« EdellinenJatka »
Statement exhibiting the quantity and value of Tobacco exported annually
from the United States from 1821 to 30th June, 1860.
66,858 83,169 99,009 77,883 75,984 64,098 100,025 96,278 77,131 83,810 86,718 106,806 83,153 87,979 94,353 109,042 100,232 100,593
78,995 119,484 147,828 158,710
94,454 163,042 147,168 147,998 135,762 130,665 101,521 145,729
95,945 137,097 159,853 126,107 150,213 116,962 156,848 127,670 198,846 167,274
6,222,838 6,282,672 4,855,566 6,115,623 5,347,208 6,577,123 5,269,960 4,982,974 5,586,365 4,892,388 5,999,769 5,765,968 6,595,305 8,250,577 10,058,640 5,795,647 7,392,029 9,832,943 9,883,957 12,676,703 9,640,755 4,650,979 8,397,255 7,469,819 8,478,270 7,242,086 7,551,122 5,804,207 9,951,023 9,219,251 10,031,283 11,319,319 10,016,046 14,712,468 12,221,843 20,662,772 17,009,767 21,074,038 16,906,547
1843,.. 1844,... 1845,-• •
1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, . 1853,1854, 1855,.. 1856,.. 1857,.. 1868,
Total, 39 years,....
TIE CURRANT TRADE.
ANNUAL REVIEW FOR THE YEAR 1860.
The importation of currants into the United States beginning to become important, it is necessary to give some information concerning its cultivation and consumption, and duties it is submitted to in foreign countries. The sea provinces of Peloponnesus, in the Corinthian Gulf, and the shores of Argolide and Messina, and the Ionian Islands, Zante and Cephalonia, are the sole countries which produce this fruit. Several landholders, considering the great increase of consumption of this article, tried to cultivate it in other parts of Greece, but they were greatly disappointed, because the first year the vine produced currants, but the second it produced grapes.
During the period that Greece was under the dominion of the Turks the cultivation of currants was very inconsiderable, and during the Greek revolution (1821–1827) the vines were destroyed by the Turks, and up to the year 1833 the cultivation of this fruit did not make any material progress. But since that year, when a law of donation of public lands to the inhabitants has been promulgated, the cultivation began to increase steadily, so that to-day the cultivation of currants in the Kingdom of Greece covers an area of land not less than 300,000 stremas.
In the years 1833—1836 the production of currants scarcely amounted to 6,000,000 @ 10,000,000 pounds. But in the year 1851 the production reached the large amount of 70,000,000 pounds. The sickness of the vines destroyed the crops of the years 1852, 1853 and 1854, so that in the year 1855 the crop amounted to 8,000,000 pounds of excellent quality, produced principally from young branches touching the soil; this experiment and the use of brimstone improved the culture, and in 1856 the crop amounted to 40,000,000 pounds. If heavy rains had not occurred during the collection of the fruit in 1857, the crop of that year would have reached 60,000,000 pounds. Without the ravages of the oidium and the weather the vines of Greece may produce annually 120,000,000 pounds; to this amount, if we add 30 @ 35,000,000 pounds capable of production in the Ionian Islands, we have an annual production of 150,000,000 pounds, which amount, if ever produced in one year, prices will certainly decline to a point not even covering the expenses of the cultivation, and in that case many of the plantations will be abandoned. For this emergency a company has been formed in the city of Patras for the promulgation of the consumption of currants by exporting them to every possible place where there is a probability of consumption, and another company went into operation for the manufacture of wine out of currants. But both these companies have failed in their endeavors to promote the interest of the cultivators of currants.
Prices. Although Greece has the monopoly of the production of currants, prices are very irregular, being based on the quantity and quality of the crop and the general demand. During the Greek revolution currants, being exported with difficulty and paying irregular duties, were sold at prices varying from $60 @ $120 per 1,000 pounds. In the years
1829–1833 prices were between $25 and $35, owing to the poor quality of the crop. Since 1834, when the import duties in England were reduced, and up to the year 1841, prices were varying from $50 @ $80. In the year 1844, the import duty in England being again reduced, currants in that year sold at $40, in 1845 at $45, and in 1846 and 1847 at a little above $50. About that time, the production having reached a high figure, and the consumption not being in proportion, prices fell considerably, the fruit selling in 1851 as low as $10. That year the sickness in the vines made its appearance and prices went up again, so that in the years 1852 to 1855 from $80 @ $110 were paid. In 1856, the crop being more abundant, prices ranged from $70 to $80; in 1857 they were $63, and in 1858–59, $35. In 1860 prices opened at $32 per 1,000 pounds, but drooped down to $16, and went up again to $25. "We have no correct return of the last year's crop, but it is said to amount to 80,000,000 pounds from Greece alone. It is calculated that the price of $25 covers all the expenses of the cultivator and even leaves a small profit.
Export. The principal market for currants is England, where all classes eat them, and the importation there reaches, on an average, annually, 50,000,000 of pounds; and this year, on account of the reduction of duty to seven shillings per 112 lbs., it is supposed that England will consume about 80,000,000 lbs. Germany comes next to England, taking about 12 @ 18,000,000 lbs. The United States come after, having imported, for the year ending 31st March, 1861, 4,225,385 lbs. The importation of the year 1859 was nearly double that of the present one, and enough to last for the consumption of two years; but in the month of February, 1860, England having reduced the duty from 15s. 9d. to 7s. per 112 lbs., and therefore the consumption there being on the increase, several importers were induced to export to England, and about 3,000,000 lbs. were exported there, so that it is apparent that the United States cannot consume much above 4,000,000 lbs.
In Russia currants are almost unknown.
Duties. The duty in England has been reduced from 15s. 9d. to 7s. per 112 lbs.
In Austria the duty is five florins per quintal, (say 120 lbs.,) or $23 per 1,000 lbs.
In Holland, where two to three millions lbs, are imported annually, the duty is only $1 83 per 1,000 lbs.
In Greece the export duty, up to 1857, was $2 per 1,000 lbs.; in 1858 it was reduced to 83 cents; but last year it was raised to 19 drachms, or $3 16 per 1,000 lbs.
Importation of Currants into the United States.-About twenty-two years ago currants began to be imported into the United States, and the cheap prices prevailing for a long time made this fruit to be within the reach of all classes, and between 3,000,000 @ 4,000,000 lbs. were annually consumed, the price being about 4} @ 5 cents per lb.; but since the year 1851, when the sickness of the vines prevailed, the prices were pushed up from 5 to 25 cents per lb., and the importation into this country was almost stopped, so that in the year 1854 we find that the importations amounted only to 219,118 lbs., which was sold at an average price of 20 cents per lb.
DRY GOODS TRADE OF NEW-YORK,
FOR THE YEAR 1860.
From the U.S. Economist and Dry Goods Roporter.
On pp. 154—156 our readers will find a detailed statement of the imports of dry goods at the port of New-York for the closing year, as compared with the years 1857, 1858 and 1859. The following table shows the comparative receipts for the last twelve years :
IMPORTS OF Dry GOODS INTO THE UNITED STATES.
Flac. Miscellaneous Total. 1549, $ 11,953,279 $ 6,5:9,972 .. $ 15,295,753 * 4,756,561 $ 3,959,210 $ 45,514,776 1850, 16,565,016 11,038,595 20,281,034 7,562,941 2,282,487 58,329,828 1851,...... 15,252,028 11,027,988 23,456,456 6,749,818 4,110,163 60,626,400 1852,...... 16,172,991 11,889,858 22,944,503 7,103,887 4,614,017 62,804,261 1853, 28,204,146 16,808,353 84,128,519 8,790,185 5,766,964 93,499,086 1854. 21,881,346 15,610,143 27,599,393 7,258,052 5,805,939 78,157,878 1855,..
19,157,015 11,274,221 23,478,460 6,924,635 6,968,365 66,602,697 1856,.. 26,185,825 10,901,135 28,780,519 8,772,822 7,205,592 88,927,458 1857,...... 24,938,403 17,480,962 27,691,987 6,938,787 6,676,836 82,676,528 1858,...... 21,124,303 13,567,943 20,881,736 7,008,686 4,914,523 69,093,766 1859,...... 87,329,041 27,781,264 33,652,647 11,120,484 6,266,052 112,970,944 1860,...... 34,582,922 17,721,725 34,998,710 7,914,152 .. 6,674,497 101,850,406
It will be observed, from the above statement, that the whole importation of dry goods at this port for the past year amounts to $101,880,406. The amount, though considerable, is yet less than that of 1859 by $11,090,538, a decrease of about ten per cent. The only other year approaching this sum is 1853, when the receipts reached the then extraordinary figure of $93,500,000. It does not appear that the importation has been in excess of the wants of the country. Judging from the fact that during both the spring and fall seasons importers have been enabled to clear out their stocks quite satisfactorily, and that the general result of the year's business has been favorable, we should conclude that a hundred million dollars worth of dry goods may be safely imported yearly, when the general trade of the country is in a wholesome condition. On comparing the amounts of the several kinds of manufactures with the corresponding items of previous years, some important fluctuations will be observed.
Manufactures of wool have not varied very materially from 1859, there having been a decrease under that head of $2,796,119, which is about a due proportion of the total decrease on all kinds of goods. In cotton goods, however, there has been a very significant decrease. In 1859 the receipts were $27,781,264 ; this year they have been $17,721,725; showing a falling off of $10,059,539, or thirty-five per cent. This is a very important fluctuation, and would seem to be attributable less to the competition of domestic goods than the reaction of an excessive supply during last year. Large as is the decrease compared with 1859, yet the importation has been larger than during any other former year. In 1857 nearly an equal amount was imported; in 1856 the receipts were less
by $6,800,000; and in 1855 by $6,400,000; so that the importation for this year even exceeds an average.
Silk manufactures show an increase on last year, although that was one of the largest years in the annals of the trade. The four years of largest importations of silk goods since 1849 have been as follows: 1853,
$ 34,128,519 1856,
84,988,710 The receipts of last year, therefore, exceeded those of all former periods. Few have been prepared to expect such a fact; for the heavy losses made on silk goods, of almost every class, in 1859, had produced an impression that a considerable reaction would appear this year. Thirty-five million dollars worth of silk goods is certainly an enormous value for one year's consumption; yet it appears to be no more than the people are prepared to buy, for the close of the season finds importers with a lighter balance than they have held for several seasons. The fact that thirty-five per cent. of the entire value of dry goods imported consists of silk fabrics affords some idea of the freedom with which our population spend their money on costly articles of dress; perhaps no other country in the world. can show such a proportion of silk goods in its consumption of textile fabrics.
The importation of flax goods has been about equal to the average of late years, though much below that of 1859. Last year the receipts were $11,120,484; this year they have been $7,914,152—showing a decrease of $3,206,332, or about twenty-seven per cent. When it is considered that last year's imports were nearly twenty-five per cent. in excess of
it is apparent enough that such a balance of goods must have been brought over into the present year as to materially limit the requirements of the past twelve months.
those of any
REVIEW OF THE FOREIGN Dry Goods TRADE OF NEW-YORK. The year 1860 has been one of varied fortunes with the dry goods importer. The spring business was generally unsatisfactory in its results, whilst that of the fall has been equally favorable; although there appears to have been no sufficient cause why the former should not have been as satisfactory as the latter season. The experience of the spring trade shows how easily our importers may lose a few million dollars by bad management; and that of the fall how great control over the value of their property they actually possess. The spring importation happened to be received earlier than usual, which naturally raised an expectation early in the season that the market would be heavily stocked. On the 1st of January a larger amount of stock was in bond than is usually held at that period; during that month the receipts continued to increase on the previous year's until
, at the beginning of February, the imports showed an excess over January of 1859 amounting to $1,200,000; during February, also, the increase was maintained, so that the customs returns for the two months exhibited an aggregate gain on the same period of 1859 amounting to $3,360,000, or about fifteen per cent. This was the bugbear of the market. Importers took fright at the figures, and