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contracted with GEORGE B. Phelps, of Watertown, to build the branch from the Forest House to Ogdensburg. This branch, so called, is nineteen miles long, and will form, in connection with the present line, railway communication from Rome to Ogdensburg, connecting at the former place with the New-York Central, and at the latter, by a ferry across the St. Lawrence, with the Grand Trunk and the Prescott and Altona RailRoad. It is said that this will shorten the distance by rail, between Ogdensburg and Albany and New-York, thirty-seven miles.

FRENCH RAIL-ROADS.

The network of rail-roads in France measures at the present time 8,100 kilometres, (the kilometre being about 1,093 yards, the aggregate length may be set down at 5,030 miles) over which travel 6,000 cars; are able to convey at the same time 150,000 travellers; and 42,000 baggage cars are capable of containing 336,000 tons of merchandise, or the cargo of seventy ships of the line. The motive power applied to these roads comprises 2,700 locomotives, of 800,000 horse-power, weighing, with their tenders, 122,000 tons, and cost 189,000,000 francs, about $37,000,000. Their total annual travel is about 43,000,000 kilometres, of 1,093 yards each. The consumption of fuel, corresponding to that travel, equals about 336,000 cubic metres, and that of the water reduced to steam, 3,500,000,000 of litres. _(The litre equal to 114 gallons.)

The Great Northern Railway of France is 967 kilometres (about 600 miles) in length; owns 456 locomotives and 10,783 cars of all kinds. In 1860 it carried 7,745,000 passengers and 3,890,000 tons of freight. Its receipts were, the same year, 60,607,000 francs, (about $12,000,000.) The following table, showing its receipts from 1851 to 1860 inclusive, shows the wonderfully productive capacity of the railway for developing business : YEAR.

Passengers.
Tons merchandise.

Receipts. 1851, 3,098,000

584,000

$ 5,020,000 1852, 4,259,000

799,000

5,720,000 1853, 4,741,000 1,177,000

6,640,000 1854, 5,071,000 1,622,000

7,700,000 1855,. 6,550,000 2,050,000

9,580,000 1856, 5,554,000 2,152,000

9,460,000 1857,. 6,166,000 2,578,000

10,060,000 1858,. 6,648,000 3,158,000

10,840,000 7,356,000 3,486,000

11,340,000 1860, 7,775,000 3,890,000

12,120,000 In stating the receipts in dollars we have calculated five francs to the dollar-near enough for a rough statement. Up to 1854 this road was only 710 kilometres in length. Of the sixty millions francs received in 1860, about twenty-seven millions was received from what is denominated fast trains, viz., passenger, baggage, etc.; the balance from slow trains, or merchandise. The carnings per kilometre in 1860 were 62,675 francs, against 59,930 in 1859. Of the 3,890,000 tons of merchandise carried in 1860, full one-half was coal-coal carrying being the specialty of this road. The dividends paid in 1860 amounted to 13 per cent. Only one railway in France paid larger dividends ; the Orleans having paid twenty per cent. The market value of the different French railways is about as

1859,.

follows, calculating the par at 100: Great Northern, 196 ; Orleans, 282; Paris and Lyons, 200; Strasburg, 117; Southern, 122; Eastern, 117; Bordeaux, 121. The other French securities also stand very high in the market: Bank of France, 290 ; Credit Foncier, about 250; Credit Mobilier, 146; Credit Industriel, 112.

ENGLISH RAILWAY DIVIDENDS. The following table of the dividends declared in 1855, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1859 and 1860, together with the balances remaining over from the last half-year, (after payment of dividend,) we copy from the London Money Market Review for August, 1861:

RATE PER CENT. PER ANNUM OF DIVIDEND DECLARED.

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44

4%

8% 4

4% 5

5% 6

1855. 1856. 1857. 1858. 1859. 1860. COMPANY.

Balance 18t 2d 18t 2d 18t 2d 18t 2d 18t 2d 18t 2d from x2

% % % % % % % % % % last half

yr. yr. yr. yr. yr. yr. yr. yr. yr. yr. yr. yr. year. Bristol and Exeter,..

4%
5 5 5 5

5% 6

6 5% £ 2,991 Caledonian,

8
2 1 8% 3% 5 8% 4 8% 5

4% 5% 10,596 Eastern Counties,

2% 24 1 2% 2% 3% 2% 3% 2% 3% 2% 2% 5,620 Edinburgh and Glasgow,.... 2 2 2

2% 3

8% 8 84 8% 4 4 4% 2,259 Glasgow and South Western, 8%

4 5 5 4% 4% 4% 5 5 54 5% 5,174 Great Northern,

24 6 8% nil. 3-5 5 21-40 8% 6% 8% 7 4% 6% 966 Great Southern and Western, 5 5 6 6 5 5 5 5

5 5,900 Great Western,......

2 2%

2% 3
1 2 nil, 2% 2

8% 18,001 Lancaster and Carlisle,.....

7%

7% 8 8 9 9 9 9 9% 9% 9% Lancashire and Yorkshire,... 4

4% 5
5

22,008 London and North Western,. 4%

6 5 5 3% 4% 4% 5% 5 5% 27,561 London and Brighton,....... 41-5 5 4-5 5 7 7 6 7 7 5 7 5,076 London and South Western,. 4% 5% 5% 6% 4% 54 44 5% 4% 54 4% 5% 1,792 Manchester, Sheff. and Linc., nil. % * 1 1 1 nil. nil. 2-5 1 1 1% 1,103 Midland,

8%

8% 4% 4% 5 4% 5% 5% 6 6% 7 3,726 North British, nil. nil. 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 3 3 8

1,005 North East.—“Berwick,".... 8%

5 44 4% 4% 54 54 5% 4,246 Do. “Leeds,".

2 2%3 1% 2% 1% 2% 274 3

1,748 Do. “ York,"

34

2% 8% 4 4 8 3% 4% 4% 5 2,826 North London,

4% 5
4% 4% 5 5 5

5% 5

5% 550 North Staffordshire, nil. 4 3% 3% 4 4 2

4 8,859 Scottish Central,

5

5 5 5% 3% 5% 5% 54 5 5% 5% 5% 15,956 South Eastern,

54

84

2% 3

2 17-20 4.8.4 8.8.4 5 8

433
8 5

6
4% 6

2,055 South Wales,

8
8
3% 4

8% 8% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2 3 2,410

BRITISH AND IRISH MAGNETIC TELGRAPH. The report of the directors stated that the gross income of the year 1860 amounted to nearly £90,000, against £74,000 in 1859, £73,000 in 1858, and £71,200 in 1857, the year when the two companies were amalgamated. This large increase was not derived from any one particular source, but partly from the extensions of 1859, and from a general growing use of the telegraph by the public. The net increase, compared with 1859, amounted to £6,600, and after paying the 7 per cent. preference dividend, the interest on the debentures, and a dividend at the rate of 5 per cent. per annum for the last half-year on the ordinary stock, there remained £2,000. The balance-sheet showed that £756,623 had been expended on capital account.

TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION WITH SIBERIA.

The St. Petersburg Gazette publishes the following article :-" The plan for establishing a telegraphic line connecting Europe, through Siberia, with the Pacific Ocean has, during four years, had time to take shape and form, so that at the commencement of the present year the supreme sanction was given to the project for constructing a telegraphic line in the countries bordering on the Amoor and the Oussouri, from Nikolaiewsk by Khabarovka to the port of Novgorod, (1,900 versts,) the most important point of the possessions recently annexed to Russia on the sea of Japan. "The establishment of this line is undertaken by the Ministry of Marine, at its cost and under its direction; and at the same time the superior direction of the means of communication (Board of Works) has commenced the construction of a line starting from Kasan in the direction of Siberia, which proposes opening, at the end of the present year, a telegraphic communication from Kasan to Omsk, (1,900 versts,) and to continue it afterwards to Irkutsk, a distance of 2,475 versts from Omsk. Thus, probably, within two or three years on the one side there will be a telegraphic communication between Europe and Asia to Irkutsk, and, on the other hand, our new colonies on the Amoor and Oussouri will be connected with each other and with our principal ports on the Japanese waters. Thus, of the extent of 10,000 versts which the Siberian telegraph will embrace, there only remains the central portion, that of Irkutsk by Kiakhta to Khabarovka, about 3,500 versts, where as yet nothing has been settled ; but it is beyond a doubt that as soon as the works actually projected shall have been successfully completed, this intermediate line will be constructed; and thus within four or five years at the least the gigantic project of a telegraphic communication from Europe to the distant lands on the shores of the Pacific Ocean will be realized."

RAIL-ROAD TELEGRAPH LINES. The use of the telegraph by rail-road companies has proved of vast advantage in many respects, of which the one most readily perceived by the public, is the decrease of liability to accidents by collision. There are several of the long lines of rail-road that have built telegraph lines exclusively for their own use. Besides the principal office, operators are stationed at short intermediate distances, say ten or twelve miles. Every operator reports direct to headquarters as each train passes his station, and the clicking needle at the main office is thus constantly employed. The manager at headquarters is thus repeatedly "posted” as to the progress of each train. He has almost, literally, the movements of the trains before his eyes. If a crevasse or a land slide occurs, or a bridge is burned or carried away, or any other accident occurs, he can immediately provide a remedy. This vigilance is indeed expensive, but it is true economy.

A captain, lately a rail-road conductor, was drilling a squad, and while marching them by flank, turned to speak to a friend for a moment. On looking again towards his squad, he saw they were in the act of " butting up” against a fence. In his hurry to halt them, he cried out-Down brakes ! down brakes! VOL. XLV.-NO. IV.

28

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW.

The month of September is marked by a favorable change in the business affairs at and near New-York. The heavy outlay of government funds, amounting to millions of dollars, has given an impetus to manufactures in New-England and New-York. The advices as to the English and the Continental grain harvests are such as to sustain the active shipments from this port. There are buyers of fall goods in our market from the West, giving some little activity to foreign and domestic dry goods. The imports at this port during the last month are about one-third as large as for the corresponding month in either of the last two years, showing a decline almost if not entirely without precedent at this season of the year. The receipts of specie and bullion have been smaller than for any previous month of the current year. The withdrawals from warehouse are somewhat large in proportion to the imports, showing, together with the imports, $11,500,000 for the month, and $156,295,000 for the eight months ending 1st inst. We annex our usual summary of comparative imports for four years :

FOREIGN IMPORTS AT NEW-YORK IN AUGUST.
ENTERED.

1858.
1859.
1860.

1861. For consumption,.. $ 15,067,732 .. $18,416,207 . $19,564,675 . $3,359,695 For warehousing,.. 2,146,021 2,964,044 4,182,764 2,660,457 Free goods,... 2,342,741 2,920,921 2,050,665 1,816,224 Specie and bullion, 67,682 . 348,419.. 140,750.. 1,049,552

Total entered,... $19,624,176 .. $ 24,649,591 .. $ 25,938,854 $8,885,928 Withdrawn,..... 3,116,013. 3,296,084. 3,320,105 . 2,614,652 The business for eight months has been as follows:

FOREIGN IMPORTS AT NEW-YORK FOR Eight MonthS, FROM JANUARY 1st.
ENTERED.

1858.
1859.
1860.

1861, For consumption,.. $65,401,911 .. $131,927,230 .. $ 118,270,269 $38,551,615 For warehousing, .. 17,331,440 26,173,802 29,560,141 33,102,133 Free goods,... 15,298,266 21,350,052 19,816,231 22,074,189 Specie and bullion, 1,882,940 .. 1,649,501

891,938 .. 33,955,718

Total entered,... $99,914,557 .. $ 181,100,585 .. $168,538,579 $ 127,683,655 Withdrawn,... 28,102,515 .. 17,406,868 .. 21,254,755 28,611,202

The chief feature of the month, after the successful taking of the new loan by capitalists of interior towns, has been the enormous foreign export of corn, amounting to over two millions three hundred thousand bushels, valued at $1,122,000. The export of flour has also been heavier than for any one month in the year, the aggregate export of wheat, flour and corn being, for the month, $4,923,995, and for the cereal year ending 1st inst., $48,476,691, viz. :

MONTH OF AUGUst, 1861.
Value.

Value. Flour,

297,243 bbls., $ 1,411,904 .. 2,728,012 bbls., $ 14,727,234 Wheat, 2,389,645 bush., 2,389,645 .. 23,859,147 bush., 28,059,226 Corn,. 2,338,429 1,122,446 .. 9,268,729

5,690,231

YEAR 1860–61.

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The total operations for each month of the past year are represented in the following tabular statement, the average prices being for those qualities usually embraced in our foreign export trade : FOREIGN EXPORTS OF Flour, WHEAT AND Corn, FOR THE YEAR ENDING August 31,

1861, FROM THE PORT OF NEW-YORK.

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..

Average Total

Average Total

Average Total price. value.

price. value.

price. value. Sept., 1860,.. 251,688 $5 88 $ 1,472,374 2,228,924 $1 30 $ 2,897,601 189,726 68 c. $ 128,014 Oct.,

270,892 5 78 1,557,629 2,600,226 1 22 8,172,275 260,098 66 171,665 Nov.,

228,678 5 70 1,803,465 2,472,162 1 28 8,164,867 599,581 70 419,672 Dec.,

187,565 5 25 984,716 2,027,145 1 15 2,331,217 851,870 66 511,122 Jan., 1861,.. 168,959 5 70 963,066 832,169 1 26 1,048,588 613,261 72 441,548 Feb.,

186,868 6 60 1,046,461 1,060,995 1 26 1,886,853 603,781 70 422,626 March, 171,589 5 50 943,464 972,688 1 25 1,215, 860 789,664 68 536,971 April,

211,140 5 60 1,182,384 999,843 1 28 1,279,799 1,057,004 70 789,908 May,

200,008 5 50 1,100,004 1,729,108 1 25 2,161,885 799,151 68 543,428 June,

271,593 5 50 1,493,761 3,577,243 1 20 4,292,692 768,968 57 438,312 July,

281,779 4 50 1,268,006 2,968,999 1 00 2,968,999 897,276 54 214,529 Aug.,

297,243 4 75 1,411,904 2,889,645 1 00 2,389, 645 2,338,429 48 1,122,446 12 months,..2,728,012 $ 14,727,234 23,859,147 $ 28,259,226 9,268, 729 $ 5,690,231

If our computation is correct, the average value of four exported, per barrel, has been, for the past year, about $5 40; for wheat, per bushel, $1 18; and for corn, 61 cents. The export from this port alone being in excess of forty-eight millions of dollars, and likewise in excess of the aggregate export of breadstuffs and provisions from the whole United States for either of the past two years, and largely in excess of breadstuffs export from the country for three years past. We recur to the summary published in our September number, page 268, showing the total export of breadstuffs and provisions from the United States, viz. : Export value of

Export value of Aggregate of Breadstuffs.

Provisions. Breadstuffs and Prov. 1857, $ 55,624,832 $ 19,043,020

$ 74,667,852 1858, 33,698,490 16,984,795

50,683,285 24,893,413 13,412,578

38,305,991 1860, 27,590,298 17,681,552

45,271,850 We now annex a tabular statement of provisions exported from this and other ports for 1861, compared with the year ending September 1, 1860: FOREIGN EXPORTS OF PROVISIONS FROM UNITED States Ports, Endut Months,

1860 AND 1861.

Other Other Liverpool. London, English foreign Totals, Totale, porte. porta.

1860. Beef,..

.tierces, 17,533 13,153 2,362 395 33,443 57,916 ..bbls., 1,699 3,191

156 23,054 28,098 46,492 Pork, .tierces, 32 1,076

55 1,163 2,340 .bbls., 7,811

6,499 1,083 86,238 101,631 92,459 Hams and bacon,....cwt., 312,707 83,528 26,261 33,302 455,798 193,080 Lard,

225,641 17,725 92,768 161,989 498,123 240,588 Butter,

57,994 4,594 12,550 31,519 106,657 85,483 Cheese,..

144,436 8,106 11,981 12,916 177,439 138,323 The following table will show

the aggregate value of the above shipments for the past two years. These figures are according to the average

1859,

1861.

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