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6. The British Quarterly Reviews.

We suggest to our readers that the present time is favorable to subscribe to these Valuable and interesting works, re-published by Messrs. LEONARD SCOTT & Co., NewYork. The articles which appear in these various reviews, in relation to American affairs, are all worthy of attentive perusal, since they give, from different points of view, the opinions of intelligent Englishmen, belonging to various parties, (conservative, whig, free-church, liberal and tory,) on our disturbances. Blackwood," for July, contains ten articles, all of which are marked with those traits of power and brilliancy for which Maga has long since become distinguished.

The Edinburgh Review, for July, contains articles on-lst. Popular Education. 2. ALBERT Duror. 3. Carthage and her Remains. 4. The Novels of FERNAN CABALLERO. 5. Watson's Life of Porson, the Greek Scholar. 6. The Countess of Albany, the last of the Stuarts and ALFIERI. 7. BUCKLE’s History of Civilization. 8. Travels of M. CHAILLU. 9. Church Reform in Italy. 10. Count CAVOUR. Mr. BUCKLE, according to the critic, "is not a writer who gains upon us by a further acquaintance with his works. He relies too much upon a well-stored common place book and a rapacious literary appetite.” Of M. Du Chaillu the critic says: "We should be glad of a little more of that precise and simple evidence which distinguishes reality from romance.”

7. The Westminster Review, for July, is the 139th number, or the thirty-fifth year of its existence. The subjects are-1. SCHLEIERMACHER, the Philo of modern times. 2. The Salmon Fisheries of England. 3. The critical writings of H. TAINE. 4. Considerations on Representative Government. 6. The Countess of Albany-ALFIERI. 6. Africa, by M. CHAILLU. 7. BUCKLE’s Civilization. 8. Christian Creeds and their Defenders. 9. Contemporary Literature.

“The Westminster” maintains that “Mr. BUCKLE has many great qualifications which give him an especial claim to hearing." * The reviewer concludes, that “as a great effort to illuminate one of the most important questions which at present can occupy men's consideration, it is entitled to the sympathy and admiration of all impartial readers.”

8. The London Quarterly Review, for July, takes up M. DE QUINCEY and his writings, who reached the seventy-fifth year of his age, notwithstanding his addiction at one time to opium eating. 2. MONTALEMBERT on Western Monarchism. 3. KENNEDY, HENRY, SINGLETON and Owgan, as translators of Virgil. 4. Ancient Law, by HENRY SUMNER MAINE. 5. Scottish Character. 6. Russia on the Amoor. 7. CAVOUR and Italy. 8. Democracy on its trial. 9. Mill on Representative Government.

The “Quarterly" buckles on to the “ History of Civilization,” and exclaims, “How can he hope to be accepted as a scientific investigator of history who shows himself so full of passion and prejudice as Mr. BUCKLE does throughout this work?" Our commercial readers will find the article on the Amoor without any love towards Russia or the United States; but we commend to the merchant's attention both the review and the work which forms its text. The reviewer takes occasion to say that “the systematic occupation of the Amoor River by the Russians was as indefensible by the law of nations as any of the aggressions to which we are in the habit of referring as some of the worst results of popular government in the New World, and proves that a low sense of international morality is the characteristic alike of democracy and of despotism." "Should Mr. Buckle ever stretch his pen to the consideration of the progress of civilization in the Western world, we fear that the recent history of the United States, especially as to Texas, Central America and Africa, and especially as to the internal war of the year 1861, will stamp us as possessing a very low sense of international morality. 9. The Law of Nations affecting Commerce during War; with a review of the juris

risdiction, practice and proceedings in Prize Courts. By Francis H. Upton, LL. B. One volume octavo, pp. 312. Published by J. S. VOORHES, N. Y.

To the legal profession and to merchants this is a valuable compend of the law of maritime warfare and prize, including the law of belligerent and neutral rightsof blockade—of contraband—the right of search—of capture-re-capture-joint capture-military salvage, &c., in application to the existing war in the United States. The appendix contains the numerous proclamations of the year 1861; letter from Sir W. Soort to Mr. Jay; prize rules of the United States Court; statute provisions of the United States for distribution of prize fund, &c.

THE

MERCHANTS' MAGAZINE

AND

COMMERCIAL REVIEW.

Established July, 1839.

EDITED BY

J. SMITH HOMANS, (SECRETARY OF THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK,)

AND WILLIAM B. DANA, ATTORNEY AT LAW.

VOLUME XLV.

OCTOBER, 1861.

NUMBER IV.

CONTENTS OF No. IV., VOL. XLV.

ART.

I. SEA AND UPLAND COTTON versus FLAX AND HEMP,........

PAGE

887

II. JOURNAL OF MERCANTILE LAW.-1. Commission Merchants-Consignees' Ad

vances on Bills of Lading. 2. Bill of Sale. 8. Negotiability of Rail-Road Bonds. 4. Tolls on Rail-Roads,.

842 III. COMMERCIAL PROGRESS IN EASTERN ASIA. By Perry McDonough COLLINS,

Commercial Agent of the United States for the Amoor River.--1. Russian Settlement of the Amoor. 2. Statistics of Present Commerce and Navigation of the Amoor. 8. Modes of Conducting Commerce between the Amoor and the Central Provinces. 4. Classes of Foreign Merchandise Required for Consumption in Asiatic Russia. 6. Native Productions Adapted for Export. 6. Importance to Russia of Commercial and Telegraphic Communication between the Amoor and Central Provinces. 7. Extent and Nature of the Amoor Region, Mongolia, Manchooria and Eastern Siberia. 8. Commercial and Boundary Treaties between China and Russia,....

883 IV. SURVEY OF THE NORTHERN WATERS, COASTS AND ISLANDS OF THE

PACIFIC OCEAN, &c.—Report of Hon. Joux COCHRANE, from the Committee on
Commerce, February 18, 1861, .......

861 V. COMMERCE WITH AFRICA.-New Trade in Ivory and Barwood-Cape Lopez-To. bacco Plantations--Sugar Cane-Cotton,.....

809 VI. TAPESTRY-ITS ORIGIN AND HISTORY. By Charles TOMLINSON, Esq., Leo

turer on Natural Science, King's College School, London.-(From the Encyclopedia Britannica,)....

874 VII. TIE COTTON QUESTION.-1. Cotton in Georgia. 2. Report of the Cotton Supply

Association. 8. Cotton Growing in Jamaica. 4. Supply of Cotton and Paper Material. 6. Cotton in Queensland. G. Cotton in England,....

VIII. SHIP TIMBER AND ITS VARIETIES. By ROBERT MURRAY, Engineer Surveyor

to the British Board of Trade.-1. Acacia. 2. Alder. 3. Birch. 4. Box. 6. Cedar. 6. Chestnut. 7. Cypress. 8. Hornbeam. 9. Lignum Vitæ. 10. Maple. 11. Mahogany. 12. Poplar. 13. Sycamore. 14. Walnut.—(From the Encyclopedia Britannica,)...

383 IX. PRINCIPAL PLANTS AND THEIR USES.- Eaglewood-Barwood-BrazilettoWood-Cassia-Gum Copal - Acacia,....

389

JOURNAL OF NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE.

1. Iron and Wooden Naval Vessels. 2. Iron Ships. 3. Revolving Ships' Rig. 4. New Pat

ents. 5. Light-House Service in Great Britain, 6. Contributions to Nautical Science. 7. Steam Ram, Defence. 8. Masts of the Warrior. 9. Ship Great Republic. 10. Names of New Gun-Boats. 11. New Light-Houses,

893

STATISTICS OF TRADE AND COMMERCE.

1. Sandwich Islands and Japan. 2. Boston Imports from Liberia. 3. The Ice Trade. 4. Fail

ures in the Leather Trade. 5. The Sugar Pines of the Sierras. 6. nka Strait. 7. Trade with Thibet. 8. The American War and German Commerce. 9. Decline of Salmon. 10. Curious Japanese Documents. 11. France and America. 12. Scottish Commerce. 18. Trade of Kurrachee. 14. Trade with Turkey. 15. Trade and Products of Siam. 16. New French Treaty. 17. French Treaty with Turkey. 18. Mexican Coast Trade. 19. French Wines. 20. Persian Cotton. 21. Sugar and Coffee Trade, 1858–1861,....

401

JOURNAL OF INSURANCE.

2. London Fire Insurance.

1. Statistics of Fire Insurance in New York.

Warehouses,

3. Fire-Proof

416

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.

1. Decisions of the Treasury Canary Seed-Window Glass—India Rubber in Strips-Human

Hair-Tyrian Dye-Caustic Soda-Tanned Calf-Skins-Yarns of the Tow of Flax-Tare on Segars--Swedish Iron. 2. Oath of Allegiance. 3. Repudiation in Tennessee. 4. Cotton in New Orleans,...

419

BOARDS OF TRADE AND CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE.

1. Monthly meeting of New-York Chamber of Commerce. 2. Annual Report of Chamber of Commerce, Cincinnati,

426

RAIL-ROAD, CANAL AND TELEGRAPI STATISTICS.

1. The Galena and Chicago Rail-Road Company. 2. Watertown and Rome Rail-Road. 3.

French Railways. 4. The Great Northern Railway of France. 5. English Railway Dividends. 6. British and Irish Magnetic Telegraph. 7. The Atlantic Cable. 8. Telegraph to Siberia. 9. Rail-Road Telegraph Lines, ....

430

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW. Imports at New-York-Exports of Flour, Wheat, Corn, Provisions, &c., from New-YorkDry Goods Trade—Amoor Region-Naval Stores, &c., in New-York,..

484 FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE OF THE MERCHANTS' MAGAZINE.

Changes in Bank Rate of Discount-The Cotton Question-Stock of Cotton in Liverpool Rates of Premium of Insurance-Mail Facilities with other Countries,Steamship Building, 440

TIE BOOK TRADE.

Notices of New Publications in the United States, &c.,....

THE

MERCHANTS MAGAZINE

AND

COMMERCIAL REVIEW,

NOVEMBER, 1861.

OUR MERCANTILE MARINE,

THE TONE OF THE SERVICE DEGENERATING-CAUSE OF THIS DEGENERACY-EVIDENCE OF THE

SAME-FRAUDULENT SHIPWRECKS-OPINIONS OF HAMBURG UNDERWRITERS--COMPARISON OF PER CENTAGE OF DISASTERS IN ENGLISH SERVICE WITH OUR OWN-CERTIFICATES OF SERVICE AND COMPETENCY ISSUED IN THESE COUNTRIES—A SIMILAR SYSTEM NECESSARY HERE—ADVANTAGES OF THIS SYSTEM TO SHIPMASTERS, SHIP-OWNERS AND UNDERWRITERS-SUGGESTIONS ABOUT THE COLLECTION OF STATISTICS OF DISASTERS, AND BENEFITS TO BE DERIVED THEREFrox-RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION.

ARCHBISHOP WHATELY says, what hardly any thinking man will now deny, “ If oaths were abolished—leaving the penalties for false witness (no unimportant part of our security) unaltered—I am convinced that, on the whole, testimony would be more trustworthy than it is.” It will be admitted that there is an amazing difference between the facility with which oaths are broken, when there is no penalty, or an insufficient one, attached to their forfeiture, and when the penalty for perjury is sharp and severe. The records of our custom-houses and our courts bear witness to the truth of these assertions. Many a man will run the risk of having his goods confiscated, who would hesitate to perjure himself in a witness' box. Hence it is evident that it is the penalty, and not the oath that most people respect. That this should be so does not, indeed, argue well for human nature; but then we must always take men as they are, and not as they ought to be, in providing checks against possible misconduct. It is true that a sense of honor has sufficient influence in many men's minds to keep them in the paths of rectitude; but the experience of daily life too clearly proves that with most men the fear of punishment has greater influence. A self-approving conscience is, by no means, always sufficient. Merit must be distinguished from incompetency, or men will cease aspiring to attain it. The truth of these remarks is clearly demonstrated by the present condition of our mercantile marine service. It is generally admitted that the tone of that service, both for VOL. XLV.-NO. V.

29

character and efficiency, has greatly degenerated from its former standard. The reasons for this degeneracy are undoubtedly to be found in the facility with which incompetent men obtain commands, and the absence of any distinction between good and bad masters. Competent men and careful navigators must now be satisfied with the approval of their own consciences; and have, at the same time, the mortification of seeing others totally unfit for the responsibilities they assume, or careless and even dishonest in the discharge of them, entrusted with commands almost as readily as themselves.

As the practice of insuring ships is now universal, and as competition among insurance companies has rendered the facilities for obtaining this protection from the hazards of the sea very great, it will be seen that ship-owners have not the same direct interest in the loss of their ships that they would have if compelled to bear the burden of it themselves. And, consequently, they are not so careful in the choice, or so strict in the dismissal of their masters as they would be under a different system. It is true that merchants do really bear the burden, for if losses are unnecessarily increased by the acts of inefficient or dishonest masters, insurance premiums must be increased accordingly; and, therefore, although insurance companies seem to be the only sufferers, it must be remembered that they in reality only distribute the losses among their customers.

It is, therefore, a matter of the highest importance, both to shipmasters and ship-owners, that reforms should be adopted. Some system should be inaugurated by which competent and worthy men should have the preference in obtaining commands, and by which dishonesty could be exposed and punished, thus insuring greater protection to life and property at sea, and diminishing a serious burden upon commerce.

Any one who will take the trouble to consult the records of marine losses published in our daily papers, cannot fail to be struck with the fact of their enormous magnitude. The annual estimates for 1860 were over twenty-eight millions of dollars, and for the year before thirty-seven and a half millions; and a careful perusal of the circumstances of these losses will make it evident that many of them need never have happened. Many ships have been abandoned at sea and afterwards picked up and brought into port, and some vessels have been forsaken by their captains and brought home by their mates.

A very graphic and forcible writer in one of the daily papers* remarks, that “the dishonesty of some masters is believed to be a prolific cause of losses. Instances of this kind are to be met with in all parts of the world, but there are some particular quarters where they seem to occur more frequently, owing to facilities for collusion and fraudulent shipwrecks. Those who read the columns of our paper devoted to marine news cannot fail to have noticed the great number of wrecks taking place in the vicinity of the Bahama Islands. The navigation there is undoubtedly beset with difficulties, but they are so well known and understood, and so many light-houses and marks have been erected, that watchful, skillful and honest shipmasters have passed and repassed, at all seasons of the year, and for many years, without disaster, unless under such extraordinary adverse circumstances of wind and weather as clearly and reasonably accounted for their misfortune, while their conduct after shipwreck has

* Courier and Enquirer, January, 1860.

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