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FOREIGN EXPORTS OF Flour, WHEAT AND CORN, FOR THE YEAR ENDING August 31,
1861, FROM THE PORT OF NEW-YORK.
Average Total price. value. price. value.
price. value. Sept., 1860,.. 251,688 $5 85 $ 1,472,374 2,228,924 $1 80 * 2,897,601 189,726 68 c. $ 128,014 Oct.,
270,892 5 75 1,557,629 2,600,226 1 22 8,172,275 260,098 66 171,665 Nov.,
5 70 1,303,465 2,472,162 1 28 8,164,867 699,531 70 419,672 Dec.,
187,565 5 25 984,716 2,027,145 1 15 2,331,217 851,870 66 511,122 Jan., 1861,.. 168,959 5 70 963,066 882,169 1 26 1,048,583 618,261 72 441,548 Feb., 186,868
1,046,461 1,060,995 1 26 1,886,853 608,751 70 422,626 171,539 5 50 943,464 972,688 1 25 1,215,860 789,664 68 536,971 April,
211,140 5 60 1,182,384 999,843 1 28 1,279,799 1,057,004 70 789,903 May,
200,068 5 50 1,100,004 1,729,108 1 25 2,161,385 799,151 68 543,423 June, 271,593 6 50 1,493,761 8,577,243
4,292,692 768,968 67 488,312 July, 281,779 4 50 1,268,006 2,968,999
2,968,999 897,276 54 214,529 297,243 4 75 1,411,904 2,389,645 1 00 2,889,645 2,838,429 48 1,122, 446 12 months,..2,728,012 $ 14,727,284 28,859,147 $ 28,259,226 9,268,729 $ 5,690,281
JOURNAL OF A GRICULTURE.
I. The British Harvest. II. THE IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD HARVEST. III. Guano DISCOVERIES.
IV. FLAX CULTURE.
THE BRITISH HARVEST OF 1861. The latest accounts received, with respect to the harvest, are not satisfactory. The wheat crop is deficient in the number of sheaves, and the weight, after threshing, is inferior to that of a fair average crop. Many fields of wheat are injured by rust, and in other places the corn on the ground has heated. The farmers who cut their wheat before it arrived at maturity have suffered least. These unfavorable accounts have produced an effect on the Paris four-market, and sellers are now slow in presenting themselves. Even bakers have consented to pay one franc the sack more than in the preceding week.
THE IMPORTANCE OP A GOOD HAR V EST. The cost of British imports of grain of all kinds, as well as flour for the last seven years, were, in the year 1854, .£21,760,283 1856,. .£23,039,422 1858, .£20,152,641 1855,. 17,508,700
18,042,033 making a total in six years of £119,833,676, and an annual average of £19,980,613, paid for foreign grain and flour, while in the year 1860 the cost amounted to the enormous sum of £31,671,918, mainly owing to the bad harvest in England ; but these figures do not represent, by any means, the full extent to which we are still subjected by the harvest of 1860. They only show what a large sum of money we have paid ; but the payments in that year were not near so heavy as they have been since. The official information, brought down to the end of April, makes the value of the grain and flour imported in the first four months of 1859, £4,384,045; 1860, £3,913,001, and 1861, £12,435,435, by which it will be seen that we have been paying for the first four months of the current year at the rate of £37,306,305 per annum, or £8,522,434 more for breadstuffs than in the same period of 1860.—London Times, Aug., 1861.
GUANO DISCOVERIES. By accounts recently received from Sydney, it appears that the guano, discovered some time since on Flat Island, in Port Philip Bay, is now in much use, the difference of price between this guano and that imported from the Chineha and other islands on the coast of Peru being very considerable, the former being five guineas per ton, while the latter commands from £15 to £16. Experienced navigators aver that large deposits of that article are to be found upon
uninhabited spots on the South Sea Islands. Samples from some places in the South Pacific, brought by American vessels, have been analyzed with even more favorable results than those of the Flat Island. In one analysis of the latter, the highest per centage of that fertilizing substance, phosphate, was 43.03, whilst the former shows a much superior per centage, and is as follows: Phosphate and carbonate of lime, 65; moisture, 28; organic matter, 5; saline matter, 2—100. It is devoid of smell in consequence of its deficiency of ammonia. Flat Island guano, on its first introduction into Victoria, met with much prejudice; but its extensive use now has removed this erroneous impression. Government, as well as the Board of Agriculture, have been furnished with various analyses, which all agree as to the efficacy of Flat Island guano. The cargo of guano, the analysis of which is given above, was brought from M-Keen's Island, one of the Phænix group, in 4° south latitude, 176° west longitude. Other cargoes have been brought from Baker's Island, 13 miles north of the equator, 23° south latitude, 176° west longitude.
An adjourned meeting of the prominent citizens of Niagara county, and others interested, was held at the American Hotel, Lockport, in August last, to hear the report of a committee appointed to ascertain the facts in regard to the culture of flax in that locality, and to confer with the “ American Flax Company.” The practical conclusions of the committee may be gathered from the following:
That from the best information they could obtain from farmers and publications upon the subject, a fair average yield of dry straw after the seed has been threshed off, is a ton and a half per acre, and ten bushels of seed, although two tons of straw and eighteen bushels of seed have frequently been raised upon an acre of land. That the lands of this county and the adjoining counties of Erie, Orleans and Genesee, are well adapted to the growth of flax, and that the crop in these counties would be highly remunerative to the farmers. We do not regard it as a peculiarly exhausting crop, and it has the great advantage of keeping the land clean and free from weeds, and is a good crop to seed with, either for timothy or clover.
After hearing the report, a discussion of the subject ensued, in which Hon. Washington Hunt and Hon. S. B. Ruggles, Mr. TURNER, of Black Rock, and other distinguished gentlemen took part. The following resolutions were adopted :
On motion of Governor Hunt, it was resolved, that it is the opinion of this meeting that the “ American Flax Company” will be able to procure all they want at $8 per ton, and that we will do all in our power to aid and assist in procuring such supply.
On motion of Dr. Morse, it was resolved, that a committee of three be appointed to get the pledge of farmers to raise from one to three thousand tons of flax straw, to see that a sufficient supply of the best kind of flax seed be brought into market, and to make such other arrangements as are necessary to forward the enterprise.
JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.
I. THE NEW PATENT LAW OF THE UNITED STATES. II. PATENT LAWS OF EUROPEAN GOVERN
MENTS. III. QUICKSILVER. IV. CocoaNUT OIL. V. INDIA RUBBER VARNISH.
UNITED STATES PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT OF 1861.
AN ACT IN ADDITION TO “ An ACT TO PROMOTE THE PROGRESS OF THE
USEFUL Arts." Approved March 2, 1861.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the commissioner of patents may establish rules for taking affidavits and depositions required in cases pending in the Patent Office, and such affidavits and depositions may be taken before any justice of the peace, or other officer authorized by law to take depositions to be used in the courts of the United States, or in the State courts of any State where such officer shall reside ; and in any contested case pending in the Patent Office, it shall be lawful for the clerk of any court of the United States for any district or territory, and he is hereby required, upon the application of any party to such contested case, or the
agent or attorney of such party, to issue subpænas for any witnesses residing or being within the said district or territory, commanding such witnesses to appear and testify before any justice of the peace, or other officer as aforesaid, residing within the said district or territory, at any time and place in the subpæna to be stated ; and if any witness, after being duly served with such subpæna, shall refuse or neglect to appear, or, after appearing, shall refuse to testify, (not being privileged from giving testimony,) such refusal or neglect being proved to the satisfaction of any judge of the court whose clerk shall have issued such subpæna, said judge may thereupon proceed to enforce obedience to the process, or to punish the disobedience in like manner as any court of the United States may do in case of disobedience to process of subpoena ad testificandum issued by such court; and witnesses in such cases shall be allowed the same compensation as is allowed to witnesses attending the courts of the United States. Provided, That no witnesses shall be required to attend at any place more than forty miles from the place where the subpæna shall be served upon him to give a deposition under this law. Provided, also, That no witness shall be deemed guilty of contempt for refusing to disclose any secret invention made or owned by him. And provided, further, That no witness shall be deemed guilty of contempt for disobeying any subpæna directed to him by virtue of this act, unless his fees for going to, returning from and one day's attendance at the place of examination, shall be paid or tendered to him at the time of the service of the subpæna.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That, for the purposes of securing greater uniformity of action in the grant and refusal of letters patent, there shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, three examiners-in-chief, at an annual salary of
three thousand dollars each, to be composed of persons of competent legal knowledge and scientific ability, whose duty it shall be, on the written petition of the applicant, for that purpose being filed, to revise and determine upon the validity of decisions made by examiners when adverse to the grant of letters-patent, and also to revise and determine in like manner upon the validity of the decisions of examiners in interference cases, and when required by the commissioner in applications for the extension of patents, and to perform such other duties as may be assigned to them by the commissioner; that from their decisions appeals may be taken to the commissioner of patents in person, upon payment of the fee hereinafter prescribed; that the said examiners-in-chief shall be governed in their action by the rules to be prescribed by the commissioner of patents.
Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That no appeal shall be allowed to the examiners-in-chief from the decisions of the primary examiners, except in interference cases, until after the application shall have been twice rejected; and the second examination of the application by the primary examiner shall not be had until the applicant, in view of the references given on the first rejection, shall have renewed the oath of invention, as provided for in the seventh section of the act, entitled " An act to promote the progress of the useful arts, and to repeal all acts and parts of acts heretofore made for that purpose," approved July fourth, eighteen hundred and thirty-six.
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the salary of the commissioner of patents, from and after the passage of this act, shall be four thousand five hundred dollars per annum, and the salary of the chief clerk of the Patent Office shall be two thousand five hundred dollars, and the salary of the librarian of the Patent Office shall be eighteen hundred dollars.
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the commissioner of patents is authorized to restore to the respective applicants, or, when not removed by them, to otherwise dispose of such of the models belonging to rejected applications as he shall not think necessary to be preserved. The same authority is also given in relation to all models accompanying applications for designs. He is further authorized to dispense in future with models of designs when the design can be sufficiently represented by a drawing.
Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the tenth section of the act approved the third of March, eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, authorizing the appointment of agents for the transportation of models and specimens to the Patent Office, is hereby repealed.
Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the commissioner is further authorized, from time to time, to appoint, in the manner already provided for by law, such an additional number of principal examiners, first assistant examiners and second assistant examiners, as may be required to transact the current business of the office with despatch, provided the whole number of additional examiners shall not exceed four of each class, and that the total annual expenses of the Patent Office shall not exceed the annual receipts.
Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That the commissioner may require all papers filed in the Patent Office, if not correctly, legibly and clearly written, to be printed at the cost of the parties filing such