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in Toledo, will give many readers, hitherto uninformed respecting them, some idea of the advantages which these artificial channels have added to its commercial power, present and prospective.

Practically considered, these canals are two, connecting the Ohio River, at Cincinnati and Evansville, with Lake Erie at Toledo. They unite seventy miles above Toledo, whence the main trunk, six feet deep and sixty feet wide, becomes common to both, down to its entrance into the harbor, near the centre of the city. 1. The Wabash and Erie Canal was first constructed. It passes along the valleys of the Maumee and Wabash rivers, in a southwesterly course, from Toledo to Terre Haute, and thence south across the country to Evansville. It is four hundred and sixty (460) miles long, being the longest unbroken line of canal in the world. Its course is near the middle line of country, of which Toledo is the lake port; and so in the natural line of its main traffic. 2. The Miami and Erie Canal unites with the Wabash and Erie seventy miles above Toledo, and, by a line nearly south, traverses the rich Miami valley and joins the Ohio River at Cincinnati, making a nearly direct water channel between that city and Toledo, 247 miles in extent.

These canals would insure, for their lake terminus, a great destiny, independent of any location and arrangement of the railways that could be devised, to compete with them. Canals, in this country, are now out of fashion. The furore of our fast people for rail-road construction, and the policy of their shareholders and bondholders to make a large showing of freight receipts, at whatever sacrifice, have, for the time, by taking away from the canals their legitimate business, thrown them into the background. English canals, in aggregate earnings, yield better dividends than their rail-roads. Such will be the probable effect in this country of well-situated and well-managed canals, as soon as competing rail-roads charge freights high enough to give a fair profit on their cost. When such rates are charged, there need be no hostile rivalry between these equally valuable instruments of traffic. Each has its appropriate business, which is not antagonistic to that of the other. Indeed, they are naturally co-operative, and, working together, build up towns and villages which give an increasing profit to both. They are most profitable when working side by side, as they now do, on our best routes of interior commerce.

Indeed, along the borders of water-ways much more efficient than canals, to wit, the great lakes, Long Island Sound, Hudson and Connecticut Rivers, some of the most successful of our rail-roads are operated.

The water-ways of Toledo, by lake and canal, facilitate navigation in several directions, and to a large extent. By lake, west to Chicago,.

800 miles.
northwest to Superior City,....
northeast and east to Ogdensburg and Oswego, 500

850

By canal, southwest to Evansville,.

south to Cincinnati,..

2,150

460 miles.
247

707

The rail-roads, of which there are six important lines centering in Toledo, radiate more completely, and, therefore, have commercial command of a

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65 202

93

greater extent of country than the water-ways. The direct destinations of trains, leaving the city, are as follow: To Cleveland,

112 miles. “ Detroit,.

The distance from Toledo to Chicago by “ Cincinnati,..

the Northern Indiana, known as the “ Air Chicago by Mich. So., 243 Line" Rail-Road, is 232 miles. This is the “ St. Louis,

459 shortest practicable route across the penin“ Elkhart by Air Line,. 124 eula of Michigan, and between the cities of

Chicago and Toledo.

1,205 The population of Toledo, though still remarkably small compared with its commercial facilities and business, increased, from 1850 to 1860, in a larger proportion than any other lake city, except Chicago, as the following figures, derived from the United States census returns of the two periods, will show:

Population. 1859.

1860.

Increase Per C.
Chicago,

29,963
109,430

205
Toledo,.

3,829
13,784

260
Milwaukie,

20,061
45,325

124
Detroit,

21,019
46,834

122
Cleveland,

21,400
43,550

105
Buffalo,..

42,261

81,541 Erie,...

5,850
11,113

90 The same proportionate increase, continued to 1870, will give Toledo a population of 50,000. We think no one, well informed of the character of the country within the commercial control of the young city and the manifold facilities for concentration which its position invites, from lake, canal and rail-road, will anticipate a less favorable result.

Having described the position of Toledo, its natural and artificial advantages for commerce and the progressive increase of its population, let us now turn our attention to the main branches of its business during the calendar and fiscal year_1860. The figures that follow are drawn from reliable official data. The branch of business connected with and embracing transportation is the most considerable, and, probably, in all its parts and dependencies, yields the largest returns and supports the greatest number of people. We give here chiefly the eastward-bound movement, in aggregate quantities, as the general reader cannot be expected to take an interest in details.

Grain.-Embracing flour, computed at five bushels to the barrel, it appears that 14,504,903 bushels of grain were brought into Toledo during the year 1860. To place, in its true light, the relative position of this city, in the grain movement from west to east, we here present a table exhibiting this movement, which needs no comment. Flour, at all the ports, is counted in bushels, at five to the barrel:

1859.

1860. Tide-water at Albany,.. 21,636,700

* 46,867,600
Chicago,
20,000,000
36,500,000

821
Toledo,
7,250,000
14,500,000

100 Milwaukie,.... 6,500,000

11,000,000

691 This table uses round numbers, which are approximately correct. In the grain trade, Toledo has, for three years, stood, among the lako receiving and distributing ports, next to Chicago. It develops rapidly,

Increase
Per C#.

from the double effect of the opening of new fields for its culture, and the completion of new channels for its transport. RECEIPTS OF Flour, Wueat, Corn, &c., AT TOLEDO, 1869, 1860.

Flour-Barrels.

Wheat-Bushels.

1859.
1860.
1859.

1860. Receipts at Toledo,.... 739,419 800,768 2,312,683 5,341,190 Shipments, chiefly by lake,

803,700

5,033,836 Corn-Bushels.

Rye-Bushels.
1859.
1860.
1869.

1860. Receipts at Toledo,.... 714,291 .. 5,386,951

35,216 Shipments,...

. 5,299,026 A yearly increasing business is done at Toledo in packing pork and beef, but it is still small compared with the favorable position for this operation. Slaughtering, for packing, was commenced in a small way last fall. PROVISIONS. 1860.

HIDES.

1860. Pork, barrels received,. 141,283 ' Receipts,...

.lbs., 5,033,000 Beef, do. 66,819 Shipments,.

5,283,000

208,102 Shipped of both,...... 215,296

Butter, Lard, Oil-cake, dc.-A large quantity, but not ascertainable. The shipments of flour, grain and provisions, and, indeed, of most other heavy articles, was chiefly by lake." The Cleveland and Toledo Rail-Road carried eastward 96,000 bbls. flour and 158,000 bushels of wheat. LUMBER—White Pinefeet.

1859.

1860. Receipts by lake,

22,316,963 37,868,536 Manufactured by mills in Toledo,.

8,000,000 Total,.......

44,868,536 The stock left over was large, so that the above is not much more than was distributed, from this point, by canals and rail-roads. There were shipped of laths and shingles a due proportion to the lumber. Many of the latter were manufactured in Toledo, from bolts brought from the pineries.

Cabinet woods, chiefly of black walnut, were received by canal and rail-roads, and shipped down the lake, to the amount of 14,000,000 feet. Square timber, to the amount of 256,000 cubic feet, was sent eastward. This was of oak, of which the country, on and near the harbor, has an abundance of excellent quality for ship-building.

Salt.The receipts this year were smaller than usual, a large stock having been held over. It all came by lake, 106,994 barrels, of which 5,000 barrels, Turk's Island, came in a schooner direct from Boston, by way of the St. Lawrence, the outward cargo having been lumber from this place. Of the rest, the works of Syracuse furnished all but a small quantity, which came from the new salt works on Saginaw Bay.

Manufactures.—Manufactures and the mechanic arts increase naturally, pari passu, with commerce and population in all cities of the northern temperate zone, and especially when elevated above the ocean level.

Toledo has an elevation of six hundred feet, giving it a bracing, healthimparting atmosphere. It is, in some measure, participating in the benefits which cities generally are, more and more, receiving, from the in

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creasing tendency of this great department of human industry to concentrate within and near their borders, This tendency is strengthened by every improvement in machinery and in the economy of its use; and so powerfully is it strengthened, that the physical as well as the moral power of mankind seems destined, ere long, to be nearly monopolized by cities and their suburbs.

Though of recent origin, with all departments of labor in a formative condition, Toledo makes progress, in this direction, not unworthy a record in this magazine, as the following statistics, taken from the United States census returns of 1850 and 1860, will testify :

1850.

1860. Number of establishments producing over $500 value, 38

100 Capital invested,.....

$ 98,200 $ 660,700 Value of materials used,..

165,295

997,889 Number of hands employed, male,

231

885 female,

32

223 Annual wages paid,.

$ 75,240 $318,588 Annual product,

304,525

1,966,240 Ship and canal-boat building were not reported in either census. Toledo is well located for a profitable prosecution of this branch of manufacture, having excellent timber easily accessible, and furnishing more freights than

any other city of equal population in the country. The construction of buildings, for residence and business, is an important manufacture in all flourishing cities. We are unable to give the figures to exhibit that of Toledo, but it may be safely inferred that it has been in full proportion to the increase of population and general business.

Schools.- In the excellence of its educational establishments Toledo is unsurpassed by any city of its numbers in our country. Its highschool building and grounds have cost over fifty thousand dollars, and are ornamental to the city. Several of the ward-school buildings are also in good architectural style, and all are well adapted to their use. A liberal compensation and a good position in society are enjoyed by a very efficient corps of teachers in the various departments. Almost the whole expense of education in these schools is defrayed by the city, which collects a liberal annual tax for this object. This is cheerfully paid, the public schools being generally looked upon as the chief glory of the city. Much of the merit of their organization and improvement is due to one public-spirited citizen, to whom be everlasting honor.

Ruil-Road Concentration. The concentration of the six rail-roads that come in from various directions to one point, and, for passengers, into one union depot near the centre of the city, is admirable. A middle ground of shoal water, in the harbor, of great length, has been availed of and filled in by earth, necessarily removed to give the roads a favorable grade up to the level of the country in the rear. On this middle ground extensive depot buildings and warehouses have been erected, and miles of quay along the navigable water have been constructed, giving unequalled facilities for the exchange of freights and passengers, by the rail-roads with each other, and between cars, lake vessels and canal-boats. Not one of the six rail-roads passing through the city to their common depot crosses a street on grade, but is low enough below the surface to admit of convenient bridging. The entrance of the canal being at the same point, one can hardly imagine a more perfect ar

rangement for centralizing a great commerce, with the least inconvenience and danger to the citizens, and the greatest facilities for the interchange and storage of commodities.

To one interested in the subject of the progress and destination of population on this continent, the history and prospects of Toledo will not be without interest. The centre of population and industrial power is moving, unmistakably, in the direction of the great lakes. It seems certain that, at a time not very distant, it will have reached and established itself there, and, in the most favorable positions, have gathered men into cities of greater magnitude than have yet been reared in any age or country.

The commanding geographically-commercial position of the harbor at the western extremity of Lake Erie attracted the attention of sagacious men when that whole region was yet the favorite home of the red man. Soon after WAYNE's victory, in 1794, the Indians ceded to the United States a tract of twelve miles square around the foot of the rapids of the Maumee River. This embraced most of the harbor and Fort Miami, then held by the British. During the war of 1812, Fort Meigs was built at the foot of the rapids. The tract of land on which it was built was bought, after the close of the war, by YATES & MCINTYRE, of Albany, and its river front laid out for a city, named “ Orleans of the North.' To promote this speculation, the steamer WALK-IN-THE-WATER, the first steamer on the lake waters, was built by Dr. STEWART and others of Albany; and Mr. Lovett, a distinguished member of Congress of the same place, was made resident agent. All the northwestern quarter of Ohio (except the twelve miles square) and the whole surrounding region southwest, west and north, was owned and inhabited only by the Indians. The WALK-IN-THE-WATER never reached “ Orleans of the North.” It drew too much water to go above the harbor on which Toledo is now situated. About the same time, other points on the estuary of the Maumce, below the foot of the rapids, and, among them, a portion of the site of Toledo, became the subjects of speculations, by associations of wealthy individuals—each location being claimed to be the true position for the great future city. Perrysburg, a mile below Fort Meigs, was laid out by the United States government, and lots in the plat sold, in 1817, at high prices. All these town speculations, except that on which a portion of Toledo now stands, proved disastrous to the owners, as have, also, several others entered into subsequently, in anticipation of the construction of the great canals. The commanding position of Toledo would warrant its designation of the “New-Orleans of the Lakes.” It may become more important than the New-Orleans of the rivers. The course of trade of the country, to a great extent, southwest and west of the lakes, tends strongly to their nearest good harbors. Our secession war is giving that tendency a new impulse which promises to be permanent. Chicago and Toledo will profit most by this change in the course of trade, which can hardly fail, ere long, to give them a forward impulse stronger and more enduring than has been witnessed hitherto in the most flourishing cities of the continent. These cities are nearer and more accessible to the great industrial districts of the

world, to Western Europe, the Canadas and the old free States of our Union, than New-Orleans or St. Louis, and should, therefore, have the preference, in the interchange of commodities between these regions, so rich in accumulated wealth and exchangeable products, aud the great interior plain of North America

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