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COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 1. Duties levied in Scinde. 2. The Coolie Traffic. 3. Treaties with Japan. 4. Custom-House Regulations of Rio Janeiro. 5. Foreign Tariffs,..
JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE. 1. British Wool. 2. Beet Root Sugar. 3. Wild Silk Worms of India. 4. Agricultural Products of Iowa, .....
950 STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c. 1. Cities of Errope. 2. New Congressional Apportionment. 8. The Chinese in California. 4.
The British Census of 1861. 5. Cities in Great Britain, 6. Emigration from Great Britain. 7. Population of the World. 8. Curiosities of the English Census. 9. Vital Statistics of 1860. 10. Vital Statistics of Scotland, .
RAIL-ROAD, CANAL AND TELEGRAPI STATISTICS,
AND PROGRESS OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERY. 1. Buffalo and New York City Rail-Road. 2. Michigan. 3. Philadelphia. 4. Australia. 5.
Traffic through France, 6. Ocean Telegraphs. 7. The Russian Telegraph from China to Europe. 8. Malta and Alexandria Telegraph. 9. Mediterranean Sub-Marine Telegraph. 10. Duties on Rail-Road Iron, &c. 11. French Railways. 12. Horse Railways in NewYork. 13. Scinde Railway. 14. Ghaut Railway. 15. Railway Progress in India. 16. Railway Directors in France. 17. Iron Rails. 18. Texas and New Orleans Rail-Road. 19. The Ladrone Islands. 20. Sources of the Nile. 21. The Amoor Country. 22. Exploration of the Red Sea,.....
290 JOURNAL OF INSURANCE. 1. Fire Insurance Duties in England. 2. Life Policies not subject to Forfeiture. 3. The Great Fire in London. 4. Fire-Proof Buildings. 5. New Insurance Laws of Massachusetts,.... 301
JOURNAL OF NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 1. Prices of Iron Propellers. 2. Offer to the Life-Boat Institution. 3. New Mode of Propel
ling Boats. 4. Interesting to Yachtmen. 6. Importance of Telegraph Despatches. 5. The Erin-Go-Bragh. 7. A New Pier at Southport. 8. The Drummond Light. 9. French War Steamers. 10. Crews of Stranded Vessels. 11. Caution to Mariners. 12. Destructive Storms in France, 13. San Francisco Harbor. 14. Nautical School in New York. 15. New Light-Houses in Europe,...
304 JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES. 1. New Gun for Government. 2. Navy Shoes. 3. International Exhibition of 1862. 4. Plum.
bago. 5. California Academy of Science. 6. Borax Mineral. 7. Aluminum in Greenland. 8. Iron Clad Ships. 9. Mauve and Magenta Colors. 10. Canadian Timber for France. 11. Basswood. 12. French School of Art,......
CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND BOARDS OF TRADE. 1. Monthly meeting of New-York Chamber of Commerce,....... FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE OF THE MERCHANTS' MAGAZINE. 1. Letter from London, August 3, 1861,....
COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW. Business of the Month-Imports-Exports-Exports and Prices for July-Rates of Mones
Specie -Specie Shipments-- Bank Movement - The New Tariff of August, 1861– Extraordinary Influx of Specie-Low Rates of Foreign Bills– Ileavy Receipts of Flour and GrainComparative Prices, .
17" Notices of New Books are in type, but necessarily deferred till the October No.
SEA AND UPLAND COTTON vs. FLAX AND I EMP.
Cotton is found growing naturally in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and Armenia. It is distinguished in commerce by its color, and the length, strength and fineness of its fiber. White is usually considered characteristic of secondary quality. Yellow, or a yellowish tinge, when it is natural, is usually considered as indicating great fineness. There are many varieties of raw cotton, but they are usually classed under the denominations of long and short stapled. The best of the first is considered the Sea Island, the product of Georgia. A small quantity of very superior cotton has been imported into England from New South Wales.
The manufacture of cotton has been carried on in Hindostan from the remotest antiquity. The manufacture obtained no footing worth mentioning in Europe till the last century. The rapid growth and prodigious magnitude of the manufacture of cotton in Great Britain are, beyond all question, the most extraordinary phenomenon in the history of industry. When the manufacture commenced in England the material was obtained from Hindostan and China, where the inhabitants had arrived at such perfection in spinning and weaving that the lightness and delicacy of their finest cloths imitated the web of the gossamer, and seemed to set competition at defiance. Such has, however, been the stupendous discoveries and inventions as to overcome these difficulties, as well as the cheapness of labor in Hindostan. The precise period when the manufacture was introduced into England is not known, but it is probable that it was the early part of the seventeenth century. Authentic mention of it is made in sixteen hundred and forty-one, (1641.) From the first introduction of cotton into Great Britain, down to 1773, the weft, or transverse threads of the web only, were made of cotton-the warp or longitudinal threads consisting wholly of linen yarn, imported from Germany and Ireland. Prior to seventeen hundred and sixty, (1760,) weavers VOL. XLV.-N0. IV.
" 1828, " 1829,
were dispersed in cottages throughout the country, and furnished themselves as well as they could with the west and warp for their webs, and carried them to market when they were finished. The Manchester merchants, at this period, began to send agents into the country, who employed weavers, whom they supplied with foreign Irish linen yarn for warp and with raw cotton, which, being carded and spun by means of a common spindle and distaff, in the weaver's own family, were then used for wefts.
The entire value of cotton goods manufactured in Great Britain in seventeen hundred and sixty, (1760,) is estimated at only two hundred thousand pounds a year, but in sixteen hundred and sixty-seven, (1667,) the spinning jenny was introduced, by means of which eight threads were spun with the same facility as one; and, subsequently, a little girl was enabled to work no fewer than from eighty to one hundred spindles. By the spinners' frames, afterwards introduced, a thread of sufficient fineness was produced to answer for the longitudinal threads for warp. Since seventeen hundred and eighty-five, (1785,) the progress of improvement in every department for the manufacture of cotton bas been most rapid. The estimated amount of the cotton crop of the United States, after and including 1832, arePounds.
Pounda. In 1821, 110,940,000 In 1827,.
285,120,000 “ 1822, 121,485,000
213,840,000 “ 1823, 136,125,000
255,780,000 1824,. 152,880,000 1830,
296, 245,000 The lowest average price in England during this period was in 1831, 55 pence, and the highest in 1825, 11+ pence. Previous to 1790 the United States did not supply the English market with a single pound of cotton; so says Mr. McCULLOUGH, whose authority there is no reason to question in so far as Upland cotton is concerned, but there appears to have been shipments of a superior quality of Sea Island cotton prior to this date. This will account for what appears to be a discrepancy between Mr. McCullough and the Congressional reports found at the American Institute. According to these last, the first arrival of cotton at Liverpool from the United States was— January 20th, 1785,....
one bag. May 4th, 1786,
two bags. Total during the year,.
six bags. Total during the year 1787,... one hundred and eight bags.
Total import from 1785 to 1790, one thousand four hundred and fortyone bags.
After the termination of the American war the cultivation in Carolina and Georgia succeeded so well, that it now forms the principal staple production of the United States. The cotton gin, according to McCulLOUGII, was invented by Whitney in 1793, and has done for the planters what the genius of ARKWRIGHT has done for the manufacturers, and that at present (1835) the export of cotton from the United States exceeds 300,000,000 pounds a year.
1831, “ 1832,
1824, " 1843,
The cotton product of the United States in 1764 was 1,200 lbs. In 1794,........ lbs., 1,601,700
In 1804, lbs., 38,118,041 1814, 17,806,479
792,297,106 In 1842 the product of the United States is given in bales at 1,683,174, and in 1843, 2,378,875. (U. S. Doc.) The estimated product of the United States for the year 1859 was 3,400,000, and for 1860, 4,600,000 bales. The average weight of a bale of cotton is assumed to be 470 pounds. The actual result of the year 1860, however, showed the product to have been but 4,000,000 bales.
The MERCHANTS' MAGAZINE for May, 1861, gives the estimated cotton crop in 1820 at 425,000 bales; in 1830, at 870,415; in 1840, 2,177,532 ; in 1850, 2,796,706 ; in 1860, 4,600,000 bales.
Congressional reports show the United States exports of cotton to have been in1821,.. 124,893,405 lbs. average cost per lb., 16 2-10c... value, $ 20,167,484 1822,.. 144,675,096
24,035,058 1823,.. 173,723,270"
20,445,520 1824,.. 142,369,663
21,947,401 1825,.. 176,449,907
36,846,649 1826,.. 204,535,415
25,025,214 1827,.. 294,310,115
29,359,545 1828,.. 210,590,463
22,487,229 1829,.. 264,837,186
26,576,311 1830,.. 298,459,102
29,674,883 1831,.. 276,979,784 “
25,289,492 1832,.. 313,215,122“
31,724,682 1833,.. 324,698,604 "
36,191,105 1834,.. 384,717,909“
49,448,402 1835,.. 387,358,992 h.
64,961,302 1836,.. 423,631,367
71,284,925 1837,.. 444,211,537 "
63,240,102 1838,.. 595,952,297 “
61,556,811 1839,.. 413,624,212
61,238,982 1840,.. 743,991,0610
63,870,307 1841,.. 530,204,100
54,330,341 1842, . . 584,717,017
47,593,464 1843,.. 792,297,106
49,119,806 1844,.. 663,633,455
64,063,501 1845,.. 872,905,9966
51,739,643 1846,.. 547,558,055
42,767,341 1847,.. 627,219,968
63,415,848 1848,.. 814,274,431
61,998,294 1849,. 1,026,602,269
66,395,967 1850,.. 635,381,604
71,984,616 1851,.. 997,237,089
112,315,317 1852,. 1,093,320,639
87,965,732 Treasury Department,
N. SARGENT, Register. Register's Office, Jan. 5, 1853.
This much has been said in reference to cotton, as preparatory to the consideration of the articles of flax and hemp, more particularly the former, to which public attention has been more particularly directed by the transpiring events of the day.
“Flax, (Ger. Flachs; Du., Vasch; Fr., Lin; Ita. and Sp., Lino; Rus., Len, Lon; Pol., Lin; Lat., Linun,) an important plant, (Linun usitatissimum,) was at one time an article of considerable export from the
United States, and may be again profitably raised for its seed without further reference to the use of the stalk.
“ In 1790 the quantity of the seed exported amounted to 312,000 bushels. For twenty years previous to 1816 the average annual exports were 250,000 bushels. The smooth, rich prairie land of the West afford an excellent opportunity for raising flax to any extent; and since linseed is an article that bears exportation so well, many thousand acres might be cultivated to advantage, especially as the crop might be pulled by machinery, or, if the seed is the only object, it might be cut with like facility.” (U. S. Doc.) The estimated hemp crop of the United States in 1844 was 22,800 tons.
Flax is an important plant, and has been cultivated from the earliest ages in Great Britain and many other countries, its fibers being manufactured into thread and its seed crushed for oil. The principal sorts of flax imported into Great Britain are Petersburgh, Narva, Riga, Rivel, Liebau, Memel, Oberland and Dutch flax. It comes in bundles of twelve, nine and six heads. The Riga flax seems to deserve the preference, and is imported from the Baltic. It is the growth of the provinces of Maninberg, Druania, Thusenhausen and Lutherama. Flanders or Dutch flax is well-dressed, and of the finest quality. Flax is extensively cultivated in Egypt of late years; some of the Italian ports, which used to be supplied from Russia, have been supplied on lower terms from Alexandria. New Zealand flax is said to exceed every other species in strength of fiber and whiteness, qualities which, if it really possesses them in the degree stated, must make it particularly fitted to be made into canvass and cordage. It has been obtained, within these few years, at second hand, from Sidney and Van Dieman's Land, the imports from them amounting, in 1831, to 15,725 cwt. Attempts are now being made, but with what success remains to be seen, to raise it in Great Britain.
When flax is brought to the principal Russian ports where it is shipped, it is classified according to its qualities, and made up by sworn inspectors, appointed by the government for the assortment of that and all other merchandise. These functionaries are said to perform their task with laudable impartiality and exactness.
A ticket is attached to every bundle of assorted flax, containing the names of the inspector and owner, the sort of flax and the period when it was selected and inspected.
Good fax should be of a fine, bright color, well separated from tow codilla or coarser part of the plant, and of a long, fine and strong fiber. In purchasing flax it is usual to employ an agent wholly devoted to this particular business.
Of 936,411 cwt. of flax and tow imported into Great Britain in 1831, 623,231 cwt. was from Russia, 128,231 cwt. from the Netherlands, 101,721 cwt. from Prussia, 55,324 cwt. from France, 1,415 cwt. from Italy, 15,276 cwt. from New South Wales, &c. Almost the whole of the quantity was retained for bome consumption.
Flax seed contains a great deal of oil, which it yields by expression, and is cultivated either that it may be used in sowing, or sent to crushing mills to be converted into oil. The quantity of the crop depends much on the seed employed ; a good deal of care is requisite in selecting the best ; generally speaking, it should be chosen of a bright brownish color, oily to the feel, heavy and quite fresh. Dutch seed is in the highest estimation for sowing; it not only ripens sooner than any other that is