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few more last desperate bounds, he leaped headlong from the high bank of the stream, and, for the space of a minute or two, was buried beneath the shining waters. When his head again appeared upon the surface, the regulators were standing upon the heights above, anxiously watching for his whereabout. Quick as the momentary sight, five balls were despatched to the mark; and with that volley closed the life of a man whom passion had made mad, and dishonour a premeditated murderer.

The five masked men-at once judges, jurymen, and executioners returned to the Ferry by the hour of breakfast. When that meal was over, one of the disguised party thus addressed Mr. Rivers:

“Robert Rivers, the sentence of death, passed by his Honour Judge Lynch upon the body of James Savidge, has been duly executed. He died this morning, no doubt full of repentance for his crimes, and deeply sensible of the justice of that verdict of his countrymen, under which he suffered. If his body should chance to be found in the river, give it decent burial; for, although the law be severe, it decrees, that all animosities shall die upon the edge of the grave, and the weeds of hatred shall be plucked up and buried beneath the same sod with him who nurtured them. All his offences are now expiated, and from this time you will recollect nothing of Mr. Savidge but that he once was your friend.

“ The court have also consulted respecting the disposal of the property lately belonging to him. Under all the circumstances of the case, his honour the judge decrees, that the whole thereof shall be restored to you, without let or hindrance, charge or cost of any and the same is hereby put into your possession, by a right and title conferred and confirmed to you and your heirs for ever, by and from Judge Lynch, whose decision is final and irrevocable, and shall not be called in question by any man or body of men, save at his or their most extreme and utter peril. So help us God in keeping the peace henceforth as now, and defending the rights of our neighbour.”

They then swore him, upon a Spanish Bible, never to betray, or raise his hand against the Regulators, but to support and protect that body so long as the exigencies of the country required their services, and until legitimate laws could be, by legal processes, carried into execution, and justice secured. After this, each of the party, separately, wished the young couple every happiness that life could afford, and mounting their horses, rode off in different directions across the prairie.

During the course of the morning, Mr. Rivers ordered the Guadaloupe to be searched for the body of his friend, but as it could never be found, he came to the probable conclusion that it had fallen a prey to the alligators.

Subsequently, he took full possession of the old location; and upon his perfect recovery, the beautiful creole became his bride. Besides other friends invited on the occasion, there were present, at the marriage feast, five gentlemen, with their wives and sisters, who appeared to enjoy the festivities with more than ordinary delight. The toast of “ Honour and Justice!” was proposed by one of them, and drunk in a bumper; but not a single word escaped any tongue on the subject of Lynch Law.




A FAIR lady once with a young lover walk'd

Gillyflower, gentle rosemary-
Through a garden, and sweetly they laugh'd and they talk'd,

While the dew fell over the mulberry-tree.
She gave him a rose-while he sigh’d for a kiss-

Gillyflower, gentle rosemary-
Quoth he, as he took it, * I kiss thee in this,"

While the dews fall over the mulberry-tree.
She gave him a lily, less white than her breast-

Gillyflower, gentle rosemary-
Quoth he, “ 'Twill remind me of one I love best,"

While the dews fall over the mulberry-tree.
She gave him a two-faces-under-a-hood-

Gillyflower, gentle rosemary-
“How blest you could make me,” quoth he, “ if you would,"

While the dews fall over the mulberry-tree.
He saw a forget-me-not flower in the grass-

Gilly flower, gentle rosemary-
Ah, why did this lady that little flower pass ?

While the dew fell over the mulberry-tree.
The young lover saw she pass'd it, and sigh’d-

Gillyflower, gentle rosemary-
They say his heart broke, and he certainly died,
'While the dew fell over the mulberry-tree.

Now, all you fair ladies, take warning by this

Gillyflower, gentle rosemary--
And never refuse your young lovers a kiss,

While the dew falls over the mulberry-tree.




How looks the man ennobled by his deeds,

And by a life of generous toil well-spent-
Glad and for ever young!

Time ne'er hath bent
The high soul and serene, that like the steeds
Of heav'n.wing'd Phæbus, on its bright track speeds

Through calm and storin, diffusing warmth and light

Far o'er that low dark sphere, where birds of night
Watch for their prey, whose eye the clear day dreads.
Patriarch of Nature's nobles-kindliest, best!

Go, reap the guerdon of the just and wise!

Faithful amid the faithless-firm, serene
Where the strong trembled ; loftiest acts attest

Thy inborn worth. Thy memory long shall prize
A grateful land which thy good works has seen.



Excursion into Cælo-Syria, Mount Belus, and its cities.-Hollow ways of Syria

and Persia. - The Macedonian Apamea. -Chalcidene.—Ruins of early Christianity.-Sickness in the Expedition.—Superstitions of the Maltese. Ferocity

of jackals.—The Serjeant's funeral. Almost immediately in the rear of the amphitheatre of rocks, from the centre of which the fountain of Daphne bursts into life, is a gap in the hills, which allows of a passage from the vale of Antioch into the hilly and wooded district of Casiotis. It was through this rocky dell that, accompanied by a muleteer, I was slowly tracking my way on the morning of the 5th of July, my mind less occupied with the beauty of the scenery which immediately surrounded me, than filled with mournful reflections of the wealth, power, and luxury which had dwelt and been exhausted at the beauteous spot I had just passed by, and where not even a fragment now remains to tell of past times. It was one of those lessons upon mutability, which, however inconvenient, will force themselves occasionally upon us. Glad was I then, when the rocky glen opening into an intricate, hilly, and wooded country, aroused my attention to the road.

There is no such a thing as dulness to one who finds subject for speculation in every plant or stone, and every living thing met with on his wanderings; but, truth to say, the broken, hilly districts of Casiotis, although very entertaining to a naturalist, were rather monotonous in any other point of view, and a notion of the exceeding luxuriance and beauty of their scenery, will be sufficiently obtained from what I have already related concerning Casius and its slopes, and Daphne and its groves.

About noon we arrived at the village of Sheikh Gui, where I was kindly received, and hospitably entertained, by the Sheïkh, without any view to profit or remuneration. After a repast, instead of availing myself of an opportunity for a siesta, which was afforded in a most polite and considerate manner, by the natives retiring from the room, I proceeded on my journey, till evening, and its short twilight, forced us to make a toilsome ascent up a narrow pathway, carried like a snake along the face of the rock, and at the summit of which was a goodly village, furnishing pleasant entertainment, rendered not the less acceptable from being generously proffered.

The next day we turned eastward up the valley of the Nahr el Kebir, in " the great river," and fording it at a distance of about ten or twelve miles east of Ládhikiyeh, we advanced into the country of the Nosaïriyeh, or Ansarians, at one of whose villages we stopped for the night, and concerning whom I have already written. The journey hence, led over the hilly districts of the Jebel-el-Akrád, which connect the Lebanon and Ansarian hills on the one side, with Anti Casius on the other. Amidst these hills, the Nahr el Kebir forces its way through a ravine, which is about thirty yards in depth, and scarcely eight feet in width. A legend, too absurd to be worthy relating, is associated by the natives with this natural phenomenon.

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On the 9th of June, we quitted the mountains; and descending into the valley of the Orontes, gained the sinall town of Jisr Sogheïr, or the " little bridge,” a Mohammedan hamlet, which has arisen upon the site of the Syro-Macedonian Seleucus, distinguished as “ ad Belus.” A name of so startling a description as the classical rendering of Ba'l, “ lord, or master,” and which would give to this little city on the Orontes an importance which brings it into relation with Ba’lbek, Ba’lis, and the numerous Baalas, Baalgads, and Baalsamenes of the land of Judea, rouses curiosity to ascertain its origin. Salmasius opines, that it is derived from a river of that name; but the capital of its district, Chalcis, was upon a different river, and yet distinguished also as being mpoc Bnaw, and which, hence, as Harduin supposes, appears to be the name of the mountain ridge that divides the vale of Cælo-Syria from the district of Chalcidene, now known as the Sháshalú, or Is'awí hills.

In the present day, Jisr Sogheïr contains few remnants of ancient times, although, after the Syro-Macedonian era, it became a Christian episcopate, whose mitred representative is recorded in the acts of the councils, by the name of Seleuco-belitanus.

Advancing from this position, up the renowned valley of CæloSyria, its leading features may be summed up in a few words-a central sluggish river, with a tortuous course; a level tract of greensward and marsh, dividing the roads close to the foot of the hills, where its ancient course is still distinctly marked out by the fragments of a causeway, and by occasional Roman milestones,* and on both sides ranges of hills, of moderate elevation, tame outline, and naked acclivities.

There is certainly a great similarity in fortunes, although a great contrast in scenery, between the “ hollow ways” of Syria and of Persia. In the latter, a great expanse of plain and wilderness, overrun with tamarisk, liquorice root, restharrow, and saline plants, watered by the river of Cyrus, the Bundemir of modern travellers and poets, is relieved by the artificial fertility of walled-in gardens, and groves of palm-trees, and pomegranate, by occasional patches of greensward, chequered by the dark encampments of the I'leyáts, and still more, by the clear and distinct outline of the royal and the double mountains of Diodorus and Ctesias, and the rocky pinnacles of the castellated Seli Gumbedan, or “ the three domes," which stand out of the horizon in black relief, as if branded on the vapourless sky,

The riches and renown of the cities of Cælo-Syria at once attest to its capabilities and its importance of old, had not history shewed that the different dominating nations in the East were perpetually fighting for its possession. At its head was Ba’lbek, with its gorgeous temple, and Emesa, surnamed the “noble;" —

“ Emese fastigia celsa renident,” (AVIENUS, 1083 ;) next came Epiphanea, the Hamath of Scripture, and then the episcopates of Arethusa and Larissa, followed by the royal Haras, and great military station of Apamea; and beyond these, a multitude of towns and cities reared their glittering turrets even unto Antioch, now

Springs, like subterranean rivers, suddenly bursting into life at the foot of Vouni Belus, and forming ponds and lakes.

standing in lonely and widowed pride, and to Seleucia, with her kingly tombs.

It is easy to understand why this valley, favoured by nature, being so long a land of contention, and always the great military road between Northern and Southern Syria, has undergone many changes, and often witnessed the prosperity of years overwhelmed by the devastations of a day. Not a city but has seen a combat before its walls; not a lake but has had its limpid waters stained with blood.

Hence it was, also, that, with a few exceptions, the early Christians did not abide within this valley, preferring the rocky wastes on the eastern side of Mount Belus. Here abundant springs of pure water flow from the foot of the hills; on the other side, the rain of heaven was with difficulty preserved in tanks, hewn at vast expense of labour out of the solid rock. Here every inch of ground is ready to produce at the bidding of industry; on the other side, there is nothing but a continuous pavement of stone, like a province marked out on a marble slab; but in such a region, the frequent invasions, and the perpetual persecutions so rife in the “Hollow-way," were, to a certain extent, avoided.

I was glad, when on reaching the small stream of Hawash, with its neighbouring village of same name, the muleteer proposed to rest there for the night, for my quotidian attack of ague was just coming on; and having made a usual bed of carpet and saddle bags on the greensward, the rest of the evening was taken up by involuntary and ridiculous shakings and cramps, followed by still more unwelcome heats and a leaden and death-like feeling, which crept over the frame, and was accompanied by strange wanderings of the imagination, in which I was often inclined to think of myself as of two persons, one of whom was sick, while the other was quite well

, and extremely indignant at the proceedings of the insane portion of my humanity.

A short ride from Hawash, the next morning, past the lake Aïn Taka, celebrated for its black fish (macropteronotus niger), so much prized by the Romans as an aristological luxury, brought us to where the valley of a small rivulet, apparently corresponding to the ancient Marsyas, opened into Mount Belus to the eastward, and was in part obstructed at its entrance by a conical hill about four hundred feet in elevation, on which was a modern mud-walled, hut-encumbered, and ruinous-looking castle, called that “ of the defile” (Kalat el Mudik), and which probably formerly bore the Acropolis of the Macedonian Apamea, and whence it was sometimes also called Chersonesus.

There was a caravanserai, and a mosque with minaret attached to it in the valley; but not caring to stop there, we wound slowly up the tortuous pathway which led to the castellated dwelling-houses above, and entered the sombre-looking portals, without seeing any available gates or any guard to question admission. The sheikh of the castle received me hospitably, but could afford little local or traditionary information.

At Apamea, as elsewhere in the East, it is with the past rather than the present that we have to do. At every step the traveller takes, the naturally more exciting interest he feels in the phases of a living humanity and the communion of fellow-creatures, is stayed by the sad dulness of a prostrate intellect, or warded off by the suspicious credulity of a savage wisdom, and which the pride of ignorance, and VOL. VI,


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