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Behbehan—better adapted than the aforenamed countries—that is to say, in fact, the very best place for the cultivation of cotton. From the foot of the mountain ranges of Luristan, Arabistan and Behbehan, as far as the shores of the Persian Gulf and of the Shattee-'l-'Arab, extends a vast country, the greater part of which is capable of being cultivated so as to produce any required quantity of cotton, sugar, opium or indigo. Even as things are at present, and in spite of the want of capital and of special knowledge among the people of those }. a portion of the lands in question are cultivated near Shuster,

izful and Fellahigga. It is related by the Arabian historians that, at the time when the dyke of the Karun, near Aliwak, formed a source of prosperity to the environs, it was customary to place on the dinner table of the Caliph at Bagdad, every evening, a tray of bread, with a thousand pieces of gold, as derived from the revenue of that district. For this reason the district received the appellation of ‘Selletu-'l-Khubz, i. e., “bread-basket.' Besides this, the ancient name of that region in the old Persian language is Khuzistan, and ‘Khuz' means ‘sugar.’ By reason of its producing immense quantities of that product, the country became known as Khuzistan, i. e., “Sugarland;’ and it is evident that the manufacturers of England may easily and speedily obtain from those regions any desired quantity of good and beautiful cotton. Many English travellers have visited those parts, and viewed them from one extremity to another, and have become well acquainted with its circumstances. From them, too, the truth may be learned. In short, should the ideas above set forth meet your approbation, the best thing to do would be to transmit a notice to the cotton-manufacturing firms, in order that they may appoint an agent with whom the necessary stipulations on both sides may be discussed, and a definitive understanding come to in the matter.”

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We are indebted to the monthly circular of Mr. H. E. MöRING, NewYork, for the annexed particulars:

Imports of Foreign and Domestic Sugars, from January 1st to August 31st, and from September 1st to December 31st.

TotAll of THE Four Ports.
M. York, Boston, Phila., Balt., 2––.

Months. 1861, 1861, 1861. 1861. 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861. January,................. tons, 7,160 2,042 382 293 11,703 13,141 8,833 9,877 February................ “ 13,425 4,244 1,391 1,114 18,498 20,247 18,497 20,174

March.................... -- 30.241 4,106 3,467 8,619 32.894 38.277 81,167 41,433 April. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 29,918 3,341 8,462 2,744 37,239 48,632 47,727 39,457 May. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 43,074 5,976 5,439 1,163 36,038 42,961 52,031 55,652 June, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 23,436 2,096 2,520 870 36,661 43,409 45,661 28,922 July... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ** 16,252 2,833 826 40S 29,859 32,646 52,262 2S,319 August,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ** 12.250 1,344 1,288 245 82,545 18,820 40,232 15,127 Total in 8 months, ..... “ 175,748 25,982 18,775 10,456 235,437 258,133 296,410 230,961 September, ** - - - - - - - - - - - - .... 15,711 9,642 27,915 -October, ....... ... - - - - - - - - - - - - .... 10,903 7,836 19.149 November, ** ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - 8,011 8,076 12,110 December, 44 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11,002 11,742 S.S79

Total in 12 months,.... “ .... .... .... .... 281,064 295,429 364,463

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Stock of Sugar at the Four Principal Ports of the United States of America, on the

1st September, 1861.

TOTAL Tons.

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Stock in

1858.
1859.
1860.

1861. New-York,

82,248
56,291
78,055

46.900 Boston,

6,755
9,187
14,541

11,451 Philadelphia,

4,449
7,491
5,458

1,850 Baltimore,...

8,297
5,370
11,052

3,326 Total, 1st September,..

46,749
78,259
109,106

63,557 1st August,

27,983
86,907
95,050

82,076 Decrease,..

8,618

18,519 Increase, 18,766

14,056 Imports, Stocks and Distribution of Sugar in the Four Principal Ports of the United

States. Imports up to 318t of August.

1858. 1859. 1860. 1861. Average. New-York,

tons, 165,659 .. 183,247 204,886 .. 175,748 182,384 Boston, .

28,351 28,012 88,458 25,982 80,201 Philadelphia,

21,897 28,140 26,710 18,775 23,880 Baltimore,

19,535 18,784 26,856 10,456 18,770 Total,...

235,437 258,183 296,410 230,961 255,235 Stock, January 1st,..

18,103 15,333 24,140 56,894 28,498 Total Supply in eight months,... 253,540 278,466 820,550 287,355

283,728 Deduct Stock, September 1st, .

46,749 78,289 109,106 63,557 74,425 Distribution in eight months,..

206,791 195,177 211,444

223,798 209,808 Monthly Average,...

25,849 24,397 26,481 27,975 26,163 Stocks, Receipts and Distribution of Sugar in the Six Principal Markets of Europe,

up to 1st August. Stock, 18t August.

1858. 1859. 1860. 1861. Average. Holland,

tons, 15,250 10,000

5,500 19,250 12,500 Antwerp,

1,600 2,400 600 2,950 1,888 Hamburg,..

1,500 3,500 4,500 6,500 4,000 Trieste,

3,150 6,150

2,450

2,050 8,450 Havre,...

1,000 7,100 6,150 6,600 5,212 Great Britain,

100,050 80,600 118,300 129,300 107,062 Total, August 1st,.

122,550 109,750 187,500 166,650 184,112 July 1st,....

127,400 .. 118,150 155,950 149,950 136,611 Receipts and Deliveries of Sugar in Six European Markets.

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1860.

1861. Total Stock, January 1st,

tons, 125,250

90,850 " Receipts up to August 1st, .

379,150

460,500 Total Supply for seven months,..

504,400

661,850 Deduct Stock, August 1st,.

137,500

166,650 Distribution in seven months,..

866,900

384,700 in July,

72,800

71,550 Receipts

64,850

88,250
IMPORTS OF COFFEE, FOUR YEARS.
Year
Year
Year

Smos.,
1858.
1859.
1860.

1861. New-York,

tons, 41,501

41,630
32,648

87,120 Boston,..

8,339
6,835
4,147

2,929 Philadelphia,

10,310
12,907
6,699

6,065 Baltimore,

14,498
16,837
12,581

8,236 New-Orleans,..

23,874
26,061

20,442 Total,...

98,522
104,270
76,517

63,970

9,620

Stock of Coffee at the Five Principal Ports of the United States of America, on the

1st of September, 1861.

Stock in 1858. 1859. 1860.
New-York, .................... tons, 4,755 ... . . 6,888 - - - - 1,982
Boston,................ - - - - - - - - - wo 926 - - - - 1,587 - - - - 213
Philadelphia,.. . “ 774 - - - - 312 - - - - 674
Baltimore, ..................... ** 1,070 - - - - 1,956 - - - - 1,072
New-Orleans,................... “ 2,500 - - - - 714 - - - - 429
Total, 1st September, ........ . “ 10,025 - - - - 11,457 - - - - 4,370
“ 1st August,............ 44 6,051 - - - - 11,545 - - - - 8,033
Decrease,.................... 44 - - - - ---- 88 - - - -
Increase,..................... ** 3,974 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1,337
Total on hand, 1st September, 1861.
Brazil,.................................. bags, 160 lbs., ........
St. Domingo............................. 44 130 “ ........
Laguayra,............................... 44 110 “
Maracaibo,.. * 120 “
44 150 44
** 120 {{
Jamaica,. 150 “
Ceylon,........................ --
Java... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bags, 130 “ - - - - - - -
Singapore................................ mats, 60 “ - - - - - - -

1861.

10,850

1,378

526 .... 1,043 86

.... 13,883 14,211

- - - 328

Imports, Stocks and Distribution of Coffee in the Five Principal Ports of the United States.

Imports up to 31st of August. 1858. 1859. 1860. 1861. Average. New-York,.................... -- - - - - - tons, 27,903 .. 80,901 .. 20,082 37,120 .. 29,002 Boston............................... $4. 4,476 .. 5,288 .. 8,219 2,929 .. 8,978 Philadelphia, . ........... “ 6,620 ... 9,133 .. 4,379 6,065 .. 6,549 Baltimore...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *4. 8,714 ... 10,737 .. 7,215 8,236 .. 8,725 New-Orleans,......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - “ 12,234 ... 16,984 ... 11,2S2 9,620 ... 12,530 Total,................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - “ 59,947 .. 73,043 . 46,177 63,970 .. 60,784 Stock, January 1st, .................. “. 22,740 .. 8,910 ... 18,595 9,149 ... 13,598 Total Supply in eight months, ...... “ 82,687 .. 81,958 .. 59,772 73,119 .. 74,382 Deduct Stock, September 1st, ...... “ 10,025 ... 11,457 .. 4,870 18,883 ... 9,934 Distribution in eight months, ........ “ 72,662 .. 70,496 .. 55,402 59,236 .. 64,448 ** Monthly Average,....... “ 9,083 .. 8,812 .. 6,925 7,405 ... 8,056

Stocks, Receipts and Distribution of Coffee in the Sir Principal Mar up to the 1st August.

Stock, 1st August. 1858. 1859. 1860, Holland, ............................ tons, 46,400 .. 40,350 .. 81,400 Antwerp............................. “ 4,300 .. 2,750 .. 2,700 .. Hamburg,........................... “ 10,500 .. 6,500 .. 6,500 ..

kets of Europe,

1861. Average.

... 23,050 .. 85,300

8,800 .. 8,387 11,000 .. 8,625

Trieste,.... ... “ 3,600 ... 2,050 ... 2,500 4,050 ... 3,050 Havre, .............................. “ 3,900 .. 4,750 .. 6,150 .. 8,600 .. 5,850 Great Britain, ....................... “ 10,700 .. 7,800 .. 7,750 .. 7,100 .. 8,337 Total, August 1st, ................. “ 79,400 .. 64,200 .. 57,000 .. 57,600 .. 64,549 “ July 1st,.................... “ 81,600 .. 59,150 .. 50,500 .. 52,550 .. 62,449 Receipts and Deliveries of Coffee in Sir Markets of Europe. 1860. Total Stock, January 1st, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tons, 52,250 - - 45,100 “ Receipts up to August 1st, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 111,900 -- 124,850 Total Supply for seven months, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 164,05 -- 169,950 Deduct Stock, August 1st, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 57,000 - - 57,600 Distribution in seven months,..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 107.050 - - - - 112.350 w in July,......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ** 13,250 .... 12,650 Receipts “ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - “ 13,750 .. 17,700

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JOURNAL OF INSURANCE.

I. STATISTICS OF FIRE INSURANCE IN New-York. II. LONDON FIRE INSURANCE. III. FIRE

PROOF WAREHOUSES.

STATISTICS OF FIRE INSURANCE IN NEW-YORK.

Number of fires in New-York, 1854—1860. Amount insured on property damaged and lost by fire. Amount paid for loss and damage by fire.

Amount paid No. of Fires.

Amount insured. for lo88 and damage. 344 $ 3,140,930

$941,147 1856,

315
4,011,843

1,267,812 1857,

336
4,056,092

732,014 1858,

302
2,948,485

632,103 1859,

310
2,643,795

1,100,290 1860,

397
5,416,700

1,390,894

1855,..

2,004
$ 22,217,845

$6,064,260 Average of six years, 334

3,702,974

1,010,710 With the exception of the year 1860, during which the number of fires was excessive, the return shows the normal regularity which the result of similar statistics in the Old World naturally led us to expect. The average number of fires per annum, as shown in the above table, is 334, from which 1860 differs by an excess of 63. The average in the years 1855—1859 is 321, and the greatest variation in any one year is reduced from over 15 per cent. to less than 7 per cent.

Column II. exhibits the amount reported as insured on the property damaged or destroyed by the fires. Taking the years from June, 1854, to May, 1860, as a basis, the amount paid is to the amount insured on the property as 27.96 : 100.

There are many interesting deductions which might be made from this table, though until much more detailed records are preserved, it will be impossible to reduce fire insurance to a mathematical basis similar to that which is now the groundwork of life insurance. The Fire Marshal is doing much, but his labors are not so valuable as they would be were the companies to publish a detailed report of the risks and losses of their respective business.

A rough estimate may be made of the amount of property insured in this city by assuming the amount of premiums on risks“ up town" and “ down town” as the total premium received for insurance in New-York. This was stated in Mr. Birney's “ Assessment Report for account of Fire Patrol," as follows: 1859,...

$ 2,196,367 1860,...

2,142,500 If we assume the average rate per cent. of all the companies and for all hazards to be 40 cents, then the total amount of property insured in this will beIn 1859,..

$649,091,750 In 1860,..

635,625,000

The assumption here is necessarily wide of the truth, because the two districts do not embrace all the property insured in the city, and the supposed rate per cent. is quite as likely to be in error as is the valuation of the property. On the basis of these figures the amount paid for loss is to the total amount insured in the city as 2003836: 100. It need not be explained that the more numerous the risks the less is the hazard. If all the property in the world were insured in one office, and if fire insurance were founded on even as correct statistics as life insurance, there would be but little chance of pecuniary loss, as the aggregate premiums would be equal to the aggregate loss. The only reason for the rejection of what are denominated special hazards is the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient number; and an office which taking but a few might be unfortunate, would be perfectly safe in assuming a large number. The smallness of loss compared with the amount at risk, as shown by the preceding tables, does not lead men of comparatively small capital to the conclusion that they might safely insure themselves because they feel that what might be a small loss to a company would be a serious one to them. Suppose A. and B. engage in a game of chance, and commence each with a capital of $100,000. If they bet equal but small amounts, the game is as even as such a game can be. But if we suppose that A. has a capital of $100,000, when B. has but $1,000, it will be obvious on a moment's thought that it is impossible for them to play an even game. Let the stakes be for $500 each. If A. wins, he increases his capital but by one-half of one per cent, but B.'s loss is fifty per cent. of all he has. In another view it will be seen to be impossible for any game of chance to be even. If two persons, starting each with equal amounts, bet all they have, the winner doubles his capital, but the loser loses everything, and there is no manner of proportion between all and nothing. That only should be put at risk the loss of which would not be ruinous, or better still, not inconvenient. This last is what the payers of the two millions per annum to the insurance companies of this city do. They stake a small premium against the security of their property. If no fire occurs, they lose the premium ; if a fire do occur, they win the amount for which they are insured. The reason why the companies can afford to give such odds is, that they are—if I may use the term—betting with a sufficiently large number to get an average. It is an obvious conclusion from this that the larger the business of a company is, and the more extended the field in which it operates, the greater will be the security which it offers. A large conflagration in this city might be ruinous to a company which had confined its business, or a large portion of its business, to the district in which the fire occurred; while another company, which had taken a larger field, might lose an equal amount with no damaging effect to its security and prosperity. The amount of insurable property in the world not being unlimited, it follows in theory that the fewer companies there are, the lower might be the premiums. And on the contrary, that the more companies there are, the higher the premium would have to be ; because, whatever the description of goods, it would be specially hazardous for any company to take but one risk. Almost no premium would be equitable in that case, but the same property might be insured for a trifle if the company, instead of having but one, had a large number. WOL. XLV.-NO, IV. 27

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