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word which denoted "king" in Anqueti's fragment of the Zend vocabulary, he turned thereto; and under the word Khshe, he found a number of synonyms for king given. On applying this word (Khshej to the combination of characters supposed to denote“ king,” they were found to express it precisely, when interpreted by the powers affixed to the twelve characters already ascertained. This encouraged Dr. G. to proceed with other inscriptions till he had, to his own satisfaction at least, deryphered in these cuneiform characters an alphabet consisting of thirty letters, whi: h he has arranged according to the number and position of the «uneiłorm strikes, beginning with the most simple and ending with that which appeared the most complicated. To these thirty he has aflixed what he deems the corresponding Persian letters. Of these characters no one contains more than five of these cuneiform strokes.

After proceeding thus far, however, Dr. Grotefend ingenuously acknowledges, that the task of the decypherer ought not to be confounded with that of the translator, and that a comp'ete and satisfactory interpretation of all those inscriptions cannot be expected of him, particularly as single fragments alone exist either of the grammar or the dictionary of the language in which these inscriptions are supposed to be. But from what has been done, he deduces tlıree facts, which he thinks are pretty clearly ascertained :

Ist. That a'l the known cuneiform inscriptions, with the excepe tion of one kind found at Babylon, relate to Cyrus, Darius, and his son Xerxes, and therefore all the edifices on which these inscriptions are found, owe their origin to these kings; and that the bas-reliefs attest the civilization, manners and taste of the Persians of those times. This he confirms by refering to various inscriptions found at Persepolis and elsewhere, which, according to this alphabet, bear the names of those princes.

2ndly. That the language of the species of cuneiform writing already decyphered's Zend ; and that hence the Zend language discovered by Anquetil du Perron is rot forged; but as genuine

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as the Puhluvi and Farsi dialects are ; and that we may on this principle consider the Zend-Avesta as a genuine work, and from it form a judgment of the religious ideas of the ancient Persiany.

3rdly. That as the decyphered inscriptions speak only of Cya rus, Hystaspes, Darius, and Xerxes; and of the three last as grandfather, father, and son, but no where give the title of king to Hystaspes, the history of the Persian king as preserved by the Greeks is compete'y confirmed Dr. Grotefend indeed considers the Greek history as containing such strong internal evidence of its own veracity, that he considers its correspondence with the inscriptions, as no small proof of his exactness in decy. phering these chara:ters.

Professor Heeren, to whose work Dr. Gro'efend's paper is an. nexed, remarks respecting Dr Grotefend's labors, that at the point where the reading and interpreting of cune form inscriptions now stands, any further progress can scarcely be made till the learned shall have acquired a more perfect knowledge of the ancient languages of Persia, especially of the Zend, than it has been possible to obtain by the stanty fragments of grammars

and vocabularies published by Anquetil. Independently of other G results, he considers the labors of Dr. G. however, as leading us

far into the history of alphabetic writing, that most important 34 of all human inventions. The first species of cuneiform writing

especially, appears to Professor Heeren to bear in a remarkable

manner the very characteristic of the infancy of alphabetic writo *ing, in the quantity of characters used in so many single words,

which he considers as an anxious attempt to spell after the com

mon pronunciation. From its existing in the ancient Persian em1 pire in three different forms, he is ready to conclude that its ori

gin must be more remote than that of the Persian empire itself. He conjectures indeed from the cuneiform writing's being found on the remains of Babylon, that it is of Aramean origin; and seems to think that the writing termed by the Greeks and per.

sians, Assyrian, particularly in that passage in the fourth book - of Herodotus wherein he mentions the two columns raised by Da.

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rius after passing the Bosphorus in his Scythian expedition, on which he caused the names of the nations who composed his ar. my to be cut, on one of them in Greek writing, and on the os her in Assyrian, to be this cuneiform writing, and that it was generally used by the Persians for inscriptions on monuments, &c.

Respecting these conjectures, if we allow t e reality of the cuneiform alphabet to have been substantiated by Dr. Grotefend, we are still far from agreeing with Professor Heeren re'ative to its marking the origin of Alphabetic writing. The strokes of the Samaritan alphabet, although it is so complete in its nature, are certainly much ruder in form than these cuneiform strokes ; and few will doubt its being far more an«ieni than the Chaldaic letters, supposed by some to be the same with our present Hebrew characters. But in these latter we may suppose the letters of Berodach Baladan to have been written to Hezekiah, nearly two centuries before Darius's time. Why therefore the Babylonians should have recourse to an alphabet so imperfect as this cuneiform alphabet, when they for so many ages, must have possessed a far more simple and complete one, it is not easy to conjecture. If this alphabet be really written from the eft to the right, it must evidently have been an innovation in the ancient mode of writing ; and if it be allowed to mark the origin of any kind of writing, we should be more inclined to suppose that it marks the origin, in this part of Asia, of writing from the left to the right, rather than that of alphabetical writing. And in this case it is possible that the innovation might be made chiefly with a view to inscriptions ; for surely cuneiform strokes which require the pen to be taken off three or four times in forming one character, can scarcely bę supposed to have been adopted for any thing else.

In these various inscriptions indeed, this character could be more easily made with the chisse! than those formed of curves ; and in these they would have a neat appearance.

But relative to the foundation on which Dr. Grotefend has erected his whole superstructure, we can only say, that it is possible, that it is highly ingenious, and if just, important in its results; and that

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it ought not therefore to be hastily and carelessly rejected. We add n.oreover, that the support of such men as Dr. Munter, Professor Tychsen, Mons. De Sary, and Professor leeren, is no sight presumption in its favor, particularly that of the two first, whose adoption of Dr. Grotefend's farther discoveries in the study they had pursued themselves, discovers a spirit of amiable candor honorable to themselves, and favorable to the new hypothe. sis.. But beyond this we dare not go ; we cannot but be aware of the arguments which may be brought against it, and having thus set it before our readers, we must leave it for futurity to demolish or substantiate the discovery.

At the above meeting Mr. J. C. Marshman, and Mr. Fraser of Delhi, were unanimously elected Members of the Society.

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The following article cannot be displeasing to those who feel an interest in the despised race of Israel. Their preservation as a distinct people, while nearly all the nations contemporary with them are now merged into the common mass of mankind, is little less than a standing miracle; particularly if we allow that account of their present number to be correct, which lately appeared in one of the public papers, and which stated thent to be Six Millions, nearly thrice the number of their ancestors when they came out of Egypt. That they are thus preserved to accomplish some grand design, no one can doubt who reads with understanding the numerous prophecies respecting them that remain yet unfulfilled; and to such, even the most trifling incident relative to their being brought within the verge of the gospel, will not appear uninteresting. The following accounttherefore of a nwet. ing held by a number of Jewish and other gentlemen, patronizing a school which bids fair to impart the most valuable instruc


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tion to Jewishi youth, appeared to the editors not unworthy of insertion).

“On Wednesday, Feb. 4, the Friends of the Jewish Free School in Ebenezer Square, held their first Anniversary Dinner, at the City of London Tavern, Samuel Joseph, Esq. President, in the Chair. Several respectable Christian friends also attended, and the sum of 5001, and upwards was subscribed. About one hundred and fifty persons were present.

“This school was opened in April last; the morning is deroted to the Hebrew language, and the afternoon to the English. There are already two hundred and seventy boys in the school, which is conducted on the British system, usually denominated Lancase terian. Two youths who, in April last, at the opening of the school, did not know a letter in either language, read an address prepared for the occasion, the one in Hebrew, the other in Enge lish, to the great delight of the company.

“J. Van Oven, Esq. Vice-President, addressed the meeting, stating, that already a class could be found in the school who could acquit themselves as well as the two lads who had appeared before them; and while he and his friends were of opinion that they might avail themselves of some advantages in Bell's system, in regard to some of the children, who, when more advanced, would be placed under the care of a separate master, for their improvement in Hebrew, he could assure the meeting that their expectations had been fully realized; and that he be. lieved the system of the British and Foreign School Society would be found the most useful and expeditious manner of com. municating elementary instruction. They had availed themselves of it, and could speak of its advantages from experience. He congratulated the company on the appearance of a number of respectable Christian friends who had honoured the meeting with their

presence, and did honour to themselves by this evidence of libæality.

“Aaron Joseph, Esq. the Treasurer, read over the report of subscriptions, and acknowledged them with thanks."

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