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III. CoTTON TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN AT SIX DECENNIAL PERIODS.

There is a constantly increasing demand for cotton, not only for clothing, &c., arising from the growth of population and the diffusion of wealth, but also for admixture with wool, as well as in the manufacture of cordage, twine and sail-cloth, which are new branches of trade to which cotton has recently been applied. The production of cotton ought to increase much greater than the population; for as civilization and commerce extend, the number that will consume cotton fabrics, and the annual consumption of each person, by reason of the greater productive power, will extend in a still greater ratio. The following is the

Cottox TRADE of GREAT BRITAIN, showING THE Sources of SUPPLY IN DECENNIAL

PERIods. 1806. 1816. 1826. 1836. 1846. 1856. American, .... 124,939 ... 166,077 .. 395,852 .. 764,707 . . 932,000 ... 1,758,295 Brazil,....... 51,034 ... 123,450 .. 55,590 ... 148,715 .. 84,000 . . 122,411

Egyptian, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47,261 .. 34,953 .. 59,600 ... 111,960 East Indies,... 7,787 . . 37,670 .. 64,699 . . 219,193 . . 49,500 . . 463,932 West Indies, .. 77,978 .. 42,235 ... 18, 188 ... 33,506 . . 9,000 ... 11,320

Bales,...... 261,738 .. 369,432 .. 581,590 ... 1,201,074 ... 1,134,100 . . 2,467,918

The cotton manufacture has been everywhere extending in the past quarter of a century, and consumption steadily gaining upon production. The weekly deliveries of cotton for consumption from the stocks warehoused in British ports have nearly doubled in the last ten years. In 1847 the consumption was but 20,259 bales per week; in 1859 it averaged 46,699 bales weekly. The consumption in the United States in 1847 was 427,967 bales; in 1857 it was 702,138 bales. The quantity of cotton taken for consumption in the United Kingdom has been as

follows:*
BALEs of 400 LBs.

—----——,

Year. Week. 1847, . . . . . . . ... 1,105,998 bales of 381 lbs. - - 1,053,492 - - 20,259 1848, . . . . . . . . ... 1,505,331 - - 393 “ - - 1,479,294 - - 28,448 1849,.......... 1,586,608 st 395 “ . . . 1,568,861 - - 30,170 1850, . . . . . . . ... 1,513,007 4. 386 “ - - 1,461,176 • ** 28,100 1851,... . . . . . . . 1,662,585 -- 390 “ - - 1,622,566 - - 31,203 1852,....... ... 1,911,558 -- 393 “ - - 1,875,002 - - 36,058 1853, . . . . . ... ... 1,854,610 - 4 396 “ - - 1,837,287 - - 35,533 1854,........ ... 1,949,327 & 4 401 “ - - 1,954,355 - - 37,583 1855, . . . . . . . . . . 2,099,298 * - 398 “ - - 2,085,766 - - 49,111 1856, . . . . . . ... . 2,263,899 ... 407 “ - - 2,303,764 - - 44,303 1857, . . . . . ... . . 1,960,566 -- 401 “ - - 1,962,829 - - 37,749 1858,. . . . . . . . . . 2,174,559 -- 412 “ - - 2,241,785 - - 43,111 1859,. . . . . . . . . . 2,294,310 ... 423 “ - - 2,428,358 - - 46,699

REVIEW of Cotton AND SPINDLEs.

Arerage weight

No. of per- Average of cotton

on 3 emi- Increase. Cotton consumed. Increase. consumption No. of consumed ployed in of cotton spindses. annuall

cotton mills. per hand. per of.

lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.

1856 ... 379,213 ... .... . 891,400,000 .. - - - - ... 2,351 .. 28,010,217 .. 81% 1859 .. 415,423 ... 36,210 ... 976,600,000 .. 85,200,000 .. ** ... 30,759,36S .. ** 1860 .. 446,999 .. 81,576 ... 1,050,895,000 .. 74,295,000 .. 4- ... 33,099,056 .. **

*Ure's History, Vol. II., p. 375.

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SHOWING THE EXPORTS OF COTTON MANUFACTURES AND YARNS, (EXCLUSIVE OF LACE, HOSIERY AND THREAD,) AS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL EXPORTS ;

THE AVERAGE PRICE OF GOODS PER FARD AND YARN PER LB., AS COMPARED WITH THE PRICE OF COTTON IN EACH YEAR.

COTTON MANUFACTURES.

COTTON YARX.

Arerage
price of
bowed
cotton
at close
of year.

Erports of
cotton manu-
facturer and

yarn.

Total British
exports of all
descriptions.

£

Years.

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49,653,245
40,328,940
40,349,235
45,180,150
34,252,251
35,569,077
35,523,127
36,176,897
34,589,410
37,600,021
38,077,330
30,847,628
37,181,335
36,812,756
35,842,623
38,271,697
37,164,372

1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831

Average
per yard.

d.
177
15%
135
144
154

9
113
107
115

94
10$
83
81
7}

Quantity. Real value.
Yds.

£
252,884,029 18,158,172
189,263,731 .. 12,309,079
236,987,669 13,475,534
255,321,695 15,708,183
202,514,682 11,714,507
350,956,541 13,209,000
266,495,901 13,192,904
304,379,691 13,853,954
301,816,254 .. 12,980,644
344,651,133 14,444,255
336,466,698 14,233,010
267,060,534 9,866,623
365,492,804 12,948,035
363,328,431 12,483,249
402,617,196 12,516,247
444,578,498 14,119,770
421,385,303 12,136,513

19,822,193
14,937,527
15,489,715
18,103,487
14,234,290
16,035,643
15,498,734
16,551,544
15,606,591
17,579,651
17,439,739
13,357,961
16,493,613
16,078,654
16,493,121
18,253,511
16,111,532

d.
211
187
201
204
131
111
91
87
81
81
115
64
64

Quantity.

lbs.
9,241,548
15,740,675
12,717,382
14,743,675
18,085,410
23,032,325
21,526,469
26,595,468
27,378,986
34,605,510
32,641,604
42,179,521
44,878,774
60,506,751
61,441,251
64,645,342
63,821,440

..

1,674,021
2,628,448
2,014,181
2,395,304
2,519,783
2,826,643
2,305,830
2,697,590
2,625,947
3,135,396
3,206,729
3,491,338
3,545,578
3,595,405
3,976,874
4,133,741
3,976,019

Arerage
price of
bowed

cotton
Average at close
per lb. of year.

d. d.
438 211
40 181
38 203
387 201
338 131
294 114
25$ 91
241 87
937

87
215 81
231 115
194 64
187 64
174 69
151 64
157 63
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3 13-16 . .

1832 . .

1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838

1839 . .
1840 . .

1841

1842 . .

1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848

1849 . .
1850 .

1851

1852

1853

1854 .

1855

1856 . .

1857

1858 . .
1859 . .
1860 . .

86,450,594
39,667,347
41,649,191
47,372,270

53,368,572 ..

42,070,744

50,060,970 ..

53,233,580

51,406,430 . .
51,634,623 ..

47,381,023 .
52.279,709 . . -
. 24,600,730 .

58,584,292

60,111,082 ..

57,786,876
58,842,377
54,849,445
63,596,025
71,367,885
74,448,722

78,076,854 .

98,933,781
97,184,726

95,688,085 . .

115,826,948
122,066,107

16,223,389 ..
17,155,084 ..

19,338,367

20,888,020 ..
23,303,533 . .

19,683,931

22,986,602 .
23,236,638 ..
23,403,528 . .

22,252,778
20,658,684
22,362,435

24,993,843 ..
... 24,583,680 ..
. 22,165,083

21,638,688

. 26,775,135

28,257,401
30,088,836

29,878,087 ..

32,712,902
30,101,030

33,247,592 .
. 36,446,118 .

. 37,342,929

116,608,756 . . 130,411,529 . .

135,842,817

41,537,354 . 46,496,650 . .

50,217,892

461,045,503 ..
496,352,096 . .

555,705,899
557,515,701
637,667,627
531,373,663

690,077,622 ..

731,450,123

790,631,997 ..
751,125,624 ..

734,098,809
918,040,205

1,046,670,823 ..

1,091,686,069
1,065,460,589

942,540,160 . .

1,096,751,823

1,337,536,116 . .

1,358,182,941

1,543,161,789 ..
1,524,256,914 ..

1,594,591,659
1,690,553,209
1,935,180,506
2,031,282,913
1,974,283,869

2,321,540,622 ..
2,562,545,476 ..
... 40,342,819

2,775,450,905

11,500,630
12,451,060
14,127,352
15,181,431

... 17,183,167

12,727,989
15,544,733
16,378,445
16,302,220

12,887,220
15,168,464
17,612,146
. 18,030,608
16,701,632
16,207,103
15,710,857
20,071,046
21,873,697
23,454,810
23,223,432
. 25,817,249

. 23,409,700

. 26,047,197
. 28,417,543

. 28,642,340

31,957,875 37,038,538

14,985,810

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6 1-16

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4 15-16 . .
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IV. THE IMPORT OF COTTON INTO GREAT BRITAIN.

The progress of the cotton culture throughout the world, as shown by the importations into Great Britain, is curious. The
imports from the United States have increased from eighty-nine millions of pounds, in the year 1820, to nine hundred and sixty
millions, in 1859; while from Brazil, the imports in 1859 were less than in 1820; from the Mediterranean, (Egypt mainly,) it
has increased from one million to thirty-eight millions of pounds ; from the British East Indies, from twenty-three millions to
two hundred and fifty millions; from other countries, from two to ten millions; while from the British West Indies the product
has declined from ten millions of pounds to less than half a million. The extraordinary fluctuations in this history are demon-
strated in the following table, showing, 1. The imports in pounds from the United States; 2. From Brazil ; 3. From the
Mediterranean ; 4. From the British East Indies ; 5. From the British West Indies and British Guiana ; 6. From all other
sources, for each

year,

from 1820 to 1860. This history is rendered more interesting by the addition of the annual average
prices of three qualities of cotton in the British market during this long period. The comparative real values of these exports
were not fully recorded until the year 1854, since when they amounted as follow :
1854,
£20,175,000 1857,

£ 29,288,000 1855, 20,848,000 1858,

30,106,000 1856, 26,448,000 1859,

34,559,000

TABLE SHOWING THE QUANTITY AND VALUE OF Raw Cotton IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM FROM EACH SOURCE, WITH THE ANNUAL AVERAGE PRICE

OF UNITED STATES UPLANDS, BRAZILIAN AND PERNAMBUCO, AND East India Surat Cotton, IN THE LIVERPOOL MARKET, SINCE 1820.

MediterraYears. United States. Brasil.

nean.
Ibs.
lbs.

lbs.
1820 89,999,174 .. 29,198,155 .. 472,684
1821 93,470,745 .. 19,535,786 .. 1,131,567
1822 101,031,766 .. 24,705,206 .. 518,804 ..
1823 . . 142,532,112 53,514,641 1,492,413

92,187,662 .. 24,849,552 8,699,924
1825 139,908,699 33,180,491 .. 22,698,075
1826 .. 130,858,203 9,871,092 .. 10,308,617

ANNUAL AVERAGE PRICE.
British
British

Other Grand total-quantities.
East Indies. West Indies. countries.

Uplands. Brazil. Surat.
lbs.
lbs.
lbs.

Ibs.

tons, at p. Ib. at p. lb. at p. Ib.
23,125,825 .. 6,836,816 .. 2,040,001 151,672,655 .. 67,711 .. 11/d... 157d. .. 81d.
8,827,107 .. 7,138,980., 2,432,435 .. 132,536,620 .. 59,168 .. 91 125 . 97
4,554,225 .. 10,295,114.. 1,732,513 .. 142,837,628 .. 63,767 .. 87 .. 11}
14,839,117 7,034,793 1,989,427. 191,402,603 85,448 81 12 64
16,420,005 .. 6,269,306 953,673 . 149,380,125 66,688 81 .. 114 64
20,005,872 .. 8,193,948 .. 4,018,206 .. 228,005,291 .. 101,788 .. 115 15$ 67
20,985,135 .. 4,751,070 .. 833,284 . 177,607,401 .. 79,289 .. 64 104 54

1824 ..

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3,951,882 . .
3,240,169 . .
3,791,628 . .
... 389,396,559 . .
3,649,402 .. 592,488,010 ..
5,061,513 . .
4,441,250 . .
3, 135,224 . .
3,054,641 ..

1827 . . 216,924,812 . . 20,716.162 . .

1828 ... 151,752,289 . . 29.143.279 . .
1829 . . 157,187,396 . . 28,878,386 .

1830 . . 210,885,358 ... 33,092,072 .
1831 , , 219,333,628 .. 81,695,761 .
1832 . , 219,756,753 .. 20,109,500 . .
1833 .. 237,506,758 . . 28,463,821 ..
1834 . . 269,203,075 . . 19,291,396 . .
1835 . . 284,455,812 . . 24,986,409 . .
1836 . . .289,615,692 .. 27,501,272 . .
1837 ... 320,651,716 . . 20,940, 145 . .
1838 . . 431,437,888 . . 24,464,505 . .
1839 . . .311,597,798 ... 16,971,979 . .
1840 . . 487,856,504 ... 14,779,171 . .
1841 .. 358,240,964 ... 16,671,348 . .
1842 . . 414,030,779 . . 15,222,828 . .
1843 .. 574,738,520 ... 18,675,123 ..
1844 .. 517,218,622 . . 21,084,744 . .
1845 . . 626,650,412 . . 20, 157,633 ..
1846 . . 401,949,393 ... 14,746,321 ..
1847 ... 364,599,291 ... 19,966,922 ..
1848 . . 600,247,488 ... 19,971,378 .
1849 .. 634,504,050 ... 30,738,133 ..
1850 . . 493,153,112 ... 30,299,982 . .
1851 .. 596,638,962 ... 19,339,104 . .
1852 .. 765,630,544 . . 26,506,144 . .
1853 . , 658,451,796 . . 24,190,628 ..
1854 . . 722,151,346 ... 19,703,600 . .
1855 .. 681,629,424 . . 24,577,952 . .
1856 .. 780,040,016 . . 21,830,704 . .
1857 . . 654,758,048 . . 29,910,832 . .
1858 .. 833,237,776 ... 18,617,872 . .
1859 . . 961,707,264 . . 22,478,960 . .

5,372,562 . .
7,039,574 . .
6,049,597 . .
3,428,798 . .
8,460,559 - -
9,163,692 .
1,020,268 ..
1,6S 1,625 . .
8,451,630 . .
8,226,029 . .
9,326,979 . .
6,409,466 . .
6,429,671 ..
8,324,937 . .
9,097,180 ..
4,489,017 . .
9,674,076 . .
12,406,327 . .
14,614,699 . .
14,278,447 ..
4,814,268 . .
7,231,861 ..
17,369,843 ..
18,931,414 ..
16,950,525 ..
48,058,640 . .
28,353,575 . .
23,503,003 ..
32,904,153 . .
34,616,848 . .
24,882,144 . .
38,248, 11.2 . .
38,106,096 . .

20,930,542 . .
32,187,901 ..
24,857,800 .

12,481,761

25,805,153 . .
35,178,625 .
32,755,164 . .
32,920,865 ..
41,429,011 .
75,949,845 .
51,532,072 . .
40,217,734 . .
47,172,939 .
77,011,839 . .
97,388,153 . .
92,972,609 . .
65,709,729 . .
88,639,776 ..
58,437,426 . .
34,540,143 . .
83,934,614 ..
84, 101,961 . .
70,838,515 .
118,872,742 . .
122,626,976 ..
84,922,432 . .
181,848,160 . .
119,836,009 . .
145,179,216 . .
180,496,624 ..
250,338,144 . .
132,722,576 ..
192,330,880 ..

7, 165,881 ..
5,893,800 .
4,640,414 . .

3,429,247

2,401,685 . .

2,040,428
2,084,862
2,293,794

228,913

446,529 . .
703,696 . .
350,428 . .
409, 110 . .
468,452 . .
462,784 ..
1,443,568 .

367,808
592,256

. 1,743,799

... 1,825,964

... 1,484,670.
1,815,270 . .
1,714,337 . .
1,595,702 . .
1,529,356 . .
1,248, 164 . .
866,157 . .
1,533, 197 . .
593,603 ..
1,260,444 . .
1,707,194 ..
1,394,447 ..
1,201,857.
793,933 . .
640,437 . .
944,307 . .

2,564,831

5,976,008

6,439,328

- 11,148,032 ... 10,773,616

1,338,950 . .

1,153,818 . .
... 644,216 . .
978,067 . .
... 583,467 . .

725,336 . .
. 1,140,113 . .

598,587 . .

827,036 . .
1,074,164 . .
... 2,090,698 . .
1,377,653 . .
3,960,992 ..
2,084, 162 ..
1,730,081 ..
6,992,755 .

7,986,160 . .

272,448,909
... 227,760,642
222,767,411

... 363,702,963
507,850,57

487,992,355

713,020, 161

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288,674,853 . .
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406,959,057 . .
407,286,783 . .

531,750,086 ..
673, 193,116 . .
646,111,304 . .
721,979,953 ..
467,856,274 . .
474,707,615 . .

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128,873 . .
128,050 . .
135,561 ..

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