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increase, but there the withering influence of the despot retards its extended cultivation, though the spirited, energetic and successful enterprise of MEHEMET Ali is an example deserving the imitation of better men. He introduced that agricultural industry into his vice-royalty, and founded a fountain of wealth whence flow millions of annual income to the advantage of Egypt.

For all the finer, higher and better classes of cotton, from New-Orleans, Brazil and Egypt, to the most beautiful Sea Island, Queensland, in Australia, might quickly afford all requisite supplies. That territory alone, besides sustaining the population of Europe, could easily be made to produce all the cotton now consumed in the world; but so sweeping a change and enlarged production need not be deliberated upon, the facts being only referred to as illustrating the powers of that colony. In seeking from the government the development of the resources of the colonies, the two-fold advantage would arise of which that power would financially be greatly benefited, alike at home and in the colonies. Government must set its colonial house in order. Land grants for beneficial purposes should be free, facilities afforded for emigration, public works promoted, and prosperity will follow in the train. Capitalists, merchants and manufacturers, whose investments are largely embarked in the cotton trade, have duties devolving upon them.

These bodies are known to have large investments in foreign railways, in the cultivation of sugar and other products, and in many dubious securities; but in the cultivation of the staple raw material of their own pursuits they have not ventured to embark. Last year the cotton trade contributed to capital and labor fifty million pounds sterling, and in the last fifty years the aggregate reward has been one thousand millions. Surely from these treasures might be spared some pittance of capital to free the negro, and to insure still greater prosperity to industry.

Supposing the government of our country to be willing to make all the preliminary arrangements which will contribute to the security and profit of capital invested in cotton growing, the clear duty of the class referred to will be to enter upon investments with no niggard hand; and, for their encouragement, it may

be mentioned that very recently an extensive Louisiana cotton planter has asserted that he could grow cotton at 3d.

per

lb. which is now worth 9d. per lb. in Liverpool, and he has had to buy his laborers, and afterwards to sustain them. The confessed profit is 200 per cent., but, in all sobriety of judgment, cotton growing would afford 100 per cent of recompense.

Here, then, the governing, the capitalist, the mercantile and the manufacturing classes have duties in common to perform, and from which none of them should withhold their willing help. Upon this subject the warning voice has been long and often heard, and the present embarrassment in cotton supplies has been anticipated. Having, therefore, been forewarned, may this great and world-benefiting industry be forearmed.

course

ANNUAL REPORT ON BREAD STUFF 8.

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The export of breadstuffs, domestic as well as foreign, is one of the first importance to this country; it is especially so to the city and State of New-York in the present condition of the financial and commercial affairs of the nation. From the port of New-York alone were exported to foreign countries, in the single month of August, 1861, (being the close of the cereal year,) no less than 297,000 barrels of flour, 2,389,000 bushels of wheat and 2,338,000 bushels of Indian corn, valued at over six millions of dollars. In order to present this subject to our readers in its full breadth,

from the annual circular of Mr. EDWARD Bill the following tabular statement of the export of breadstuffs, from this and other ports, to Great Britain and Ireland, for the past year, compared with fourteen former years, viz., 1846–1860 : EXPORT OF BREADSTUFFS TO GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, FROM SEPTEMBER 1, 1860,

TO SEPTEMBER 1, 1861.
Barrels
Barrels
Bushols

Bushels
From
Flour. Corn Meal. Wheat.

Corn. New-York,

1,775,338 3,266 .. 20,541,073 .. 8,653,569 New-Orleans,

179,427

996 66,767 1,464,267 Philadelphia,

192,175

1,593,416 704,447 Baltimore,

127,031

48 969,084 853,200 Boston,

126,846

106

13,032 14,100 Other ports,

160,844

2,369,998 15,451 One year to Sept. 1, 1861,. 2,561,661 4,416 25,553,370 11,705,034 1860, 717,156

944 ,. 4,938,714 2,221,857 1859, 106,457

58 439,010 342,013 1858, 1,295,430

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143 6,555,643 3,317,802 1857, 849,600

685 7,479,401 4,746,278 1856, 1,641,265 6,816 7,956,406 6,731,161 1855,. 176,209 4,768 324,427 6,679,138 1854, 1,846,920 41,726 6,038,003 6,049,371 1853, 1,600,449

100 4,823,519 1,425,278 1852, 1,427,442 1,680 2,728,442 1,487,398 1851,. 1,559,584 5,620 1,496,355 2,205,601 1850, 574,757. 6,411 461,276 .. 4,753,358 1849,. 1,137,556 .. 82,900.. 1,140,194 12,685,260 1848, 182,583 108,534 .. 241,309 4,390,226 1847,.... 3,155,845 .. 844,187 .. 4,000,359 17,157,659

06

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..

Total for fifteen years.......18,831,914 .. 1,108,988 .. 74,176,428 .. 85,897,434
TO THE CONTINENT, FROM NEW-YORK AND OTHER PORTS.
Barrels Bushels

Bushels

Barrels
Flour.
Wheat.
Corn.

Rye. One year to Sept. 1, 1861,.... 142,129 3,452,496 101,145 . 347,258

1860, 49,243 178,031 19,358
1859, 51,388 57,845 25,519
1858,.. 303,100 390,428 16,848 13,100
1867, 483,344 2,875,653 543,690 216,162
1856,.... 748,408 2,610,079 282,083 1,975,178
1855,.... 7,763

4,972 308,428 35,569

66

Total for seven years, ......1,785,375 9,569,504 1,296,971 2,587,267 From CANADA TO GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, via St. LAWRENCE,

Barrels Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels Barrels

Flour. Wheat. Corn. Peas. Qats. Oatm'l. Jan. 1 to Aug. 22, 1861,....369,648 3,221,277 134,196 1,236,218 289,273 17,929

In order to show the breadstuffs trade of this port alone, as indicated by its foreign exports, we extract from the New-York Shipping List the following elaborate monthly table of exports of breadstuffs to all foreign ports from New-York city, from Sept. 1 to Aug. 81, for the following years :

FL OUR - B bls.

Мохтия. .

1860-61.

1859-60.

1858-59.

1857-58.

1856-57.

1855-56.

1854-55.

1853-54.

1802-33.

1851-52.

1850-51.

1849-50.

Export of WREAT-Bushels-from New York,

MONTUS.

1860-61.

1859-60.

1858-59.

1857-58.

1856-57.

1855-56.

1854-55.

1858-54.

1852-58.

1851-52.

1850-51.

1849-50.

197,482
261,143
410,258
895, 239
208,700

,218

September,
October,
November,..
December,
January,..
February,
March,
April,
May,
June,
July,..
August,..

251,688
270,892
228,678
187,565
168,959
186,868
171,589
211,140
200,068
271,593
251,779
297,243

79,422
141,157
126,641
139,589
49,138
31,685
69,193
83,445
103, 810
177,877
221,607
239,286

92,851
140,238
75,906
68,266
30,980
86,120
49,140
71,168
65,492
56,300
11,342
75,006

80,776
169,506
171,886
104,584
125,720
108,982
73,553
124,790
111,604
162,877
178,308
140,708

103,202
193, 896
244,639
205,808
110,546

94,805
119,665
80,128
78,685
63,188
59,919
58,869

111,471
193,961
221,878
207,052
180,839
126,048

89,411
74,875
124,952
329,348
293,185

217,754
2,169, 709

24,302
34,687
49,757
66,188
72,794
80,244
22,474
40,890
87,608
20,834
33,087
86,240
459,145

85,052
67,103
70,390
96,052
87,246

32,580
2,043,458

125,246
122,974
106,663
112,010
115, 746
101,927
157,185
146, 117

68,294
145,008
187,682
164,963

122,836

84,889
143,460
74,504
39,836
61, 263
62,612
76,750
142, 606
149,583
180,806
124,857

215,084
141,687
155,268
96,555
49,855
28,002
27,649
44,805
97,286
97,466
231,084
268,838

74,575
45,286
69,145
80,160
56,802
83,007
27,181
28,831
29,276
65,406
47,921
148,462
690,052

Total,

2,728,012

1,466,250

762, 759

1,547,794

1,402,850

1,548,715

1,261,952

1,453,574

September,
October,..
November,
December,..
January,
February,
March,
April,
May,
June,
July,
August,

Total,

182,890
174,670
124,815

9,787
10,759
6,990

600
1,567
8,000

64,226
108,229
265,822
164,227
23,641

2,228,924
2,600,226 79,839
2,472,162 144,408
2,027,145 117,112

832,169 50,196
1,060,995 59,299
972,688 25,842

999,843 175,878
1,729,108 856,010
8,577, 243 792,926
2,966,999 1,401,791
2,389,645 1,743,045
28,859,147 | 4,946,846

620,622
694,241
910,269
468,325
180,631
17,858
33,257
127,743

405, 680
1,171,513
672,989
385,298

1,099,029
1,829, 131
2,057,913
1,464,201
239,994
177,179
270,061
133,708

75,092
130,698
182,950
112,509

277,583

947,569
1,214,102
1,011,626
360,531
209,884
143,374

79,159
248,528

910,765
1,291,599
1,214,167
7,968,392

16,953
18,728
108,032
41,541
8,643

930,528
1,502,881
1,809,908
1,491,907
661,676
288,621
299,965
43,558
63,530
307,302
145,209
77,853

551,883
684,638
471,289
441,246
261,896
112,501
189,802
276,842
172,179
390,976
597,092
520,200

204,864
118,866
317,743
152,585

88,819
108,554
120,608
186,142
165, 617

82,044
279,122

206,986
1,976,950

27,283
41,716
69, 610
116,577
88,802
14,568
2,010
8,138

40,693
20,081
65, 755
60,525
192,096
270,665

986
1,485
12,675
61,806

9,026
14,184

11,640

100
45,954

487,289

8,696,876

7,772,495

255,849

7,622,988

4,669,844

1,270,960

874,898

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FOREIGN EXPORTS OF Flour, WHEAT AND CORN, FOR THE YEAR ENDING August 31,

1861, FROM THE PORT OF NEW-YORK.
FLOUR.
WHEAT.

CoEN.
Average Total

Average Total

Average Total price. value. price. value.

price. value. Sept., 1860,.. 251,688 $5 85 $ 1,472,374 2,228,924 $1 80 * 2,897,601 189,726 68 c. $ 128,014 Oct.,

270,892 5 75 1,557,629 2,600,226 1 22 8,172,275 260,098 66 171,665 Nov.,

228,678

5 70 1,303,465 2,472,162 1 28 8,164,867 699,531 70 419,672 Dec.,

187,565 5 25 984,716 2,027,145 1 15 2,331,217 851,870 66 511,122 Jan., 1861,.. 168,959 5 70 963,066 882,169 1 26 1,048,583 618,261 72 441,548 Feb., 186,868

1,046,461 1,060,995 1 26 1,886,853 608,751 70 422,626 171,539 5 50 943,464 972,688 1 25 1,215,860 789,664 68 536,971 April,

211,140 5 60 1,182,384 999,843 1 28 1,279,799 1,057,004 70 789,903 May,

200,068 5 50 1,100,004 1,729,108 1 25 2,161,385 799,151 68 543,423 June, 271,593 6 50 1,493,761 8,577,243

4,292,692 768,968 67 488,312 July, 281,779 4 50 1,268,006 2,968,999

1 00

2,968,999 897,276 54 214,529 297,243 4 75 1,411,904 2,389,645 1 00 2,889,645 2,838,429 48 1,122, 446 12 months,..2,728,012 $ 14,727,284 28,859,147 $ 28,259,226 9,268,729 $ 5,690,281

5 60

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Aug.,

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I. THE BRITISH HARVEST. II. THE IMpoRTANCE of A Good HARVEST. III. GUANo DiscovKRIE8. IV. FLAx CULTURE.

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THE latest accounts received, with respect to the harvest, are not satisfactory. The wheat crop is deficient in the number of sheaves, and the weight, after threshing, is inferior to that of a fair average crop. Many fields of wheat are injured by rust, and in other places the corn on the ground has heated. The farmers who cut their wheat before it arrived at maturity have suffered least. These unfavorable accounts have produced an effect on the Paris flour-market, and sellers are now slow in presenting themselves. Even bakers have consented to pay one franc the sack more than in the preceding week.

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The cost of British imports of grain of all kinds, as well as flour for the last seven years, were, in the year

1854,....# 21,760,283 ... 1856, . . . .4, 23,039,422 ... 1858, . . . .4220,152,641 1855, .... 17,508,700 ... 1857,.... 19,380,567 ... 1859, .... 18,042,033

making a total in six years of £119,833,676, and an annual average of £19,980,613, paid for foreign grain and flour, while in the year 1860 the cost amounted to the enormous sum of £31,671,918, mainly owing to the bad harvest in England; but these figures do not represent, by any means, the full extent to which we are still subjected by the harvest of 1860. They only show what a large sum of money we have paid; but the payments in that year were not near so heavy as they have been since. The official information, brought down to the end of April, makes the value of the grain and flour imported in the first four months of 1859, £4,384,045; 1860, £3,913,001, and 1861, £12,435,435, by which it will be seen that we have been paying for the first four months of the current year at the rate of £37,306,305 per annum, or £8,522,434 more for breadstuffs than in the same period of 1860.-London Times, Aug., 1861.

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By accounts recently received from Sydney, it appears that the guano, discovered some time since on Flat Island, in Port Philip Bay, is now in much use, the difference of price between this guano and that imported from the Chineha and other islands on the coast of Peru o very considerable, the former being five guineas per ton, while the latter commands from £15 to £16. Experienced navigators aver that large de

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