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found very advantageous, especially for the sale of their salt fish. The inhabitants of Aldenbourg were, even at that time, in the habit of going regularly into Wales on fishing excursions, killing their fish with lances and arrows. About a century later, BALDw1N III., Count of Flanders, instituted regular annual fairs in all the principal towns, which attracted a great many foreigners, and were instrumental in making Bruges, Courtrai, Calais and Thourout very prosperous cities. To prove the prosperity produced in Flanders by commerce, it suffices to show that twelve or fourteen rich Flemings helped WILLIAM of Normandy in his conquest of England, by supplying him with soldiers, ships and money. Among other names cited we find GILBERT of Ghent, PHILIP and HUMPHREY of Courtrai, BERTRAND of Melle, Rich ARD of Bruges, and many more. M. ThießRy is wrong in saying, in his “History of the Conquest of England,” that the Count of Flanders refused all assistance to WILLIAM. The latter even promised to pay his father-inlaw an annual rent of 300 marks in silver as the price of his supplies. This is stated by the English historian, MALMESBURY, and the Flemish chroniclers, MEYER, ONDEGHERST and DESPARs. Twenty ships were equipped by Flanders for this expedition. After the conquest many Saxons of noble birth took refuge in the Low Countries, and among others, the mother and the sister of HARold. It is to be regretted that M. WAN BRUYssel has not alluded to the latter, as her tomb, with an inscription giving the details of her sorrows, was found some years ago among the ruins of the church of St. DoNAT, in Bruges. This circumstance was well worth mentioning. In such warlike times there were no laws for the regulation of commerce. The first appears in the eleventh century after the conquest of Jerusalem by GoDFREY, of Bouillon. He established what are called the assizes of the kingdom of Jerusalem, the second part of which relates entirely to the rights and duties of maritime transactions. Under HENRY I., of England, a considerable number of Flemish manufacturers and tradesmen settled in Pembrokeshire, where they constructed a road of great extent, called Flemings' Way, to facilitate traffic. Their cleverness in weaving wool and flax was so remarkable, that GERVAsius, in his chronicle, says that it was in them an inborn gift of nature. TYTLER, in his history of Scotland, tells us, also, that the influx of Flemish merchants at the end of the twelfth century was one of the great causes of wealth in that country; and MAcPHERson, in his “Annals of Commerce,” states that they were the first who introduced the cultivation of flax and hemp into England, as is mentioned in a charter of Westminster, in 1175. A little later we find that some of the cities of Flanders possessed the largest emporiums of merchandise to be found in all Europe. WILLIAM, the Breton, thus describes in his poem of the “Philippidos” the amount of wealth in the harbor of Damme, when PHILIP Augustus, king of France, came to attack Flanders with 1,700 ships. He speaks of the port of Calais : “The merchandise brought there by foreign vessels exceeds all belief. Masses of bullion, heaps of oriental wools, wax, cloths, Hungarian furs, grain, wines from Gascony, iron and other metals, and a number of other products from England, which were collected at Damme preparatory to exportation into other countries, bringing large profits to speculators.”

M. Van Bruyssel gives interesting details on the forms of the different vessels of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and on the commercial relations between Belgium and Europe during the same period. England, Scotland and Ireland traded with the Flemings in woods, leathers, lead, coals, cheese and salt. They received from Norway various sorts of birds; from Denmark, horses; from Russia, furs; Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, sent wax and gold and silver ingots; from Aragon came saffron, rice, almonds, &c.; from Germany, wine, corn and iron. Fez, Tunis and Morocco traded in furs and sugar; Constantinople, in alum and fruits; Egypt, in spices; and from Palestine, Armenia and other parts, came silks and gold and silver cloths.

The researches made by the author are very considerable. His long residence in London enabled him to examine the repositories of ancient documents; and the reader will be rewarded for perusing this book, more amusing in parts than many works of fiction, and replete with information hitherto but little known to the public.

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We reprint the extended remarks made by Mr. Thomas BAZLEY, (M. P. for Manchester,) at the recent meeting of the British Association. The facts communicated by Mr. Bazley are valuable in themselves, but his ignorance of the political features of the United States is somewhat curious, and no doubt leads some persons astray in their estimates of the workings of commerce and legislation in this country. Mr. Bazley, for instance, says " the North has robbed the South by unjust exactions ;" for which he has no ground in fact. He alludes to the operation of the tariff. Now it is well known that the South has not been forced to buy northern goods when it preferred foreign. The duties paid by the South amount, perhaps, to fifteen millions of dollars annually on foreign goods consumed by them, or about two dollars per head. It is the North, mainly, that pay the duties on iron, woollens, liquors, &c. The South has the same advantages, and even greater, in the establishment of domestic manufactures, and could (in a time of peace) produce their own cotton goods as well as the North, if they thought proper. In fact, the South could manufacture cotton without the expense of double freight, double commissions, double insurance and loss of time, now involved in sending their raw cotton to remote parts, all which expenses are paid by the northern and European manufacturer on goods consumed in the southern States,

A protective system has been fostered in the North, founded very extensively upon the pirated inventions of this country," (England.). Here Mr. BAZLEY is equally at fault. If he will recur to the history of England for the past hundred years, he will find that it was by the protective system that England has built up her credit, wealth and greatness; and to this day

maintains a tariff more severe than the “odious” MoRRILL tariff, which is so loudly abused by English politicians and their press. Great Britain last year levied custom-house duties amounting to twenty-two millions sterling, or about $110,000,000. The United States, with a population two millions larger than that of Great Britain, has levied in no one year over sixty-four millions of dollars. The ten years, from 1850—1859, the aggregate custom-house duties levied by the United States were $531,000,000, or an average of fifty-three millions of dollars; whereas Great Britain levied during the same period two hundred and fourteen millions sterling, or $1,070,000,000, or about double the former. Upon the single article of tobacco, mainly exported from this country, Great Britain has levied, in ten years, duties to the amount of two hundred and twenty millions of dollars This is far more than the duties levied by the United States upon all the goods imported from Great Britain. Indeed, England has no ground of complaint against us as to the tariff. Let her reduce her custom-house duties to a level with our own and we will be content. Mr. BAzley's remarks were as follow:—Ed. M. M.

A century ago the population of Manchester was below 30,000, whilst now 350,000 persons reside in and occupy it. Population and wealth have wonderfully increased and ramified to other places; but now, in the zenith of prosperity, a mysterious hand has written upon our walls the words of caution and of admonition. During the last fifty years upwards of 20,000,000,000 pounds weight of cotton from all sources have been consumed in Great Britain, and the value would probably be not less than £750,000,000 sterling, or might equal a sum of the amount of our national debt, the chief supply having been obtained from the United States of America. Upon a fair computation, the import of that material, which has so largely employed the capital and labor of this country, has yielded a profit of not less than £1,000,000,000 sterling to the people of the United Kingdom within that period. The wonder is that so large a supply of cotton could be procured from that one source, the United States; and when we reflect that this country possesses a monopoly of the vast extent of territory found in the whole world capable of producing this raw material, the inference is most palpable, that there has been developed the most successful agricultural industry in the States of America, which has been either ever contemplated or realized; whilst in British colonies and dependencies apathy and neglect have prevailed. If the legislature had little sympathy with the great industry of Lancashire, the interests of our foreign possessions might have induced our rulers to stimulate productions in them, which would have found compensating markets at home.

The advocates of large and of independent supplies of raw cotton, from all possible sources, have never desired governmental favors, their object having been to promote the removal of repressing obstacles, and to procure, by the aid of a sound colonial policy, at least a fair share, in proportion to the extent of our foreign possessions, of not only cotton, but of every other product which they might more abundantly have yielded. During the last year the consumption of cotton in Great Britain was 85 per cent. from the United States, 8 per cent. from other foreign sources, and 7 per cent. from British territory.

The present position of the trade is most precarious and dangerous. Existing stocks and prospective supplies of cotton may enable the mills

to be worked into the spring of next year, at moderately full time; but afterwards, unless supplies be received from the United States, independent sources can only furnish the means of o the mills at work little more than one day in the week. With the growth of this industry 5,000,000 of our population have become, directly and indirectly, dependent upon it for their subsistence; and the productiveness of their capital and labor, including the raw material, was, for the last year, nearly eighty million pounds sterling. Of this large value twenty-five millions of cotton manufactures were absorbed in the consumption of the people of the United Kingdom, and there remained for exportation fifty-five millions. The estimated capital engaged in its fixed and floating investments is two hundred million pounds. Now, when we contemplate the vast interests involved in this surprising trade, seeing that the people employed and connected with it exceed the population of the kingdom of Belgium, of Holland and of Portugal; that the national treasury receives from it an amazing sum in aid of the expenses of the State; that a commercial marine of unparalleled magnitude derives support from it; that the comfort and happiness of the laborers employed in it are imperilled by any indications which threaten to disturb its existence and prosperity; and that its suspension, or serious curtailment, would even endanger the general weal; we may well inquire what efforts have been made to sustain the usefulness, prosperity and permanency of this source of national riches. That the cotton trade should have rested chiefly upon the one supply of the States of America for its very means of existence, every good and every wise man has deplored; but that to produce that supply the portion of the human family which is most defenceless should be held in the degradation of slavery is abhorrent to the feelings of the righteous, of the humane and of the benevolent. Most effectually to suppress slavery will be to supersede the necessity for the labor of the slave, and if the chiefs of Africa could be induced to cultivate sugar, cotton and tobacco upon their own soil, they need not expel and degrade their laborers. Of the commercial policy of the United States of America censures can scarcely be too severe. In the Northern States protection has prevailed, and the people of the South have been compelled to pay extravagant and monopolist prices for the manufactures produced by their own agricultural labor, and which, in the form of cotton, has been received in this country free from every tax. The North has robbed the South by unjust exactions, and the South has robbed the negro of life and liberty Why the British manufacturer has tamely submitted to an import tax of 30 per cent. upon cotton goods entering the States of America, whilst the raw cotton, the growth of those States, has been received here free from tax or impost, without making an effort to procure supplies of his raw material from free labor, with the right to send free exports in exchange, can only be accounted for by the anxiety to possess an apparent immediate benefit at the cost of advantages more enduring, but which could only be regarded as of prospective or future possession. Partial and unjust government has at length reaped the fruit of convulsion, and for which unjust policy had sown the seed. The North has taxed for its own protection and advantage the people of the South and WOL. XLV.-NO. W. 31

their industry; and the South has held in degradation, oppression and slavery the laborers who have enriched their owners. Mutual wrongs have been committed, and hitherto no just object appears before the world as a cause of the lamentable struggle which is exhausting both of them. But slavery is doomed. A protective system has been fostered in the North, founded very extensively upon the pirated inventions of this country, and by the agency of j our manufactures have been largely excluded from the markets of the States. Even their very literature has been abstracted from the intellectual faculties of those in their fatherland who have only their cultivated minds and soul-breathing thoughts for their inheritance. In addition to these grave reasons, which mainly affect the morality of the States, this country has been paying a tribute of five million pounds sterling per annum to those States in excess of the price at which cotton could be remuneratively produced and sold. With the convulsion which exists in America, with the adverse commercial policy dominant there, and with the inhuman system of slavery which prevails in the cotton producing districts, what are the duties which devolve upon our governing and mercantile classes If by the convulsion of the States we are taught our national as well as commercial duties, the lesson will be ultimately beneficial. Whether it has been wise for our government to see continually increasing the dependence of this great trade upon the one chief supply of its raw material, and that source adverse in interest, and oppressive to its own labor, we can only answer in the negative. With #. East and West Indies, with tracts in South, East and West Africa, and with land in Australia as extensive as Europe, capable of growing cotton from the lowest to the highest qualities, it is a national reproach to us that we have permitted our own fields to be uncultivated, and that our spinners and manufacturers have been driven by necessity to consume the produce of slavery. Lacking the means of communication and of irrigation, the resources of the East Indies remain in much the same dormant condition in which they have been for two thousand years; but brighter prospects are opening in that great dependency; railways are being constructed, canals formed, river navigation improved and works of irrigation promoted. One great defect is, however, retained with perverse tenacity. The tenure of land is obstructive alike to the rights ..} individual ownership, and to its effective cultivation. Without doing the slightest wrong to the holders of any land, its equitable transfer might be sanctioned, and a landed proprietary as influential as in our own country might be established. Protection to life and the rights of property, with every other just adjunct of good government, will inevitably lead to prosperity. Small supplies of cotton, as good as that obtained from New-Orleans, are now received from India, and the cotton of this vast dependency is certainly improving; but whilst, from a combination of circumstances and causes, the ryot of India is only paid 12s. per acre for his crop of cotton, and the American cultivator can obtain £12, the energy and capability of the former cannot be developed. Supposing efforts to be made commensurate with indicated difficulties, all the common cottons, or 75 per cent. of the consumption of Great Britain, might be obtained from $ndia in a couple of years. From Egypt the supply of cotton may

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