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III. COTTON TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN AT SIX DECENNIAL PERIODS.

There is a constantly increasing demand for cotton, not only for clothing, &c., arising from the growth of population and the diffusion of wealth, but also for admixture with wool, as well as in the manufacture of cordage, twine and sail-cloth, which are new branches of trade to which cotton has recently been applied. The production of cotton ought to increase much greater than the population ; for as civilization and commerce extend, the number that will consume cotton fabrics, and the annual consumption of each person, by reason of the greater productive power, will extend in a still greater ratio. The following is the COTTON TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN, SHOWING THE SOURCES OF SUPPLY IN DECENNIAL

PERIODS. 1806. 1816. 1826.

1836.

1846. 1856. American,.... 124,939 .. 166,077.. 395,852 .. 764,707 .. 932,000 .. 1,758,295 Brazil,.. 51,034 .. 123,450 .. 55,590.. 148,715 .. 84,000 122,411 Egyptian,....

47,261 .. 34,953 .. 59,600 111,960 East Indies,... 7,787.. 37,670 .. 64,699 219,193 . 49,500 463,932 West Indies,.. 77,978 .. 42,235 .. 18,188 .. 33,506. 9,000 11,320

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Bales...... 261,738 .. 369,432 ..581,590 .. 1,201,074 .. 1,134,100 2,467,918

The cotton manufacture has been everywhere extending in the past quarter of a century, and consumption steadily gaining upon production. The weckly deliveries of cotton for consumption from the stocks warehoused in British ports have nearly doubled in the last ten years. In 1847 the consumption was but 20,259 bales per week; in 1859 it averaged 46,699 bales weekly. The consumption in the United States in 1847 was 427,967 bales ; in 1857 it was 702,138 bales. The quantity of cotton taken for consumption in the United Kingdom has been as follows :*

BALES OF 400 LBS.

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* Ure's History, Vol. II., p. 375.

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COTTON YARN.

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18,158,172
12,309,079
13,475,534
15,708,183
11,714,507
13,209,000
13,192,904
13,853,954
12,980,644
14,444,255
14,233,010

9,866,623
12,948,035
12,483,249
12,516,247
14,119,770
12,136,513

9,241,648
15,740,675
12,717,382
14,743,675
18,085,410
23,032,325
21,526,469
26,595,468
27,378,986
34,605,510
32,641,604
42,179,521
44,878,774
60,506,751
61,441,251
64,645,342
63,821,440

1,674,021
2,628,448
2,014,181
2,395,304
2,519,783
2,826,643
2,305,830
2,697,590
2,625,947
3,135,396
3,206,729
3,491,338
3,545,578
3,595,405
3,976,874
4,133,741
3,975,019

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76,667,150 4,722,759
70,626,168 4,704,024
76,478,468 5,211,015
83,214,198 5,706,589
88,191,046 6,120,366
103,455,138 6,955,942
114,596,602 7,431,869
105,686,442 6,858,193
118,470,223 7,101,308
123,226,519 7,266,968
137,466,892 7,771,464
140,321,176 .. 7,193,971
138,540,079 6,988,584
135,144,865 6,963,235
160,554,673 7,882,048
119,489,554 5,957,980
135,831,162 5,927,831
148,275,885 6,704,089
124,241,100 .. 6,383,704
131,587,577 6,634,026
129,385,924 6,654,655
129,190,507 6,895,653
147,128,498 6,691,330
165,493,598 7,200,395
181,495,805 8,028,575
176,821,338 8,700,589
200,016,902 9,579,479
192,206,643 9,458,112
197,364,947 9,875,073

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1832

1833

1834

1835

1836

1837

1838

1839

1840

1841

1842

1843

1844

1845

1846

1847

1848

1849

1850

1851

1852

1853

1854

1855

1856

1857

1858

1859

1860

36,450,894
39,667,347
41,649,191
47,372,270
53,368,572
42,070,744
50,060,970
53,233,580
51,406,430
51,634,623
47,381,023
62,279,709
58,584,292
60,111,082
67,786,876
68,842,377
54,849,445
63,596,025
71,367,885
74,448,722
78,076,854
98,933,781
97,184,726
95,688,085
115,826,948
122,066,107
116,608,756
130,411,529
135,842,817

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TABLE SHOWING THE QUANTITY AND VALUE OF Raw Cotton IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM FROM EACH SOURCE, WITH THE ANNUAL AVERAGE PRICE

OF UNITED STATES UPLANDS, BRAZILIAN AND PERNAMBUCO, AND East India Surat Cotton, IN THE LIVERPOOL MARKET, SINCE 1820.

ANNUAL AVERAGE PRICE.

British

British

Other Grand total-quantities.

East Indies. West Indies. countries.

Uplands. Brazil. Surat.

lbs.

lbs.

lbs.

Ibs.

tons, at p. Ib. at p. lb. at p. Ib.
23,125,825 .. 6,836,816 .. 2,040,001 151,672,655 .. 67,711 .. 11/d... 157d. .. 81d.
8,827,107 .. 7,138,980., 2,432,435 .. 132,536,620 .. 59,168 .. 91 125 . 97
4,554,225 .. 10,295,114.. 1,732,513 .. 142,837,628 .. 63,767 .. 87 .. 11}
14,839,117 7,034,793 1,989,427. 191,402,603 85,448 81 12 64
16,420,005 .. 6,269,306 953,673 . 149,380,125 66,688 81 .. 114 64
20,005,872 .. 8,193,948 .. 4,018,206 .. 228,005,291 .. 101,788 .. 115 15$ 67
20,985,135 .. 4,751,070 .. 833,284 . 177,607,401 .. 79,289 .. 64 104 54

door-

..

1838 ..

ties pie kito

1827 216,924,812 20,716,162
151,752,289

5,372,562 20,930,542 7,165,881 1,338,950 272,448,909 .. 121,629 .. 64

1828

05

29,143,279 ..

1829 .. 157,187,396

7,039,574 32,187,901

28,878,386

5,893,800 1,743,799 227,760,642 .. 101,679

1830 210,885,358

6,049,597

33,092,072

24,857,800 4,640,414 1,153,818 222,767,411.. 99,449

7+

3,428,798

1831 219.333,628 .. 81,695,761

12,481,761 3,429,247 644,216 263,961,452 .. 117,840 63 81

8,460,559 25,805,153 2,401,685 .. 978,067 288,674,853 .. 128,873 6

74

1832 219,756,753 20,109,560 9,163,692 35,178,625 2,040,428 .. 583,467 286,832.525 .. 128,050 63 9

1833 237,506,758 28,463,821 1,020,268 32,755,164 2,084,862 .. 1,825,964. 303,656,837 . . 135,561 .. 81 104

1834 269,203,075 19,291,396 .. 1,681,625 32,920,865 .. 2,293,794.. 1,484,670 .. 326,875,425 . . 145,927 .. 85 117

1835 .. 284,455,812 .. 24,986,409 8,451,630 41,429,011 1,815,270 .. 2,564,831 363,702,963 162,367 101 145 71

1836 .. 289,615,692 .. 27,501,272 8,226,029 75,949,8-15 1,714,337 3,951,882 406,959,057 181,678 93 123

1837 .. 320,651,716 .. 20,940,145 9,326,979 51,532,072 1,595,702 3,240,169. 407,286,783 .. 181,824 7

431,437,888 24,464,505 6,409,466 40,217,734 1,529,356 3,791,628. 507,850,577 226,719 7

5

1839 311.597,798 16,971,979 6,429,671 47,172,939 1,248,164 5,976,008 389,396,559 173,838 73 10

1840 487,856,504 14,779,171 8,324,937 77,011,839 866,157.. 3,649,402 592,488,010 .. 264,504 6

91

1841 358,240,964 .. 16,671,348 9,097,180 97,388,153 1,533,197 .. 5,061,513 487,992,355 .. 217,854 61 8$

1842 414,030,779 15,222,828 4,489,017 92,972,609 593,603 .. 4,441,250 531,750,086 .. 237,388

72 4

1843 .. 574,738,520 .. 18,675,123 9,674,076 65,709,729 1,260,444 3,135,224 673,193,116 .. 300,533

1844 .. 517,218,622 .. 21,084,744 12,406,327 88,639,776 1,707,194 3,054,641 646,111,304 . . 288,443

68

1845 .. 626,650,412 .. 20,157,633 .. 14,614,699 58,437,426 1,394,447 725,336 721,979,953 322,312 43 68

1846 .. 401,949,393 .. 14,746,321 · 14,278,447 34,540,143 1,201,857 .. 1,140,113. 467,856,274 .. 208,864 43 78

1847 364,599,291 19,966,922 4,814,268 83,934,614 793,933 ..

474,707,615 .. 211,923

73 41

1848 600,247,488 19,971,378 7,231,861 84,101,961 640,437 .. 827,036 713,020,161.. 318,313 . 47

37

1849 634,504,050 30,738,133 .. 17,369,843 70,838,515 944,307.. 1,074,164 755,469,012 337,263

3}

1850 493,153,112 30,299,982 18,931,414 118,872,742 228,913 2,090,698 663,576,861 296,239 72

1851 .. 596,638,962 19,339,104 16,950,525 122,626,976 446,529 1,377,653 757,379,749 338,116

4

1852 .. 765,630,544 .. 26,506,144 .. 48,058,640 84,922,432 703,696 3,960,992. 929,782,448 415,081

1853 .. 658,451,796 24,190,628 . . 28,353,575 . . 181,848,160 350,428 .. 2,084,162 .. 895,278,749 399,678

31

1854 .. 722,151,346 19,703,600 .. 23,503,003 .. 119,836,009 409,110.. 1,730,081 887,333,149 .. 396,131

31

1855 .. 681,629,424 .. 24,577,952 .. 32,904,153 . . 143,179,216 468,452 .. 6,992,765 891,751,952 .. 398,104

1836 .. 780,040,016 .. 21,830,704 34,616,848 .. 180,496,624 462,784 .. 6,439,328 1,023,886,304 .. 457,092 6

75

1857 .. 654,758,048 .. 29,910,832 24,882,144 .. 250,338,144 1,443,568 .. 7,986,160 969,318,896 .. 432,732 77

1858 .. 833,237,776 .. 18,617,872 .. 38,248,112 .. 132,722,576 367,808 .. 11,148,032 .. 1,034,342,176 .. 461,760 61 87

1859 .. 961,707,264 .. 22,478,960 .. 38,106,096 192,330,880 592,256 10,773,616 .. 1,223,989,072 .. 547,317 6+ 8 ..44

598,587 ..

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