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30. Furniture and Upholstery, including Paper Hangings and Paper
Mache. 31. Iron and General Hardware. 32. Steel and Cutlery. 33. Works in Precious Metals and their Imitations and Jewelry. 34. Glass. 35. Pottery. 36. Manufactures not included in previous classes.
SECTION IV.-MODERN ARTS. 37. Architecture. 38. Paintings in Oil and Water Colors, and Drawings. 39. Sculpture, Models, Die-Sinking and Intaglios. 40. Etchings and Engravings.
Prizes in the form of medals will be given in Sections I., II., III., but none in Section IV.
Persons desirous of contributing must have their articles entered without delay, and accepted, as all articles, if to be sent by public conveyance, must be ready for shipment at New-York by the 1st of January, 1862. A brief description of the articles will be required, with the space they will probably occupy. The articles to be exhibited in Sections I., II., III., must have been produced since 1850.
Articles intended for exhibition in Section IV. (Fine Arts) are referred by the commissioners to a special committee of their own number, consisting of the Hon. EDWARD EVERETT, of Boston, Robert B. MINTURN, Esq., of New York, and ELI WHITNEY, Esq., of New Haven, to whom artists will address their communications.
Applications for admission of articles for exhibition must state the section and class under which such articles would come, and the space or area (in square feet) required for placing or hanging the same.
The application for the entry and reception of articles may be made to the chairman of the Executive Committee, at Washington, or to either of the commissioners or agents named below, who will forward the necessary papers to be executed by the applicant. Particular attention is called to the requirements of her Majesty's Commissioners. The following is the requirement in relation to entries from foreign countries :
“Her Majesty's Commissioners will communicate only through the commission which the government of each foreign country may appoint: and no article will be admitted from any foreign country without the sanction of such commission.”
No article, therefore, from this country will be admitted by her Majesty's Commissioners to the exhibition, unless they shall be approved or authorized by this commission, nor will any agent, representative or commissioner, other than such as may be appointed or accredited by this commission, be recognised by them.
It is expected that a vessel will be furnished by the government for conveying to London and return, free of charges, the articles entered and approved for the exhibition.
The importance of our country being fully represented at this exhibition is most manifest. Since the exhibition of 1851, the improvements in this country in implements, machinery and manufactures have, it is believed, been important, and it is a duty we owe to ourselves, as well as
to the countries of the Old World, that these improvements should be exhibited for the benefit of all. We trust that in this respect we shall . not be disappointed.
The undersigned make their appeal to their fellow-citizens in full confidence that our country will be properly represented in this great exhibition.
As soon as the entire regulations adopted by her Majesty's Commissioners are received, they will be published and furnished to all who may desire them. WM. H. SEWARD,
G. Dawson COLEMAN,
B. P. Johnson,
W. W. SEATON,
J. C. G. KENNEDY.
Names of commissioners and agents who may be addressed by persons desiring to exhibit:
EDWARD EVERETT, Boston,
JACOB M. HOWARD, Detroit, Michigan, Names of Executive Committee, office in the Department of the Interior, Washington, (No. 10 Patent Office Building :)
H. P. Johnson, Chairman. Prof. Joseph HENRY.
STEAM AND THE TELEGRAPI TO INDIA AND CHINA.
BY PERRY MOD. COLLINS.
1. TELEGRAPHIC AND STEAM COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SAN FRANCISCO AND Asia. II. STEAK TO JEDDO, HAKODADI, NAGASAKI, SHANGHAI, Amoy, Hong Kong, AUSTRALIA AND INDIA. III. TELEGRAPH UP THE Coast OF TIE NORTHWEST TO OREGON, WASHINGTON, VANCOUVEE (BRITISH) AND SITKA, (Russian,) TO THE ALUTIAN ISLANDS, OR ria BearinG'S STRAITS TO Asia, AND THENCE, via The AMOOR RIVER AND SIBERIA, OVERLAND TO Moscow. IV. LATERAL LINES, TO CONNECT WITH THE MAIN TRUNK LINE, TO JEDDO, PEKIN, SHANGHAI, HONG KONG AND AUSTRALIA; ALSO TO BOMBAY, BRIrish INDIA, PERSIA, THE CASPIAN SEA, CircasSIA AND GEORGIA, THUB UNITING THE WHOLE WORLD IN TELEGRAPHIC Uniox.
CAPE Race and San Francisco are united. London, Paris and St. Petersburg are now the same distance from San Francisco as Boston, Quebec or New-York. Space has been annihilated; the Atlantic and Pacific are no longer separated by oceans, deserts or mountains. One hundred and fifty thousand saplings and some five thousand miles of iron wire have done the work." We stand on both oceans at the same moment of time. The Pacific Telegraph Company has conquered time and space, and, in an incredibly short space of time, united the Atlantic with the Pacific.
It is only about a year since that this gigantic work was placed upon a working basis ; during the winter of 1860–61 the work of procuring the poles at the most available points was commenced, but it was not until the 20th day of June, 1861, that the actual work of erecting the line was comm
menced ; and on the 25th day of October, 1861, San Francisco spoke to New-York.
St. Joseph, in Missouri, is considered the starting point of the Pacific Company-about 2,200 miles to San Fransisco. This is properly the Pacific Telegraph, other independent companies occupying the space thence, distant from New-York say about 1,500 miles.
The government, by act of Congress, is to pay the company $40,000 a year for ten years. The line has cost, probably, about $350,000 ; of this, as yet, we have no positive data, but the cost will be much less than the most favorable estimate, many of the apparent and imaginary difficulties vanishing as they were approached by the workmen.
To HIRAM SIBLEY, Esq., of Rochester, the President of the Western Union Telegraph Company, probably more than to any other one man, we owe this gigantic enterprise. Sie has pursued it with faith, works and money, until triumphant success has crowned his earnest efforts.
Here, then, we find ourselves actually in telegraphic union with San Francisco. Are we to stop there? That is the next question. In looking west from San Francisco (for that seems to be our destiny) our eye falls
upon the shores of Asia and upon the thousand islands of the Indian Ocean, teeming with one-third the population of the whole globe, and opening up to our view all the dreams, visions, facts and fancies of all those who have, from the earliest times, contemplated unrestricted commerce with the populous and opulent Orient, India and the further Ind. Thus we find ourselves with the speed of lightning on the shores of the great Pacific Ocean, calmly awaiting a further and a greater stride, still westward ; because in our march to the Pacific we have reversed all the
old laws and usages of time-honored commerce, and the Orient has now become the Occident.
A telegraph is already in course of construction, connecting California with Oregon, and most probably an independent line, without any connection with a proposed Asiatic line, will reach Washington and Vancouver. This may be considered, then, as the utmost limit of telegraphic enterprise, as far as North America is concerned, at present. In looking west from the shores of the Pacific towards Asia, we find an immense expanse of water intervening, which would seem to preclude the idea of any further progress in the realization of telegraphic union. But brute instinct, as well as the reasoning power of man and the more unerring square, compass and level, have all determined that it is easier and quite as direct to go around a mountain rather than over it. Upon this theory, granting the Pacific Ocean to be a mountain over which we cannot reach Asia, and the distance being too great to tunnel it with a submerged cable, we must resort to the only plan left, and go around it. Taking, then, Vancouver as the western terminus of telegraphic communication, which is in about 50° N. L., we would ascend the coast to Sitka, the capital of Russian America, in about 56° N. L. Thence, following up the coast to Mount St. Elias, in 60° N., we would proceed northwest to Behring's Straits, 65° N. 168° W. L.
At this point the strait is about forty miles wide; hero, of course, submerged cables would unite the American to the Asiatic shore. In order to insure the union of the two worlds, at least four or five separate cables should be submerged, all of which would be united at the shoro ends. This would not only tend to preserve the cables from over-work, but render the possibility of breakage or other accident to the continuity of the line quite beyond doubt.
Leaving Behring's Straits, the Asiatic coast would be followed as far as practicable to the Anadir Kiver, whence the line would be extended across the head of the peninsula of Kamschatka to Penjinsk, at the northeastern extremity of the Sea of Okotsk, and thence around and along its shores to the mouth of the Amoor River, in 53° N., 140° E. L.
Here we stop, because the Russian government not only propose, but is in fact now engaged in constructing a line of telegraph which is to connect Europe with this point on the Pacific Ocean.
Pausing for a few moments at the Amoor, we find, in looking back along our track, that we have overcome the mountain of the Pacific by merely keeping the shore line or base of this mountain, and thus reached a point on the Asiatic shore where we can open communication overland to Europe,
We have ascended from 500 N. to 65°, and descended to 53', having overcome, in the mean time, 95° of longitude and 27° of latitude.
We scarcely need remind our readers, that although in ascending so high north so much out of a direct line from our starting point, in order to reach the opposite coast of Asia, we have in all probability not increased the distance at all.
lo doing this we have merely followed a great circle, while the known spheroidity of the earth will prove the hypothesis that it is quite as cany to go around as over it.
By looking at the map of the North Pacific it will be perceived that from a point on the Russian-American coast wot of Hitka, at Alyanka, the Alutian Islands form, and separate the North Atlantic frota Kamschatka or Behring Sea
These islands are prolongated towards the coast of Kamschatka, and, with Copper and Behring Islands, form, as it were, a succession of steps between the two continents.
Again, from the southern point of Kamschatka, the Kurile Islands enclose the Sea of Okotsk, and, leading to Jesso or Sak-hah-lin, conduct, by short intervals of water, to the main coast of Asia.
Again, between Alyaska and Behring's Straits there are other islands, such as Nunivak, Gores, St. Lawrence, &c., which might be used as posts for submerged cables, in order to reach Asia. But in considering all these island routes, we must look to the practicability and expense of submerged cables, as compared with the almost exclusive land route, via the straits.
If we follow the Alutian and then the Kurile Islands we shall have probably two thousand miles of cable, in sections not to exceed probably three hundred miles; or, if after reaching Kamschatka, we should be compelled to cross to Amoor direct, on account of the inexpediency of touching Japanese soil, then we have the Sea of Okotsk to cross with a cable of 600 miles.
The other island route further to the north, though not requiring in the aggregate so much cable as the Alutian route, would, however, require sections of two, three and four hundred miles.
The distance over these various routes will fluctuate between four and five thousand miles.
As to cost, take the Behring's Straits route and call it 5,000 miles, at $300 a mile, and we have the cost at $1,500,000.
If we take the Alutian Island route, where the greatest length of cable will be required, and carry it by the Kurile Islands to the Amoor, the cost may be stated at from four to five millions of dollars ; in fact, calculations have run up to £1,500,000 or $7,500,000. Thus we have the difference in calculations of cost and distances over the various proposed routes. In round numbers we have the following distances : New-York to St. Louis.....
1,100 miles. St. Louis to San Francisco,..
2,600 San Francisco to Vancouver,
700 Vancouver to Sitka,..
600 Sitka to Behring's Straits,
1,200 Behring's Straits to Amoor,.
2,500 The distanee by the island routes would be nearly the same as by the longest land route.
From this great world-encircling telegraph, as it progresses east from Moscow, lateral lines will in time branch off to the Caspian, Circassia, Persia and India.
From Irkutsk, in Eastern Siberia, a line following the track of the tea caravans could reach Pekin, thence to Shanghai, Amoy and Hong Kong. From the Chinese coast, opposite Formosa, a line could, by way of that island, reach Manilla, and thence over islands and straits to Melbourne, Australia.
Tapping the main trunk line at the Amoor, we could reach Jeddo and connect all the Japanese islands, thus actually concentrating the whole world telegraphically upon this great overland route.
At Omsk, in Western Siberia, a branch line following the Russian and Chinese frontier would penetrate the route of the overland caravan commerce, between the Caspian provinces on the west and the Chinese prov