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on the spot, has thirty arches of 45 feet span, and is 1,782 feet long. This viaduct is described to be as fine a piece of masonry as can be seen in any part of the world, and has been executed by native contractors, chiefly Cutchees. The stations on the line are Kurrachee, Landi, Dorbajee, Joongshaie, Jeempeer and Kotree. Kotree, on the Indus, the port of Hydrabad, and the upper terminus of the railway, is vastly increasing in importance, from its steamers and railway, and from the establishment, by Europeans, of extensive saltpetre and other manufactories. Joongshaie, the mid-station of the line, possesses many local advantages, and is about twenty miles from the ancient town of Tatta, on the Indus. This station is evidently destined to be the nucleus of an active and enterprising community; the future town is being laid out, and building sites allotted. The Parsee and other native traders resident at Tatta have proposed to raise funds for a cheap railway or tram-road from thence to Joongshaie, and a considerable local traffic from the latter to Kurrachee has commenced.
Fully to appreciate the importance of the increase in the trade of the port of Kurrachee, it is necessary to call attention to the rapid and steady increase of the trade from the date of the conquest of Scinde, as shown in the following tabular statements, compiled respectively by the commissioner in Scinde and the Chamber of Commerce at Kurrachee. A direct trade is established between Kurrachee and London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Havre, Marseilles, the Mauritius, Calcutta, Bombay and the Persian Gulf. Table of Imports and Exports of Kurrachee, prepared by the Commissioner in Scinde
for the Government of Bombay.
Total. 1843-44,. £121,150
£122,160 1844-45, 217,700
227,000 1845–46, 312,900
353,400 1846-47, 293,400
342,700 1847-48, 287,872 154,730
442,680 1848-49, 344,715 107,133
451,849 1849-50, 419,352 114,378
633,731 1850–51, 425,831 196,461
622,293 1851-52, 489,220 244,222
733,343 1852-53, 535,690 376,337
800,000 1853–54, 508,793 376,310
885,103 1854–55, 575,196 346,893
922,089 1855–56, 629,813
1,234,253 1856-57, 685,665
1,420,187 1857–58, 1,081,100 1,078,100
2,159,200 1858-59, 1,540,600 1,044,200
SCOTTISH COMMERCE. The advices from Dundee are more cheering, the home demand for linens having improved, and most manufacturers being now fully employed. Some mills which were on short time are now again in full work. Flax is firm, and a considerable business has been done in St. Petersburg and Riga, at higher rates. The shipments of jute from Calcutta, from the 1st of October to the end of May, were 273,100 bales, against 224,400 bales in the corresponding period of 1859–60. The demand for yarns is well maintained, and, altogether, affairs at Dundee
have been looking up of late. There has been rather more inquiry for wools during the past week, but quotations have exhibited little if any change, buyers still continuing cautious in their purchases. The last official returns, published with regard to the Scotch banks of issue, show an average weekly circulation of £4,284,782, being a decrease of £249,027, as compared with the previous month, and an excess of £1,535,511 over the fixed issue. The amount of bullion held by the banks was £2,591,610, being a decrease of £77,141, as compared with the preceding return. The Glasgow Gas Light and City and Suburban Gas ComFo have just declared dividends, at the rate of 10 per cent. per annum. he movement of goods of all kinds, foreign and coastwise, at the port of Glasgow, amounted, in the last twelve months, to 1,366,327 tons, as compared with 1,192,475 tons in the preceding year, showing the gratifying increase of 173,852 tons, and that, too, while commercial affairs have in other quarters exhibited considerable depression.—Times.
A despatch from Her Majesty's Consul at Gallipoli to the Lords of the Committee of the Board of Trade, of which a copy has been transmitted to Lloyd's, announces that a weekly line of steam communication, under the English flag, has been commenced between Constantinople and Tenedos, calling at Rodosti, Gallipoli, and the intermediate villages on the coast of the Dardanelles, returning to Constantinople by the same route, completing the whole voyage in a week. Independently of the facilities given by this new enterprise to local commerce, it has operated in augmenting the export trade from Roumelia to the United Kingdom. In the absence of good roads in the interior, the development of the coasting trade by means of steamers, it is observed, is greatly conducive to the interests of British commerce; to importers of produce by enabling them to lay down the articles in which they trade at a cheaper rate in England; to exporters of manufactures, by facilitating the distribution, and thus augmenting the demand for their goods; to shippers, by facilitating both the export and import trade of Great Britain, and thus creating a greater demand for freights to and from the Turkish coast.
A series of reports received from our Consuls on the trade of foreign countries has been issued by the Board of Trade, with a promise that they shall in future be published more speedily; this may easily be, for the present series relates to the year 1858. The longest report is from Sir R. Schomburg, British Consul at Siam. He states that a rapid development of the commercial resources of Siam has taken place since our treaty, negotiated in 1855, came into operation; but the Siamese government do not as yet appreciate the great advantages of a free commerce, and fear it may be favorable to foreigners and disadvantageous to themselves. Their principal export is of rice to China, and next sugar, of which ten times the present quantity might be produced if there were sufficient labor to be had; but the extraction of the juice of the cane and its manufacture into sugar are carried on without any of the modern improvements for acquiring the largest possible quantity from the cane and a superior quality of sugar. The alluvial districts might produce as fine cotton as the United States, but there is a scarcity of laborers, and it is bulky for transport in canoes down the river. Her Majesty's government included among the presents forwarded to the sovereigns of Siam, a hydraulic press to compress cotton into bales. Coffee grows luxuriantly, and is of a superior description; it might be cultivated to an unlimited extent. A number of woods, the produce of the forests of Siam, may become of importance. The teak wood is considered the strongest and most durable timber of India, or perhaps of the world, only the greenheart of Guiana vying with it; but it had become scarce, and the supply had almost ceased. The takieng might perhaps rival it in size and quality, if examined more closely. Sir R. Schomburg saw, at the building sheds of the first king, a log of this wood, which was being prepared for the construction of a war-canoe, measuring 135 feet, perfectly sound and without a flaw. It possesses the property of being easily bent by artificial means. There are many ornamental woods, the color and suitableness to receive a high polish of which would render them valuable articles of export. A beautiful dye, of a brilliant color, is prepared from the heart of the jack-tree, which might also become of importance. Sir R. Schomburg had seen silk cloth manufactured in Siam, of a green color, with much more lustre than sap green; this green dye, he was told, was extracted from a vegetable substance, procured in the forests of the interior. There is said to be a varnish obtained by incision from a tree, probably the theet, on which neither the sun nor rain has influence, and hence it is employed for securing the gilding of idols; it might be advantageously employed for gilding monuments and ornaments which are exposed to the influence of the atmosphere. The balsamic resins of Siam also deserve attention. The betel nut is extensively cultivated, to be used as a stimulant; and so is hemp, for the sake of its intoxicating and narcotic qualities, it being used in the preparation of “guncha,” which has the same effects as opium; but a considerable quantity of opium, of inferior quality, is produced in the tributary provinces of Siam, on the China border. Elephants abound in the interior of Siam. The hides are sent to China, where, having undergone a process similar to that of gelatine, they are considered a delicacy. The horns of the rhinoceros are said to possess medicinal virtues. The Chinese likewise attach fanciful virtues, medicinal and invigorating, to the bones of tigers and crocodiles, and the hairy-covered young horns of the deer.
The railway companies appear to be endeavoring to provide adequate accommodation for the commerce arising out of the Anglo-French treaty. Already the South-Eastern Company and their allies, the administrators of the Chemin de Fer du Nord of France, have made arrangements for an expansion of their system of through traffic by passenger-train and grande vitesse organized since the treaty. Further facilities are about to be introduced, which will initiate almost a new era in the transport of parcels and merchandise between the two countries. The through rates have been reduced and simplified. They show the charge either in kilogrammes or pounds, and include all the numerous imposts that, in the absence of such a system, have hitherto been found especially vexatious. For all weights over 200 lbs., there will be a uniform rate per 20 lbs., without any limit to the weight of consignments. One item may be quoted from the scale as illustrating the cheapness at which commodities may be conveyed between the two capitals, namely: for an ordinary parcel of 2 lbs., 1s. 4d., all charges included where no duty or entry. The French customs authorities have consented to permit the landing or shipping of the goods immediately on the arrival of the boat or train, without any detention at the port, the examination and other custom-house formalities being performed in Paris. This concession is the more important, as the boats must necessarily perform the voyage at night, so as to save time and allow until the afternoon of each day for the despatch of parcels from either metropolis, and it obviates the necessity for the detention which would otherwise arise to the traffic in awaiting customs' hours at the port. It may be hoped that the English customs will follow the example and extend a similar permission, which they have long since given as regards registered baggage, and in a modified form for small parcels, and thus enable the railways to afford the public still greater ra
idity of transit, the most important element in continental traffic. As it is, consignments delivered at London-bridge station in the afternoon will reach their destination in Paris on the following day, and, vice versa, thus completing the transport in twenty-four hours. The new arrangement has taken effect.
Announcement is made in the San Francisco papers that the steamship PANAMA would leave that port, May 1st, for San Blas, Mazatlan and Guaymas, touching at Cape St. Lucas. It is expected she will afterwards ply regularly between those ports, carrying specie, freight and passengers, and connecting regularly once a month with the Pacific Mail Company's steamers at Manzanillo or Acapulco. This arrangement will prove of immense advantage to the present and future trade of San Francisco with Mexico, and will also be of great service to the foreign merchants established there, as the want of a regular mail and specie carrying service has long been seriously felt. The Alta says:
“We hope every encouragement will be extended to this enterprise by our merchants engaged in the Mexican trade; and we know, that as soon as the steamer has made a few monthly trips, in accordance with the programme, such confidence will be felt in the arrangement as will not only insure the liberal patronage of the Mexican government and people, but will undoubtedly prove this new steamship line a most profitable one to the enterprising proprietors.”
The commercial treaty lately concluded between the French government and the Porte is to be valid for 28 years, with power to the con
tracting parties to propose modifications at the end of 14 and 21 years. The existing customs' tariff is to endure for seven years only from the 1st of October next. This treaty confirms all the rights, privileges and immunities previously accorded to France. Foreign merchandise destined for Servia, Moldavia and Wallachia, is to pay customs duties only on entering the Principalities, and French houses exporting the produce of the Principalities will pay the customs' duties into the hands of the Moldo-Wallachian or Servian administration. No duty is to be paid on merchandise passing through the Straits, even should it be temporarily landed on the Turkish territory. The duty charged on merchandise imo into Turkey for the purpose of being sent to other countries, has een reduced to 2 per cent., and will be further lowered to 1 per cent. in eight years. French subjects are not permitted to import tobacco and salt into Turkey except on payment of the same duties as the Turks pay. Tobacco and salt, the produce of Turkey, are not to be subject to the payment of duty on being exported. French subjects are not permitted to import firearms, gunpowder or warlike stores, but fowling-pieces, pistols and arms for ornament are not included in the prohibition.
The quantities entered for home consumption for the first five months of this year, compared with the corresponding period of the two previous years, are as follows: 1859, 266,965 gallons; 1860, 535,995 gallons; 1861, 1,129,775 gallons; showing an increase over 1859 of 862,810 gallons, or 18,756 hlids.; and over 1860, of 593,780 gallons, or 12,908 hhds. Such an increase is wholly unprecedented, thanks to the commercial treaty and the reduction of the duty. The greatly reduced prices have, no doubt, greatly contributed to this result, and will go far to verify the predictions of the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
THE PERSIAN AMBASSADOR ON COTTON FROM PERSIAN ARABIA.
The following is a translation of a letter addressed to the President of the Royal Asiatic Society, by MIRzA JAFER KHAN, ambassador from His Majesty the Shah of Persia to the Court of St. James:
“From the circumstance that this well-wisher passed the springtime of his life in this island, and received at that time numerous marks of friendship and kindness, from great and small, among the natives of this country, he has, therefore, always been animated with a desire for the welfare and advantage of the British nation. At this present moment, by reason of the events occurring in the United States of America, a great deal of anxiety and discussion is to be observed as prevailing among the owners of cotton mills. Some have recommended Zanguebar or Australia—others, again, India and various places—as most fit for the cultivation of that most useful product; but this well-wisher takes the present opportunity to demonstrate his friendly feelings, by suggesting to the president of the Royal Asiatic Society that the province of Khuristan, now known by the name of Persia Arabia, is, from the circumstances of its vicinity to the sea, the fertility of its soil, the number of rivers—as, for instance, the Kerkha, the Karan, (Karun,) the Jarrahi,