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resenting one-eighth of a dollar, but by the laws of the United States they are worth but one-tenth, requiring ten reals of plate to equal in value one dollar or La Plata dollar. io for the products of the interior are based on this currency, but when payment is made, the value is estimated at ten to the dollar. Gold and silver coin, in fact, has no value as currency, being an article of commerce and fluctuating in value, as does almost any commodity with us. Doubloons, even, fluctuate according to the state of the market, as they do here. Before the influx of gold from California and Australia doubloons had a standard value, which is now much depreciated even in this country. In estimating the value of importations from Buenos Ayres the collector assumes a doubloon to represent in value sixteen Spanish dollars; and hence, for instance, seeing i. quoted in that country at 335 dollars Buenos Ayres currency, he estimates the value of the Buenos Ayres dollar at a fraction less than twenty-one, while in fact their value is only twenty-five to the dollar. The collector also assumes to call eight reals equivalent to one Spanish dollar; thus proportionately affecting the value of the goods at the port of exportation. It is held to be a well-settled principle of revenue law, based upon the act of 1799, that the collector has no authority to go behind the consular certificate, under any circumstances; he being the officer of the government as much as is the collector. The collector is governed by this certificate in assessing duties, and upon it he estimates whatever duty is due the government. It is doubtful if the Treasury Department at Washington will sustain the construction that has been placed upon the revenue laws by which these seizures are justified; consequently the goods seized will have to be surrendered, either voluntarily by the collector or through due process of law.

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THE ships of the nine powers who concluded a treaty with Hanover for the abolition of the Stade dues are not only entirely free of the liability to pay these dues, but also from the obligation of giving a security for the amount, which was required while the negotiations were pending. The arrangements with France, Sweden, Denmark and Lubeck are nearly concluded. The States that have not yet made any agreement with Hanover as to the duties are the United States, the new kingdom of Italy and Oldenburg. The government of the North American Federation has, however, instructed its Minister at Berlin to enter into communication with Hanover on the conditions agreed to by the other powers. The political condition of the kingdom of Italy delays the negotiations with it, and Oldenburg refuses to accept the distribution of the indemnity stipulated by the other treaties. In a semi-official document published at Hamburg it is announced, that up to the present date the treaty con: cluded with Hanover for the abolition of the Stade dues has been ratified by the governments of Great Britain, Brazil, Belgium, Holland, Portugal, Hamburg, Prussia, Austria and Russia.

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The President has published the text of two additional articles added in July last to the treaty between Denmark and the United States. The articles provide, first, that the consular agents of the respective governments shall have the right to sit as judges and arbitrators in such differences as may arise at sea or in port between the captain, officers and crew of vessels of their own nation; and, second, that the consular agent have power to require the assistance of the local authorities for the search, arrest and imprisonment of deserters from the ships of war and merchant vessels of o: country.

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The new commercial system granted by France to her colonies of Martinique, Guadaloupe and the Isle of Reunion, superseding the former prohibitive regulations, came into force in the beginning of September. By this change the above islands are opened to the commerce and navigation of the whole world. The importation of merchandise will take place on the same terms as into France, except where the colonial tariff is more liberal, in which case the latter rate is retained. Trade can be carried on under any flag, but, with certain exceptions, a differential duty is charged on foreign as compared with French ships. All export duties on colonial merchandise are abolished. English vessels will now be enabled to take cargoes of foreign goods to these islands, and return laden with produce, either to their port of shipment or to France. The production of sugar is expected to be largely benefited, and increased activity is also looked for in the coffee, dye-woods and spirit trades. The principal articles imported by the three islands are wood for building, manufactured iron, salted meat and fish, butter, oil, flour and coal, and at each colony there is a port offering every convenience to maritime commerce. The change from exclusive prohibition to a system more nearly approaching free trade appears to be the commencement of a new and important era for these dependencies.

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The following official notice, excluding privateers from the Danish West India ports, appears in the St. Thomas Tidende, of the 20th July:

“Owing to the present state of political affairs in America, it is hereby brought to public notice, that privateers of no nation whatever will be allowed to resort to the Danish West India harbors or waters, or to send their prizes either to St. Thomas or any other of the harbors in these islands, or dispose of them there, as little as it will be allowed that vessels be provided in the Danish West India Islands with requisites for F. whether consisting in materials of war and provisions, or etters of marque from any belligerent power.

“Government for the Danish West India Possessions, St. Croix, 12th July, 1861.





EARLY MANUFACTURES IN RHODE ISLAND. Ar a special meeting of the Rhode Island Historical Society, the Rev. Mr. BANVARD, of North Providence, read a paper upon the early history of Pawtucket.

The name of “Pawtucket," Mr. BanvarD said, was given to it by the natives, and signified "great falls of water." Pawtuxet, its diminutive, means "little falls of water."

In 1636, Roger Williams purchased of CANONICUs and MIANTINOMO, after two years of negotiation, all the lands and meadows on the Moshassuck and Wanosquatucket Rivers. A transfer of a large portion of those lands was made to Joseph JENKS, October 10, 1671. "Jenks was, according to tradition, the first settler of the town; and, being a manufacturer of anchors and other heavy iron articles, is said to have left Lynn because of the expense of obtaining wood and coal, which had become scarce there, and to have selected Pawtucket as a desirable location on account, not only of the abundance of fuel, but also of water power. This forge, situated on the western side of the Blackstone River, was burned by the Indians in 1675, in King Philip's war.

Its site is now occupied by a large cotton mill. Oziel Wilkinson, a blacksmith, who came from Smithfield, afterwards commenced business near Jenks' establishment. This shop was known as the Upper Anchor shop; JENKS' as the Lower Anchor shop. Wilkinson's sons succeeded him, and greatly enlarged the business. Oil mills were early erected for it by one KENNEDY, and afterwards by WILKINSON.

About sixty years ago there was an old snuff mill standing on the banks of the Blackstone, a short distance above Pawtucket, and, about the same time, a chocolate mill was in operation further up the stream, a part of the same building being occupied as a fulling mill and for the manufacture of wash-leather. Over $1,000 worth of this article was stolen from Colonel Hall, who was the manufacturer, and found a long time afterwards, so damaged as to be useless, in the woods, with other stolen goods. This mill subsequently became a snuff mill, and afterwards a cotton factory, and, with two or three other buildings, constituted the whole village of what is now Central Falls. Nearly all the land in that vicinity belonged, at that time, to the Jenks family.

In the great flood of 1807, that forced its way through the valley of the Blackstone, fourteen buildings were swept away from the village and

carried down the stream. Merchandise of all sorts floated down the current. A keg of butter, marked with the name of Richard WATERMAN, made a successful trip as far as Newport, where it was found some time after. From certain houses the deliverance of their inmates was effected with great difficulty and hazard. One factory was carried down the stream without going to picces. Among the buildings destroyed was that in which SAMUEL SLATER tried his various experiments, and manufactured machinery for the first cotton mill in America. Concerning the changes in that water-course known as “Sargent's Trench,” and the discoveries made thereupon, the essayist made special and appropriate mention, and then proceeded to sketch an account of the life and labors of SAMUEL SLATER, a young man, 22 years of age, when he was taken to Pawtucket by the venerable Moses BRowN, on the 18th of January, 1790. After great labor, amid frequent alternations of hope and disappointment, the repeated efforts of Mr. SLATER met with success. His carding, spinning and roving machines, to secure the operation of which his labor and experiment had been long directed, finally worked well, and the machinery moved to his satisfaction. Moses BRowN, in a letter dated Providence, 19th of fourth month, 1791, says: “The weavers inform me the yarn works better than any linen they have had, and takes less trouble to warp and weave it.” To SLATER is conceded the honor of introducing the English method of using machinery in the spinning of cotton. The manufacturing of steel was introduced into Pawtucket somewhere about 1790. President Monroe, while on a tour through New-England, visited SLATER's mill, at Pawtucket, and was shown the first frames for waterspinning, according to those patents which SLATER himself had erected from memory, without the least assistance from drawings or models. President JAckson also visited Pawtucket, and honored Mr. SLATER with a call at his own residence, holding a pleasant interview with him, which Mr. BANvARD described. Not long after the year 1814, when patterns of the power-loom were brought to Providence, Mr. DAvid Wilkinson introduced it and the dresser into Pawtucket, and manufactured them for sale. Previously to 1815 all weaving was done by hand. The writer referred at length to the manufacture of superior fire engines by Mr. WILLIAM JEFFERs, and to that of sash and blinds by DANIEl D. Sweet, originated in 1838 by DANIEL DUNHAM. Sixty years ago there were but seventeen houses on the Massachusetts side of the river, and about twice that number on the Rhode Island side.

About a hundred years ago there were two ship yards, one on each side of the river.


Over the vast peninsula of India, which has an area of 800,000 square miles, coal is found only in the valley of the Ganges and neighboring hills, in Rawah to the south of the Soane, in the Nerbudda valley, and in the Sylhet hills on the far northeast. There is no workable coal elsewhere in the northwestern provinces, none in Oude, the Punjaub, Scinde, Bombay or Madras. This fact is the less cheering that iron and lime

are generally associated with coal in the same formation, and that India, except in the east, is comparatively destitute of these great elements and necessities of modern civilization. It is no great consolation to say that where coal exists, it is abundant; that Bearbhoom, for instance, is one mass of mineral wealth. India is as large as Europe, and the coal of Raneegunge or lime of Sylhet is more useless to the cotton mills and building firms of Bombay or Madras than that of Newcastle is to Mos

Coal is most bulky for carriage, and railway carriages will always be so expensive that it will probably be cheaper for Bombay to use good English than indifferent Bengal or even Nerbudda coal. The following abstract contains the result of Mr. OLDHAM's inquiries :

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whole area.

in tons.

These figures show the healthiness of the trade, which, notwithstanding the local fluctuations, has steadily progressed. In the Raneegunge coalfield, which is now tapped by the East Indian Railway, and which will shortly be pierced by two branches, there were last year 49 collieries, with 27 steam-engines at work. This is the result of little more than 20 years' operations. The number of collieries in the United Kingdom is 2,654, and the out-turn of coal is 72,000,000 tons annually, or 200 times that of India. Our readers will form a better estimate of the coal-producing power of India, if we place in order, with the assistance of Mr. Hunt's mining records, the out-turn of all the coal countries in the world in 1857. We regret Mr. Oldham has not given the proportion of the coal area to that of the whole country :

Proportion of

British Islands,


66,000,000 Belgium,


5,700,000 France,


4,500,000 United States,..


4,500,000 Prussia,


3,500,000 British North America,..


900,000 British India,

370,206 Bohemia,..


300,000 Spain,


250,000 Of the nine countries, India is thus already seventh on the list. What a future for America is involved in the fact that nearly a fourth of her whole area, as far as investigated, is covered with coal. India raises a third more than Spain, and about the same amount as Warwickshire. The consumption of coal in India and by vessels leaving its ports we may estimate at 700,000 tons annually, the amount imported in 1857 from England being 329,157 tons. Reckoning the price of Indian coal in Cal. cutta at five annas a maund, or 17s. a ton, and English coal at the same rate, (though it is far higher,) we have more than £500,000 sterling spent on coal in India. As the trade and manufactures of India increase, and

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