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1800 was....

1850 «

1820 “ 1830 «

The editors then show, in detail, by the May number, “ that vast sums had been furnished by the English and French governments, in the prosecution of these schemes. Disappointment has attended them all

. The French government was disappointed in Algiers; the English, in India, after an expenditure of $1,750,000, where the climate is an insuperable bar to the growth of the proper variety," caused by the want of rain at the proper

time. The United States' capacity to produce is not now limited; but the limit must come, and the great question is, how will the future wants of the world be supplied when the capacity of the South to produce cotton is reached? What rival can be built up that will be able to supply the increasing excess of annual demand over production? The United States crop in 35,000 bales. | 1840 was.

2,177,532 bales. 425,000

2,796,706
870,415
1860 «

4,600,000 The crop of 1840 sold for 84 cents per pound, and that of 1860, which was more than double in quantity, at 10 cents. In the last ten years the

crop has increased 674 per cent., and will probably double in the next ten, but still falling short of the demand. It is plain that a rival cottongrowing country cannot in any reasonable time lessen the importance of American cotton. Efforts have, however, been made in another direction, viz., to find a substitute for cotton. Flax would have long since rivaled it, had it been adapted to machine spinning. That it has not, has, it is alleged, been owing to the faulty manner in which it has been cured. This difficulty is now said to be so far overcome that flax comes in direct rivalry with cotton, as a raw material.

The editors then devote eight pages to show, in an able article, there is a hope, with Mr. S. RANDALL's late invention, to cottonize flax so as to be spun by machinery. We are glad to find there is a prospect that we can have an article in the aid of cotton, to supply one of the great wants of man, “ food, fire and clothing." It is a great desideratum, we say, in aid of cotton. Let it prosper.

The superiority of our cotton-unique--combining warp as well as weft, and its necessity to keep in motion the machinery of Great Britain, on the Continent and in the United States, has been repeatedly acknowledged. The cause, however, we do not see laid down in the books or by the press. We believe we were the first to discover and to construct the following table, in proof, after the perusal of Maury and BLODGET's works, showing the fall of water in our best cotton States, of 20 inches per annum, in our summer months, during which period little or none falls in other cotton-producing countries; and these States had the heat of the Bahama Islands-an extraordinary fact.

We repeat, we are the master of the position in raising cotton, particularly as compared with India. We have the advantage of the favoring Gulf Stream, and less than one-fourth the distance to make short voyages to and from Liverpool, and generally with return cargoes of salt, iron, crockery and passengers, to reduce the cost of freight.

The late Mr. N. Biddle, President of the Bank of the United States, the great regulator of our domestic and foreign exchanges--and events have proved him a sound thinker, as respects the exchanges, the balances of trade between Great Britain and France—was right when he said that cotton was destined to be the medium of effecting them.

He employed, it is well known, the capital of the Bank of the United States, and, by loans, encouraged the emigration of the sons of the “first families of Virginia” and Maryland from the worn-out lands of their fathers, with their share of the slaves, to buy and settle the new and fertile cotton lands of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and West Tennessee.

The cheap lands they purchased in these States, with the operatives they carried with them from their fathers' roofs, made

first rate mortgages; which, through the agency of Mr. BIDDLE and the Bank of the United States, the bankers in Threadneedle-street, London, and the manufacturers of Manchester and Lancashire were glad to cash, on the promise of their cotton crop, dollar for dollar. It was thus the production of cotton “ of the right kind” that has stimulated to its immense proportions our foreign trade.

With the labor from our several States, settled in California, we have had the estimated average yield for several years of $50,000,000, to form the basis of new banks, and to aid us in paying foreign balances of trade. It is, however, the productive labor in our cotton crop, demanded in this country and in Europe, and even in India and China, that now yields us at the rate of $250,000,000 per annum, to exchange for the labor of Europe, Asia and Africa. This exchange of labor it is that centres the balance of exchange in the port of New-York, and makes the banks of Europe subservient to ours.

The trade with Africa is now trifling. It may be largely increased in covering the present nakedness of millions of her savage and brutalized inhabitants, and thus, by the means of commerce with them, open the door to the Christian missionary of their own color, who can stand the climate, to evangelize millions on millions of benighted and half-cannibal creatures, who are now, by all accounts, but a few degrees removed above their gorillas. Here are ample fields for the philanthropist to cut up, at the root, the slave trade of the savage men of Africa, “ selling property in man,” and in their own children, too; while in this country, it is to be hoped, we will continue to improve the African race as we have done for the last one hundred years, so as to fit them finally for freedom. It cannot be a sudden work, except with fatal results. It must be gradual. This will finally take place, as it is understood the blacks increase three per cent. faster than the whites by their side; and they flourish with the plant they cultivate, by a wise order of Providence. The whites cannot stand the humidity and heat of the climate, while a check of migration from the North to the South will accelerate the period of the gradual and prospective emancipation of the colored population.

The Climatology of BLODGET establishes the fact, that slaves in West Texas, and from West Arkansas and Kansas, on the belt of land reaching to the Pacific, are worth nothing to raise cotton with any profit, except on the east quarter of Texas, where there is a fall of forty-five inches per annum, with fifteen inches in summer. In the west part of Texas, and extending across the Rio Grande, we have the Llanos Estancados," or staked desert plains, nearly without water-only three to six inches per annum. Then the desert of Mapimi. The fall of water per annum on this belt of land, tapering off, as you approach Fort Yumas on the Colorado, that falls into the Pacific, to three inches per annum- of course totally unfit to raise cotton. This is also the case to raise cotton from the Mexican northern boundary, south to the Isthmus of Panama, of the right kind, although it is admitted that native cotton—a perennial plant—has been grown in this region and other parts of South America, time out of mind, and before the discovery by Cortez. So, also, in Egypt, and on the coast of the Mediterranean, from the time of HERODOTUS. In Africa it is a native tropical tree, a perennial plant of a short, staple, woolly character. A Table of Heat, Moisture and Production of the Cotton States, prepared from the

official sources of L. BLODGET, by J. E. B.

Heat and fall

of rain during the four

season 8.
$ E. Blod get's 18-

othemal line
of tempera-

Fall of Rain in

East Texas.

E Arkansas.

Se Louisiana.

B & C Tenno886e.

& Mississippi.

S & Alabama.

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Florida.

156 S. Carolina.

Price, Cente.

Orop in Bales.

Years.

13 15 12 10

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12

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Spring, .. 70° to 60°

13 .. 13 .. 15 .. 15 .. 15 .. 12 .. 12 10., 1880 .. 870,415 .. 9.9 Summer,. 82° “ 80°

15 .. 15 ..

20 .. 20 .. 20., 20.. 15 .. 25 1840 .. 2,177,532 .. 8.5 Autumn,. 70* " 65o ..

12
12 .. 10..

12 1850 .. 2,796,706 11.3 Winter,.. 50° “ 50° .. .. 12 .. 15. 18 12 .. 10..

1860

4,600,000 .. 11.5 Fall p. an,

52 .. 55 ..

59 .. 52 Experience has shown that there is no part of the world better adapted to raising flax than our Northern States, and we presume that there is no difficulty with our Western States. It is, therefore, of vast importance, that a machine and process be invented to cottonize flax, so as to be spun by machinery. A premium of $100,000, or more, would be a cheap rate to perfect and secure the invention. In the mean time, we say again, " let us be thankful for the good (warp and weft cotton) the gods give us," and protect this great branch of national industry.

J. E. B.

TOLEDO-PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.

As

It was foreseen by sagacious men, at a period when nearly the whole interior region of our country was a wilderness, that, on the harbor at the western extremity of Lake Erie, a great commercial city would grow up with the growth of the extensive and fertile country around it, to which it would offer the nearest lake port. The estuary of the Maumee River affords the best harbor, all things considered, of Lake Erie. this estuary was navigable fourteen miles above its entrance into the bay of the same name, the lake waters setting back that distance, the precise location of the future city was, for several years, keenly contested by Maumee City and Perrysburg, at the head of its navigable waters, and by Manhattan, at its entrance into the bay. During this contest, each place promulgated the most extravagant stories of the insalubrity of its rivals. These stories were extensively copied from the local press into the papers of the larger Lake Erie cities, several of which apprehended a successful rival in the new city. There was a basis of truth to give support to these exaggerations. Like all new settlements on a rich soil, especially on large rivers, the first settlers suffered much from malarial disorders; first, in the form of remittent fevers, afterwards subsiding into intermittents, and these, growing milder and less frequent from year to

year, until Toledo may now challenge a comparison, in point of salubrity, with the most favored city of the land. The mortality, as ascertained by the census of 1860, for the previous year, was one in sixtyfour of its population, which is quite up to the rate of its average mortality of late years. It is deemed proper to be thus explicit in regard to the healthfulness of this new city, because of the extreme prejudice which still remains, in a great measure, uncorrected in the public mind on this point. This prejudice has materially retarded its growth and prosperity.

The location of Toledo is, fortunately, highly favorable in many repects for the growth of a large city. It embraces both sides of a fine harbor, averaging one-third of a mile in width and several miles in length. Indeed, the whole length of the bay and estuary, from the lake to the foot of the rapids, eighteen miles, may be set down as harbor room for Toledo, when its growth shall require it. The banks of this harbor rise directly from the water to an elevation of fifteen feet, in the bay, rising to sixty-two feet, at the foot of the rapids at Maumee City, with a gradual rise towards the interior about in the same proportion. The harbor affords good facilities for navigation. It is easy of entrance ; has a depth of water ranging from twelve to thirty feet; is well protected from high winds; is little affected by the river floods, which rarely rise more than five or six feet above ordinary lake level; and never suffers injury to its shipping from the breaking up of ice on the river. This exemption it owes to the distance (nine miles) from the foot of the lower rapids of the Maumee, and to the great width of the river which admits lake tide to the rapids. It is only when heavy gales up or down the lake drive in or draw out the lake waters that its level is affected to the material injury of navigation. These gales usually occur in November, and seldom interrupt navigation more than two or three times in a season, or more than a day or two at a time. From the description it will appear evident that the harbor is convenient, safe, and otherwise of great merit. The entrance to it, through the bay, has a bar having but nine or ten feet of water over it, when the lake is low, and requiring an expenditure of some $50,000 to dredge a channel of sufficient width and depth to admit the passage of vessels drawing twelve feet. The outer harbor, under the south cape of the bay, can be entered, in the ordinary stage of water of the lake, with a draught of from twelve and one-half to fourteeen feet.

Such are the natural positive merits of the harbor and site of Toledo, as a commercial city. Its relative claims depend on its position in reference to the extent and fertility of the country which would be more conveniently accommodated in its commercial operations at this than at rival lake ports. The extent of this country may be approximately estimated, by drawing lines of equal distance between it and Cleveland, eastwardly, on one hand, and between it and Detroit, northwestwardly, on the other side.

These lines, extended to the Ohio River on the one side and to Lake Michigan on the other, embrace a very large area of country admirably adapted to support a dense population. The eastern limit embraces Columbus, and includes quite half of the State of Ohio. The northeastern line passes north of Jackson and Grand Rapids, embracing one-fifth of the lower peninsula of Michigan. Southwestward these lines, extended, em

brace nearly all of Kentucky, two-thirds of Indiana and one-fourth of Illinois. This portion of these States is more properly within the range of the commercial influence of Toledo than that of Chicago. Toledo is the nearest lake port for Dayton, Cincinnati, Madison, Evansville, Louisville, New-Albany and other Ohio River towns between Portsmouth and Paducah ; and it should be the lake point of connection and interchange of all their trade with the Canadas, the New-England States and Europe. Whether the late commerce of Cairo and the lower Mississippi shall be done chiefly through Toledo or Chicago is yet to be determined, when the railway facilities between that great region and the lake cities shall have been connected and arranged so as to give full play to the natural advantages of each of these ports.

The wide region above described is naturally within the commercial control of Toledo. We will now go into an examination of the extent of the artificial aids that come in, to secure to it what nature had previously furnished. In our day, proximity, in a commercial sense, has more relation to cost and time than to mere lineal distance. Canals and railways have brought remote districts into intimate relations, and are doing much to change the channels of interior commerce. They also are bringing land carriage, in many places, into competition with some of the great water-ways of commerce. Of all our navigable waters, the great lakes of the interior offer the most perfect facilities to commerce. Their inter-continental position, and the deep indentations into the lands, which, at remote points, they penetrate, give them a commercial power, in all directions, which waits only the dense peopling of their widely extended shores to make them fields of the most active commerce the world has ever witnessed. The purity of their waters gives to steam vessels (which are rapidly superseding sail vessels) greater safety and economy than they can enjoy on the turbid waters of the great rivers or the salt water of the ocean. The atmosphere over these lakes has an extraordinary purity and health-giving vigor, that is well worth the consideration of navigators and commercial men. These superiorities will avail much to make permanently cheap freights. No where can vessels, whether of wood or iron, find more or better raw materials for their construction than on these borders; and the fuel for making steam exists in inexhaustible coal beds at various points near their navigable waters. The generally received estimate of the cost to the shipper of freights on the lakes and on ordinary canals and rail-roads, per ton per mile, is proximately represented by the following figures : By lakes,..

3 mills. canals,

“ rail-roads, These figures, which pre-suppose a fair profit to the carrier, make it plain that canals and railways, in the West, to make a profit on freights during the season of navigation, should seek a lake harbor by the shortest and best route. When the lake mart is reached, cheap water transportation is offered, by way of New-York and Montreal, to and from all parts of the world.

The opening of the enlarged Erie Canal and the cheapening of the Canadian canals from the upper lakes to Montreal, will, this year, give a new impetus to the water transport between the ocean and the lakes. A short account of the canals and railways which have their lake terminus

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