is changed, and it is as easy to draw lines with one of them as with a lump of plumbago.

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CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES --COAL. We learn from the Mining and Scientific Press, (California,) that a meeting of the members of the above institution was held in San Francisco on the 15th of May, at which Professor Blake gave an interesting description of the coal regions of Monte Diabola, accompanied with specimens of the coal. The veins are rather thin, but the coal is good bituminous. The fossils of the region belong to the tertiary formations.

Professor Whitney is of opinion that the coal was formed from accumulations carried by eddies and deposited in still water.

A considerable quantity of this coal has been taken to San Francisco, and it has tended to reduce the price of wood and the foreign coal. A plentiful supply of wood and coal in California would tend greatly to facilitate quartz-mining, by enabling the machinery to be operated by cheap steam power. Coal will also make California a great manufacturing State.

BORAX MINERAL. Among the minerals found associated with the native copper of Lake Superior is one very hard and white, resembling marble, called “massive datholite,” first noticed by Professor T. D. Whitney, in Silliman's Journal of Science, in 1859. It contains over 20 per cent. of boracic acid, and will

, therefore, prove valuable for the manufacture of borax. Experiments recently made by Dr. KEEP, and repeated by Dr. Hays, of Boston, prove that this mineral may even take the place of borax in many most important applications, without any previous chemical change. This might have been inferred from the fact that it contains nearly onehalf as much pure borax as is found in the commercial boracic acid.

ALUMINUM IN GREENLAND.

The Edinburgh Courant states that two Danish vessels have sailed from Leith for Greenland, for procuring cargoes of cryolite--the mineral from which aluminum is obtained in largest quantities. Several very valuable minerals are obtained from Greenland. Plumbago is abundant in these regions; but the cryolite is the most important of Greenland's products, because aluminum is daily increasing in favor, as a most beautiful metal, capable of superseding silver for many purposes.

names of persons who have made themselves liable for a sum of £243,000; others have yet to sign who will bring up the total to £383,000. The charter of incorporation has been issued, and in little more than twelve months from the present time we shall probably be in a position to announce the opening of the great exhibition of 1862.

The building for the display of 1862 differs in many essential particulars from its predecessor. It will be much larger, more commodious, much more imposing in its exterior, while from without its aspect will be of almost impressive magnitude and grandeur. Glass and iron are no longer to be the chief features in the design. Externally they appear only to be used where lightness with ornamental effect is needed; and, therefore, when they are introduced with these ends in view they are managed with a good taste and architectural effect which, viewing the design as a whole, makes it one of the most beautiful of the kind that has probably ever been reared. This remark as to the comparatively limited use of iron and glass of course applies only to the exterior. The inside, as heretofore, will be entirely fitted with iron columns and girders, but arranged in more gothic form and style, and with a keener view to picturesque effect than in 1851. The exhibition building of 1851 occupied in all nearly 23 acres; that about to be erected will cover a little over 26. The flooring space in 1851 was just short of a million feet. In the proposed building there will be 1,140,000, but, as it is intended to exhibit machinery and agricultural implements in a wing especially built for the purpose, the space occupied in 1851 by these classes will be at the disposal of the commissioners for other works, so that practically there will be some 500,000 feet of flooring more in 1862 than in 1851. The greatest height in 1851 was 160 feet, and the main pave running from end to end was 60 feet high by 72 wide.

The greatest height of the proposed building will be 260 feet, and the nave

will be 1,200 feet long by 85 wide and 100 feet high. The total length of the first exhibition building was 1,800 feet by 400 broad. The dimensions of the present are to be 1,200 long by 700 broad, exclusive of the space set aside for the display of agricultural implements, which is, in rough numbers, 1,000 feet long by 220 broad. The contractors' price in 1851 was £80,000; in this instance, £200,000, though in reality it will cost £300,000, but the payment of the extra £100,000 is conditional on the gross profits exceeding £500,000, as they did in 1851.

The building will be erected at Kensington, in front of the new grounds of the Horticultural Society, which they will enclose. Externally the building will be 1,200 feet by 700, though the ground plan shows that in some parts the width is diminished to 500 feet. The average height will be 100 feet, nearly 60 of which will be solid brickwork. A Resolution relative to the exhibition of the industry of all nations, to be holden in

London in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-two. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President be and he hereby is authorized to take such measures as shall to him seem best to facilitate a proper representation of the industrial interests of the United States at the exhibition of the industry of all nations, to be holden at London in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-two; and the sum of two thousand dollars is hereby appropriated for the incidental expenses thereof.

Approved July 27, 1861.

SUBSTITUTE FOR PLUMBAGO. In a paper presented to the Royal Society by Professor CRACE-CALVERT, an interesting discovery was announced—that from cast-iron a substance is procurable which is a substitute for plumbago. The professor soaks cubes of cast-iron in weak acid—vinegar being the most suitable—until the iron is dissolved out and the carbon remains. By this process the cubes lose in weight, but not in dimension, and retain their form unaltered; but the quality is changed, and it is as easy to draw lines with one of them as with a lump of plumbago.

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CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES --COAL. We learn from the Mining and Scientific Press, (California,) that a meeting of the members of the above institution was held in San Francisco on the 15th of May, at which Professor BLAKE gave an interesting description of the coal regions of Monte Diabola, accompanied with specimens of the coal. The veins are rather thin, but the coal is good bituminous. The fossils of the region belong to the tertiary formations.

Professor WHITNEY is of opinion that the coal was formed from accumulations carried by eddies and deposited in still water.

A considerable quantity of this coal has been taken to San Francisco, and it has tended to reduce the price of wood and the foreign coal. A plentiful supply of wood and coal in California would tend greatly to facilitate quartz-mining, by enabling the machinery to be operated by cheap steam power. Coal will also make California a great manufacturing State.

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BORAX MINERAL.

Among the minerals found associated with the native copper of Lake Superior is one very hard and white, resembling marble, called “massive datholite,” first noticed by Professor T. D. Whitney, in Silliman's Journal of Science, in 1859. It contains over 20 per cent. of boracic acid, and will, therefore, prove valuable for the manufacture of borax. Experiments recently made by Dr. Keep, and repeated by Dr. Hays, of Boston, prove that this mineral may even take the place of borax in many most important applications, without any previous chemical change. This might have been inferred from the fact that it contains nearly onehalf as much

pure

borax as is found in the commercial boracic acid.

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ALUMINUM IN GREENLAND.

The Edinburgh Courant states that two Danish vessels have sailed from Leith for Greenland, for procuring cargoes of cryolite—the mineral from which aluminum is obtained in largest quantities. Several very valuable minerals are obtained from Greenland. Plumbago is abundant in these regions; but the cryolite is the most important of Greenland's products, because aluminum is daily increasing in favor, as a most beautiful metal, capable of superseding silver for many purposes.

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