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The cash duties received at the port of New-York, during the month of July, have been less than for the same period of previous years; they are reckoned, of course, upon the goods thrown on the market. We annex a comparative summary:

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Total since Jan. 1, $14,476,418 $24,363,428 88 $22,843,745 34 $12,654,925 81

The exports show some very singular changes. The most noticeable features are, of course, the great increase in shipments of produce, and cessation in shipments of specie. During no month of the year has this been more noticeable, although we are now comparing with a period of last year when the exports of produce on a large scale had commenced, and were rapidly assuming very large proportions:

ExpoRTs FROM NEw-York To For EIGN Ports Fort THE Moxth of JULY.

1858. 1859. 1860. 1861. Domestic produce,....... $4,771,962 . . $4,938,065 . . $7,525,713 . . $9,552,789 Foreign mdse., (free,). . . . 70,463 .. 380,782 .. 232,552 . . 203,325 Foreign mdse., (dutiable,). 277,419 . . 232,527 . . 140,949 . . 260,866 Specie and bullion, ...... 2,801,340 ... 10,051,019 .. 6,563,985 .. 11,020 Total exports,.......... $7,921,829 . . $ 15,602,393 . . $14,463,199 . . $10,028,000

Total, exclusive of specie, 5,119,844 .. 5,551,874 .. 7,811,214 ... 10,016,980

The movement of produce from the interior continues to be very large. The receipts at tide-water of the principal articles of produce, from the opening of the canals to and including the 14th of August, have been as follow :

1859. 1860. 1861. Canal open,............. April 15. - - - - April 25. - - - - May 1. Flour,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbls. 209,796 - - - - 372,980 - - - - 523,852 Wheat, bush. 696,003 - - - - 4,480,923 - - - - 11,811,333 Corn, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 1,392,881 - - - - 7,642,394 - - - - 8,060,289 Barley, ............ “ 147,194 . . . . 75,913 . . . . 187,420 Oats,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 2,347,931 - - - - 3,547,727 - - - - 2,595,028 Rye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . 99,146 - - - - 121,967 - - - - 387,984

The returns from other lines of improvement would probably show an equally favorable result.

The receipts of foreign gold and silver, and of gold from California, at New-York, and at Boston for New-York account, since January 1, are about as follows:

Foreign gold entered at New-York, .......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - $33,365,000
Foreign gold entered at Boston, ......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7,396,000
California gold at New-York,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,250,000
Total income of gold since January 1,... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $63,011,000
Against same time in 1860:
From California, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - $21,691,000
From abroad, ...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 751,000

—— $22,442,000

Increased receipts since January 1, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $40,569,000

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The shipments of domestic produce for the past seven months are more than double those for the same period of 1858 and 1859.

It is somewhat remarkable that the comparative exports for seven months in each of the last three years foot

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about the same, but are made up of very different items. In 1859, forty-three millions of specie were included ; in 1860, twenty-eight millions; while in 1861, only three millions of specie have been exported during the whole seven months. EXPORTS FROM New-YORK To Foreign Ports FOR SEVEN MONTHS, FROM JANUARY 1.

1858.
1859.
1860.

1861. Domestic produce,.... $33,352,354 ..$33,373,647 .. $46,281,575 ..$ 71,030,228 Foreign mdse., (free,).. 853,024 .. 1,765,100 1,860,424. 1,888,654 Foreign mdse., (dutiable) 2,557,844 . 1,021,890 . 3,325,061 3,699,329 Specie and bullion, 15,161,455 .. 43,248,991 . 28,143,737.. 3,260,458

BREADSTUFF8.

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Total exports,..... $51,924,677 .. $ 80,409,628 ..$ 79,610,797 ..$ 79,878,669 Total, exclusive of specie, 36,763,222, 37,160,637.. 51,467,060.. 76,618,511

With this heavy influx of gold it is obvious that the foreign exchanges remain at a low price, as in May, June or July. The following were the current rates at the dates named:

May 22.
June 24.
July 24.

August 24. London, bankers' bills,.... 1054 @ 1061 1054 @ 1054 1071 @ 1074 1077 @ 1074

Do. mercantile bills, 105 @ 106 1044 @ 105 1054 @ 1064 106 @ 1077

Do. with bills of lading, 1031 @ 1041 1021 @ 104 1041 @ 1051 105 @ 106 Paris, bankers' bills,... 5.45 @5.25 5.40 @5.37 5.30 @5.274 5.40 @5.27 Amsterdam, per guilder,... 39 @ 40 39 @ 394

404 @ 41 399 @ 401 Bremen, per rix dollar,.... 77 @ 78 757 @ 761 774 @ 78 76 @ 77 Hamburg, per marc banco,. 35 @ 354 34$ @ 35+ 354 @ 36

35 @ 35$ Prices of certain Articles of Domestic Produce at New-York on the 1st of August, in

each of the last five years.
1857.
1858.

1859. 1860. 1861. Flour, stand. sup. bbl.,. . $ 6.45 $ 4.10 $ 4.90 $ 5.10 $ 4.05 Wheat, wh. west., bush.,

1.12
1.15
1.35

1.20 Wheat, red west.,

1.65
1.10
1.00
1.25

1.12 Wheat, Chic. spg.,

1.38
85

75
1.17

87 Wheat, Mil. club, 1.45

1.23 Rye, bush., 1.12

77

811 Corn, mixed west., bush., 90

91

62 Cotton, mid, up., per lb., 153

125
121 103

16 NAVAL STORES. Spirits turpentine, gall.,

451

453
38

81 Rosin, common, bbl.,.... 1.85

1.52
1.75
1.45

3.94 PROVISIONS. Pork, mess, bbl.,... 24.25

17.50

15.25 19.121 16.00 Pork, prime, bbl.,... 19.50 14.12} 10.87} 14.25 10.75 Beef, repacked west., bbl., 16.50

13.00
12.00 10.00

9.75 Butter, State, per lb.,... 20

18
18
18

11 Cheese, State, per lb.,.

8

10 Lard, prime, per lb.,...

151
117
104 135

9 Rice, per 100 lbs....

6.50
3.50
4.00
4.621

5.75 Sugar, fair, refined,..

9
5$
61

5$ Wool, med. fleece, Ib.,... 46

40
45

46 Whiskey, gall......

314
25
254

21 162 Prices have changed materially on some articles during the month; thus, flour and grain are a little higher; cotton is two cents higher, and spirits turpentine and rosin have made a very rapid upward movement. The export orders for breadstuffs continue, the most active demand for wheat being for the Continent.

95 80

80

45

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EDITED BY J. switH Hom ANs, (sEcRETARY OF THE CHAMBER of COMMERCE OF THE STATE of NEw-York,)

AND william B. DANA, ATTORNEY AT LAw.

-----------~~~~~~~~~~ --~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

VOLUME XLV. S E P T E M B E R , 1861. NUMBER III.

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pAge I. TAXATION IN THE NEW AND OLD WORLD.—ComPARATIve REven UE AND

ExPENDITURE of GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE AND THE UNITED STATEs—Sources or
Rev ENUE IN FRANCE—HEADs of ExPENDITURE–HEADs of TAxATION IN GREAT
BRITAIN–NEw Sources or REvKNUE IN THE UNITED STATEs, FoR WAR PURPoses,... 225

II. COFFEE AND THE COFFEE TRADE.-1. Diminished production in Brazil. 2. Causes of Decline. 3. Coffee Markets of Europe and the United States. 4. Exports from Rio Janeiro, 1846–1861. 5. Lowest and IIighest Prices in New-York, 1846–61, 22s

III. ACTS OF THE THIRTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS.–1. The Collection of Duties on
Imports. 2. An Act to Provide Increased Revenue from Imports, to Pay the Interest
on the Public Debt, and for other purposes. 3. An Act to Increase the Consular
Representation of the United States during the present Insurrection,............... 230

IV. ANNUAL REPORT ON THE SALT TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES for the year 1860, with the Estimated Production of each State, the Foreign Imports and Exports for the year, and prices for each month, ............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .... 257

V. ANNUAL REPORT ON DRUGS AND THE DIRUG TRADE, for the year 1860,.... 261

VI. ANNUAL REPORT ON BREADSTUFFS AND PROVISIONS.—Exhibit of the Aggregate Value of Breadstuffs Exported to Foreign Countries from the United States, for each year, 1828, to 1st July, 1860; also the Export Value of Provisions for the same period—Exports to Great Britain and the Continent, and Values thereof..... 268

VII. ANNUAL REPORT ON FREIGHTS, FOR 1800—Rates to Liverpool, London, Havre, Galveston, Havana, Vera Cruz, &c., each month of 1860,........................... 270

v III. THE TEA TRADE OF THE YEAR 1860–Imports, Exports of each Port and values, 272 Ix. OPERATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES ASSAY OFFICE, New-York, 1860,..... 278

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 1. Duties levied in Scinde. 2. The Coolie Traffic. 3. Treaties with Japan. 4. Custom-House Regulations of Rio Janeiro. 5. Foreign Tariffs,..

274

JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE. 1. British Wool. 2. Beet Root Sugar. 3. Wild Silk Worms of India. 4. Agricultural Products of Iowa, .....

950 STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c. 1. Cities of Errope. 2. New Congressional Apportionment. 8. The Chinese in California. 4.

The British Census of 1861. 5. Cities in Great Britain, 6. Emigration from Great Britain. 7. Population of the World. 8. Curiosities of the English Census. 9. Vital Statistics of 1860. 10. Vital Statistics of Scotland, .

234

RAIL-ROAD, CANAL AND TELEGRAPI STATISTICS,

AND PROGRESS OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERY. 1. Buffalo and New York City Rail-Road. 2. Michigan. 3. Philadelphia. 4. Australia. 5.

Traffic through France, 6. Ocean Telegraphs. 7. The Russian Telegraph from China to Europe. 8. Malta and Alexandria Telegraph. 9. Mediterranean Sub-Marine Telegraph. 10. Duties on Rail-Road Iron, &c. 11. French Railways. 12. Horse Railways in NewYork. 13. Scinde Railway. 14. Ghaut Railway. 15. Railway Progress in India. 16. Railway Directors in France. 17. Iron Rails. 18. Texas and New Orleans Rail-Road. 19. The Ladrone Islands. 20. Sources of the Nile. 21. The Amoor Country. 22. Exploration of the Red Sea,.....

290 JOURNAL OF INSURANCE. 1. Fire Insurance Duties in England. 2. Life Policies not subject to Forfeiture. 3. The Great Fire in London. 4. Fire-Proof Buildings. 5. New Insurance Laws of Massachusetts,.... 301

JOURNAL OF NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 1. Prices of Iron Propellers. 2. Offer to the Life-Boat Institution. 3. New Mode of Propel

ling Boats. 4. Interesting to Yachtmen. 6. Importance of Telegraph Despatches. 5. The Erin-Go-Bragh. 7. A New Pier at Southport. 8. The Drummond Light. 9. French War Steamers. 10. Crews of Stranded Vessels. 11. Caution to Mariners. 12. Destructive Storms in France, 13. San Francisco Harbor. 14. Nautical School in New York. 15. New Light-Houses in Europe,...

304 JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES. 1. New Gun for Government. 2. Navy Shoes. 3. International Exhibition of 1862. 4. Plum.

bago. 5. California Academy of Science. 6. Borax Mineral. 7. Aluminum in Greenland. 8. Iron Clad Ships. 9. Mauve and Magenta Colors. 10. Canadian Timber for France. 11. Basswood. 12. French School of Art,......

$13

$19

CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND BOARDS OF TRADE. 1. Monthly meeting of New-York Chamber of Commerce,....... FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE OF THE MERCHANTS' MAGAZINE. 1. Letter from London, August 3, 1861,....

824

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW. Business of the Month-Imports-Exports-Exports and Prices for July-Rates of Mones

Specie -Specie Shipments-- Bank Movement - The New Tariff of August, 1861– Extraordinary Influx of Specie-Low Rates of Foreign Bills– Ileavy Receipts of Flour and GrainComparative Prices, .

17" Notices of New Books are in type, but necessarily deferred till the October No.

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Cotton is found growing naturally in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and Armenia. It is distinguished in commerce by its color, and the length, strength and fineness of its fiber. White is usually considered characteristic of secondary quality. Yellow, or a yellowish tinge, when it is natural, is usually considered as indicating great fineness. There are many varieties of raw cotton, but they are usually classed under the denominations of long and short stapled. The best of the first is considered the Sea Island, the product of Georgia. A small quantity of very superior cotton has been imported into England from New South Wales.

The manufacture of cotton has been carried on in Hindostan from the remotest antiquity. The manufacture obtained no footing worth mentioning in Europe till the last century. The rapid growth and o magnitude of the manufacture of cotton in Great Britain are, beyond all question, the most extraordinary phenomenon in the history of industry. When the manufacture commenced in England the material was obtained from Hindostan and China, where the inhabitants had arrived at such perfection in spinning and weaving that the lightness and delicacy of their finest cloths imitated the web of the gossamer, and seemed to set competition at defiance. Such has, however, been the stupendous discoveries and inventions as to overcome these difficulties, as well as the cheapness of labor in Hindostan. The precise period when the manufacture was introduced into England is not known, but it is probable that it was the early part of the seventeenth century. Authentic mention of it is made in sixteen hundred and forty-one, (1641.) From the first introduction of cotton into Great Britain, down to 1773, the weft, or transverse threads of the web only, were made of cotton—the warp or longitudinal threads consisting wholly of linen yarn, imported from Germany and Ireland. Prior to seventeen hundred and sixty, (1760,) weavers

vol. xlv.–No. 1y. 22

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