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EAST INDIA AND CHINA MAILS. The following table illustrates the ordinary time consumed in the transmission of passengers and mails to or from London and the places named, by the overland route. By adding ten days to these, we may estimate the ordinary time to or from New-York. We add, also, the ordinary fare by sailing vessels, from London and New-York to some of the places named:
By SAILING VESSELS.
from London. From London. From Nero-York. To JAPAN.—Yedo, Kanagawa,.
78 to 80 days. Nagasaki,
65 to 67
$250 to $300 CHINA.–Peking,
64 to 72 Tien-tsin,
63 to 68 Hankow,
62 to 72 Shanghai,..
54 to 60
$250 to $300 Foo-chow-Foo,.
55 to 60 Amoy,
62 to 58 Swatow, 61 to 53
$250 to $300 Hong Kong,
47 to 49 Canton,
49 to 51 Macao, PHILLIPINES.--Manila,
53 to 67
$250 to $300 COCHIN-CHINA.—Touron,.. Saigon, .
44 to 49 SIAM.-Bankok,...,
54 to 60 BORNEO,-Labuan,
45 to 60 Sarawak,
53 to 60 Java.—Batavia,
43 to 47 MALACCA STRAITS.—Singapore, 37 to 41
$225 to $250 Penang,..
35 to 39
FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF MEXICO. Expenses of the Government of Mexico.-A decree, fixing the disbursements of the government, has been published, dated the 16th August, 1861. The annual expenses of the different departments are thus fixed : Foreign relations,
$ 210,340 00 Interior,
1,191,830 00 Justice,
537,050 00 Fomento,
69,179 00 Finance,
1,673,624 00 War,.
$8,327,418 04 To cover this disbursement the Minister of Finance reports the following resources: Customs duties,
400,000 Sealed paper,..
250,000 Custom-house of the district,
$7,350,000 From this statement it will be seen that the annual disbursements will exceed the annual receipts of the government by $977,418 04. To cover this deficit a contingent is imposed upon the revenues of States and territories, amounting to twenty per cent.
FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF MEXICO.
We republish, from the “Mexcan,” published at the city of Mexico, the following table, giving the many laws, plans, constitutions, &c., which have formed the pivots upon which the many governments of independent Mexico have turned :
STATISTICS OF POPULATION.
I. TRADES AND EMPLOYMENTS IN FRANCE. II. MARRIAGES, BIRTHB AND DEATHS IN FRANCE. III.
WEST INDIES AND MAURITIUB. IV. VICTORIA. V. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN TROOPS. VI. THE FRENCH AND THE ENGLISH,
TRADES AND EMPLOYMENTS IN FRANCE. An interesting document has lately been published in Paris, giving the number of the individuals in France at the date of the last census (1856) who were engaged directly or indirectly in various professions and trades, from which they derived their support. The returns include not only adults, but also children, and are thus classed: Agriculture,..
19,034,071 | Clergy of all persuasions,... 142,705 Manufactures,
10,690,961 Persons without any trade or Commerce, 1,652,331 profession,...
1,462,144 A comparison between the population returns of 1851 and 1856 shows a sensible diminution in the number of persons engaged in agricultural labor, and an increase in the class following manufacturing pursuits. Here are the figures :
3,262,282 Without profession or trade,.
36,009,669 During the preceding year (1854) the receipts from the octroi in Paris were fifty-four millions of francs, being an increase of twenty-one millions of francs in ten years; and the total receipts of the metropolis, in the same year, amounted to 110,306,124 francs, while the expenditures, during the same period, was 97,720,544 francs.
STATISTICS OF FRANCE. In the French empire, the annual number of male births is a sixth greater than the births of females; but the annual deaths of males surpass slightly the deaths of the opposite sex, there being 65 deaths of females to 66 males. From 1817 to 1853 the population increased steadily every year; but in 1854 and 1855 it diminished considerably. The average annual increase, from 1817 to 1857, was 159,018 inhabitants; or the 310th part of the average population, calculated at 33,410,000, up to 1857. If the same ratio should continue in the future, the population will increase one-tenth in twenty years, two-tenths in thirty-eight years, three-tenths in fifty-five years, and will not double itself before the lapse of 146 years. There is one birth to 34,066 inhabitants, and 0.84 deaths —that is to say, 100 births to 84 deaths. There is one death and 1.20 births to 41,050 inhabitants, or 100 deaths to 120 births.
Marriages. There is one marriage to 127 inhabitants, and 3.41 legitimate births, or 341 legitimate births to 100 marriages. To every 1,074 inhabitants there are, annually, 29 births, 25 deaths and 9 marriages.
Manufacturing Districts.—By a comparison between the population and the superfices of each department of France, it is found that the most productive department is the most densely populated, excepting, of course, the department of the Seine, in which Paris is located. Thus, the department of the Lower Alps, which has a territory larger than the department of the north, has a population eight or nine times inferior to the latter. The department of the Seine is the smallest and the most densely populated. Its territory is thirteen times smaller than the Lower Alps, and its population four times greater.
Paris.—The specific population of the department of the Seine (that is to say, the proportion of inhabitants to each square yard of territory) is fifty-three times that of all the rest of France. The department of Seine counts 3,632.25 inhabitants to the square kilometre, (five-eighths of a mile,) and the department of the Lower Alps counts only 21.52. Of 1,286 children supposed, for the sake of the calculation, to be born at the same moment, a sixth dies in the first year after birth ; a fifth fails to reach the age of two years; a fourth, the age of four years; and a third does not attain the age of fourteen. One-half of the remainder reaches forty-two years; a third, sixty-two years; a fourth, sixty-nine years; a fifth, seventy-two years, and a sixth, seventy-five years. Or, in other terms, of 1,286 children, supposed to be born at the same moment, 215 die during the first year after birth, and 65 only during the second year. At the
of ten, the survivors number 879, or a loss of 407 in ten years. At twenty years of age there are 814 survivors; at thirty, there remain 734; at fifty, 581; at seventy, 310; at ninety, 11 ; and at ninetyfive years, one is still living. We are inclined to deduce from these figures that the chances of longevity in France are vastly superior to those of our own country. The climate is no better, but the people are much more careful of their health than we are of ours.
WEST-INDIES AND MAURITIUS. A return has been made of the number of immigrants and liberated Africans introduced into these colonies. Last year the West Indies received an addition of 12,541 to their population, 8,503 of them being from India, of whom 2,169 went to Trinidad and 5,076 to British Guiana. To this last colony, also, 1,242 immigrants were brought from China. From Mauritius the returns are but for the first three-quarters of the year; 9,955 immigrants had arrived from India. All that Jamaica had received in 1860 were 598 from India and 47 from St. Helena.
VICTORIA. It appears from the report of the immigration agent for the year 1859 that the total immigration into Victoria in that year amounted to 27,432, viz. : 12,330 from the United Kingdom, 5,340 from New South Wales, 3,617 from Southern and Western Australia, 3,166 from Tasmania, 411 from New-Zealand and South Seas, and 2,463 from foreign ports. In the same year, 19,418 took their departures from this colony, viz. : 5,922 to
VOL. XLV.-NO. VI.
the United Kingdon, 4,205 to New South Wales, 1,465 to South and Western Australia, 2,588 to Tasmania, 952 to New Zealand and South Seas, and 4,286 to foreign ports. The increase of population by unassisted emigration amounted to 8,014. If to this number be added 3,151 immigrants by government ships despatched by the emigration commissioners, the entire increase would be 11,165 souls. During 1859, 30 vessels arrived with 644 Chinese immigrants, and 37 left, having on board no fewer than 3,275 souls. The gross amount of immigration into Victoria during the first two months of 1860 is stated to have been 5,769 souls, and the departures 3,461, giving a balance in favor of the colony of 2,308 souls. According to a return furnished from the Registrar-General's office at Melbourne, it would appear that on the 30th of September, 1860, the population of Victoria was 544,677—341,628 being males and 203,049 females.
NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN TROOPS. Comparing the northern soldier with the southern, we believe the former will withstand the effects of the climate for a short campaign of a year or more better than the latter, and though the popular belief is divergent to this view, the statistics of our war with Mexico fully sustain it, and the published opinion of no less an authority than Dr. Nort, of Mobile, in the Southern Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy for January, 1847, confirms it.
On April 8th, 1848, the Secretary of War made a report to the United States Senate, of the losses of the volunteer forces employed in Mexico. From this it appears that seven northern States—Massachusetts, NewYork, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois—furnished, in the course of that war, 22,573 men. Of this force, the total loss from disease was 2,931 men—less than one-eighth of the whole. Nine slave States-Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky-furnished 22,899 men. The loss from this force by disease, and death caused by disease, was 4,315, or more than one-fifth-a very considerable difference in favor of northern troops.
TIE FRENCH AND THE ENGLISH. The public documents of 1859 show that the mortality in that year, in Great Britain, was at the rate of 2.196 per cent.; in France, 2.670, but this latter is considerably above the average of that empire, owing to the prevalence, at that time, of dysentery, diptheria and some other epidem
The marriage rate in Great Britain was 1.650 per cent. ; in France, 1.638. The birth rate in Great Britain was 3.482 ; in France, 2.778. Thus the marriage rate and the birth rate being lower in France than in Great Britain, and the death rate higher, the natural increase of population is less in France than in Great Britain. The births in France, in 1859, were 1,011,787; there is no record of the births in Ireland, but it is estimated that the births in the United Kingdom amounted to nearly the same number; but the deaths in France were 972,556, while the deaths in the United Kingdom were estimated at not exceeding 651,171– fewer deaths by 300,000, with about an equal number of births.British Medical Journal.