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and conversing with the colliers. I have having shining fractures like coal, and seen in many places the coal-seams re- being intermixed with pyrites, as are peatedly broken, so that they basset-out some coals, and as I have seen peat in many times at the same level. In gene- some parts of North Holland, in which ral the greatest expense for working the pyrites are found. 3. The same faults, coal-beds is occasioned by the numerous and with the same characters as in coal. faults, the change of inclination and of beds, are found in that fossil peat, and level of the same seam, and the depth at evidently by a greater subsidence of one which they are obliged to follow them, side of a fracture than the other; which whence the water is to be pumped out. I faults also extend through all the stony have given an instance of this, wiili many strata, above and under. 4. These beds details, in p. 216, of the first volume of abut aga nst stony strata, both of limeuny Travels in England.

stone and grit, in such a manner, that the In the beginning of the above quoted miners must cut their way through these passage Mr. Farey says: "Mr. De Luc strata sidewise, to arrive at the peat bed. mentions having proved in his works, that 5. The convulsions of the strata, in which coal-beds are submerged peat mosses-- blocks had been thrown on the surface, a position from which I must entirely dis- had preceded the formation of these peat sent, after having examined large tracis mosses or islands; for large blocks of of carboniferous strata." Thus far I have primordial stones are found at the bot. followed him in all that he has said to tom of this fossil-peat. prove his opinion, but I am going to ad. I persuade myseli that, when Mr. Farey duce such a proof of mine as I cannot doubt shall have seen such precise facts, and will convince him. For this linust again many others, in these Travels, be will refer to my Geological Travels, now in conceive to how great an extent the ob. the press; but they will be soon published, servations should be carried presiously and the facts which I shall now relate to the formation of any geological syswill be found in them, with all their pare tem: he will judge also that I had solid ticulars.

reasons for all my assertions; and, in par. I have described many hills in the ticular, that, in my explanation of ihe countries of Hesse and Brunswick, and origin of coal-beds, I had been directed indicated some in other parts of Germany, by incontrovertible facts. where are found beds of what is called The author comes next to an object, in those countries Surturbrandt, or referring to my answer to Common Sense, brown coal, which is absolutely fossil. which deserves examination, he says, p. peat, with very little alteration. Mere 516, “ That the internal parts of the peat occupies the upper part, and mosses, earth are cavernous, is pretty completely branches, and roots of trees, are found in disproved by the general gravity of the the lower part, as in the recent peat whole mass; and that it was erer cavera mosses. These beds, of evident vegeta- nous, as Mr. De Luc asserts, p. 414, as ble origin, lie on line-stone strata, con. an essential point of his theory, I see the taining marine bodies, and are covered strongest reasons to disbelieve; and to with stony straia of other kinds, exactly think that the valleys having been occa. in the same manner as the coal beds. sioned by the angular motions and deThey have been discovered on the sides pressions of parts of the strata into these of valles, in the sections of the strata caverns, is alike a mistaken imagery." produced by subsidence. This will ap- Mr. Farey has noticed my Travels in pear evidently by the description which England, but I may judge that he has not I give of these rallies.

been sufficienly attenuve to all their These beds are worked for suel; I en- paris. In the first volume, being the setered three of them, from thirty to sixey cond of my Travels, describing, at p. 129, ilk'e thick, and (of an oknown extent, bes & seq. the hills and quorries of Swacause they dip under the superficial nage, and after having explained how ground. Now the following circum-. the actual caverns in our continents must stances will be found, with many details, absolutely have proceeded from the subin my scriptions. 1. 1:1 some places sidence of parts of the strata in pre-ex. these beds are worked for llie wood at istent carerns underncath, I described the bottom, and are entered at that part external phenomena in all the parts of in their secron towards the valley. 2. these hills, which demonstrated ii as a I over places they are entered ly the fact. opper pari, when, in a certain depili,

But in the same volume I gave an acthe peal is almost mineralized iniu cval, curale description of a ridge vi calcareous

mountains,

1813.) M. De Luc, on Geological Phenomena.

23 mountains in Somersetshire, named the all the characters observed in our caverns, Mendip-bills. I ascended these hills by in the manner which I have explainesi. the remarkable cleft called Chedder.clifts, In a journey after this, proceeding in which I pointed out indisputable proofs from Totness, along the river Dart, I deof a fracture, with angular motions, dif- scribed the singular changes, at the same ferent in its'opposite sides; and in partic level, between the lime-stone and the cular I mentioned the openings of three schisti, with grey-wacke; the former of caverns, at different levels, on these sides, which, in that country, are called slate; relating what a well-införmed iohabitant and the latter, dun-stone. Such a situof the country bad described to me of the ntion of strata, so ditferent in their kinds, interior form of these caverns. After- cannot have any other cause thini cataswards I described the top of these bills, trophes. I stopped at Bucktastleigh, a on which the lime-stone strata are bassel- small town, situated in a dale, behind a Ling-out: then I came to a great intersec. small insulaied hill, which attracted iny tion of these hills, near the town of Wells, attention; for I saw it consisting, un one in which intersection is the opening of a side, of lime-stone strata, much broken; famous cavern nained Wookey-bole; and on the opposite side, of slate and whence, as well as at the foot of Chedder- dun-stone. cliifs, issues a clear stream of water; a In walking quite around this hill, I met proof that there are in these hills large with a gentleman of the place, whom I reservoirs, where the waters, muddy found kindly disposed to answer my when they enter the crevices of the sure questions; bis informations are related face in ciine of rain, deposit their sedio from page 104, of the second volume of inents. I went some way in that cavern my Travels in England; therefore I shall with the guide who is accustomed to at only give a short account of them. Have tend the curious, and he gave me the same ing inquired of him, whether that mixture description of the internal parts of the of different kinds of strata extended to a hill, as I had heard at Chedder-clills; for great distance, he answered me: “ That he told me that these caverus also were in this country every thing indicated interrupted by great faults, branching off that there had been some great revoluin various directions; and be gave ine a tion, which had produced, not merely exproof that all these caverns cominuni ternal disorder, but also great effects 12 cated to one another from Wookey-hole the external parts of the ground," lle to Chedder-cliffs; that a dog, entering at then informed me, that iy the mass of the former, and losing its way to return, the calcareous strata, in parts where, had come out some days after at Chedder being too deep, they did not appear exdiffs, quite emaciated.

ternally, there were many caverns, of After having related all these circum- which he gave me the following partia stances, I came at p. 429 of tbe same vo. culars:-“They are divided into different lume, to shew that these caverns, in our chambers, adorned with pillars of stao continents, demonstrated the pre-exis lactites. It is very dangerous to proceed tence of cavities in the globe. It is im- far in these caverns, on account of tispossible to doubt that these caverns have sures so deep, that, if a large stone is been produced by some catastrophes of thrown down them, it is beard for some tle strata, that catastrophe must have time to strike against the sides, after been occasioned either by the subsidence which the noise generally dies away; but of the parts now the lowest, as in my sys. in some chasms, where, after some time, tem; or by the listing up of the paris now the stone can soll be beard to reach the the bighest, which appears tu be Mr. bottom, the sound is that of falling into Farey's sense, when he speaks of lifis in water." This is again a phenomenon of Derbyshire. But, whatever be the case the caverns of our Continents, which in this last respect, I decided that abso- cannot be explained but by the subsia lute dilemma, by the following peremp- dence of the broken strata, occasioned tory argument. If the highest parts bad by previously existing cavities

in the been raised,' there could not have ex- globe. isted any vacancy in the mass thus lified This gentleman told me farther: "That up; since the pressure exercised from these caverns communicated with each below, would lia e been communicated other by passayes, more or less wide, in succession to every part of the mass. forming a kind of suhterranean labyrinth, Whereas, in the subsidence of the strata, where no body durst venture lar, and of there must have remained vacancies with which, therefore, the extent remained 1

Wishinunn.

'" Essay

unknown." As an instance of this, he deavours at explanation, I reinain one of related to me, “ that some time before, the many who cannot perceive the suwhen he had been out shooting, one of periority of the notation which he has his dogs, pursuing a rabbit, had entered derived from the manuscripts in the a hole in a rock ; that he waited for him, Royal Institutiou. I still think, wich and called him a long time, but in vain ; Lord Stanhope and the author of the Reso that he had concluded him actually trospect (vol. iv. p. 4, 1809), that bis lost in some cavern: however, after some way of expressing an interval by £. f. days, the dog returned bome, but exces- and m. is as unnecessary as to express sively, lean and almost dying; so that, the number 8091 by 8000+600+3 score though much care was taken of him, it +2 dozen +7. If any of your readers was a great while before he recovered.” have reasons for holding a different opiThis is the same case as the dog in the nion of Mr. Farey's would-be-thought caverns of the Medip hills, and shows improvement in the calculation of interprecisely the nature of those caverns, vals, they would afford me, and others,

In the same part of my Travels, I de- inuch pleasure by inaking those reasons scribed many other phænomena which I public. Nir. Liston indeed calls the norecommend to the attentiou of M. Farey, tarion ingenious, but no-where employs as they led me to the following conclu- it in bis large folio of 144 pages, whollysion, (repeated in many parts of my Tra- on musical intervals, entitled an vels, after similar descriptions :) "That on Perfect Intonation;" 1812. no doubt can remain, that all ihe strata There is another practice of Mr. Faof that country have undergone subsi- rey's which, -I am pleased to observe, is dences, with angular motions of their as little followed by respectable writers parts divided by fractures; and that the as the preceding. The practice to whicb low space through which the Dart now I allude is the needless, or worse than winds, is the part where this subsidence needless, introduction of such words as was the greatest."

the following, for which he seems to enWindsor.

J. A. De Luc. tertain a father's fondness: “ Douzeavé,

quatorzeave, siezave, dixseptave, dixneuf To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ave, vingtunave, vingtduxave, vingiquaSIR,

treave, cinquarreneulave.” Philos. Mug. IT

N reply to an inquiry that inight well No. 170, $c.-Are these terms French

be made, respecting the utility and su- or English? If French, why should ne periority of the notation of musical in- prefer French words to Latin or Italian? tervals chosen by Mr. John Farey, that Italian terns, it would appear, should gentleman remarks, that logarithms re- have the preference, on account of that present ratios“ only when an indefinitely language being so much connected with great number of places of figures are music, and being, in the judgment of used, the least or the greatest musical the great Dryden, the most musical of intervals, those having the most simple all languages, living or dead. If he is ratios (as 1 : 2) having just as long a sound desirous to Frenchify our musical tetms Hud complicated a common logariılım as and to press the French cardinal num. the largest, most incommensurate, or hers into his service, let him do so uni. complicated ratio.” Now, I wish to ask formly, and'write huitave instead of uco the ingenious Mr. Farey, what be ineans, tave, &c. Perhaps, however, he may in this sentence, by a long sound; and aspire to the reputation of a Hudibras, next, wlial the length of a sound has to who do with inusical intervals ? By the length

" Could coin or counterfeit of a sound, is generally understood its New words, with little or no wit, duration, or the length of time, which it Words so debased and hard, no stone continues audible; and the most igno. Was hard enough to touch them on.” runt in harmonics will admit, that an in. These long words remind me of the terms terval is the same whether the two sounds superparticular, subsùperparticular, which form or constitute that interval, sesquialterale, subsesquialterate, supercontinue audible for one minute, for partient, subsuperpartient, submultihalf an hour, or for any portion of time plex, superparticular," &c. &c. in Euwhatever. As Mr. Join Farey writes clid's Section of the Canon, and in some for the public, your readers have a riglre old and useless Treauses on Music. Dir. to expect that he will “ descend" to give Farey's term douzeuve, if I understand some explanation.

him, denotes a system in which there Notwillistandiog Mr. F.'s former ene are eleven svunds didering in pitch, be

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tween any given sound, as C and its oc. Now, to a moral certainty,(which some tare. Now a days, when we have so folks say is no certainty at all) I have many scales, as llawkes', Loeschman's, not been deluded by my servants, for, Dr. R. Sinithi's, Liston's, &c. some new none can I afford to keep; lastly, as 10 terms may be useful; but I do not like its extreme unwholesomeness, I can only that they should be more than half say that, I have eaten freely of it, and French ; nor do I approve of their having never felt any of the injurious effects; the termination in dve, because octave and, if it is so very unwholesome, bow and septuve, two established terms, are comes it to be used so much in our not employed to express that the interval boarding schools as it is, for puddings, &c. 1:3 or vii. has so many different sounds Again, I am acquainted with a very between the two that constitute that in. worthy gentlewomnan, mistress of a sinall terval as to divide it into eight or seven family of children, who have eaten ricesmaller intervals, but they are employed bread for the last nine months, which I according to the musical degrees,-ac- am sure would not have been the case, cording to the literal names of the ter- had it been judged in any degree injuminating sounds of the interval. The rious to the health. S, LUKE. nomenclature of no science is so much Newbury. in need of reformation as that of music, and, the longer Mr. F. may persist in the To the Editor of the Alunthly Magazines use of his mongrel names, the more will sir, reformation be necessary: it will make HE liberality which first induced may become the wonder of the ignorant. submitting to an impartial public, through April 29, 1812. A. Bodongan. the medium of your highly valuable pube

lication, iny claim to be considered the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. actual inventor of the improvements on SIR,

the piano-forte, for which Mr. Loesche ORRY I am to witness such a mis. man obtained a patent, will, I trust, be

take relative to rice bread; and, in cxtended, to allow me, for a dome!it, to order to prevent farther imposition on trespass further on the patience of your your readers, be pleased to insert a few numerous readers, whilst I briefly offer a remarks: philosophers say, Look before few remarks on the conduct of the two you leap, which“F.S. S.” has certainly gentlemen Mr. L. mentioned in his reply omitted to do; for in the first place lie, to mine of February lass. probably like Colonel Johnes, doubted In these Mr. L. made a feeble attempt The truth of its marvellous etfects when to invalidate my statements, and to rehe read of them, and he most likely set move the impression they were calculated out with a mind filled with prejudice to make on the public inind, by endea. against rice; or, what is still more probable, vouring to establish two points: First, he is a rice contractor for the British army that he was under no obligation ivható in Portugal, or a regrater of bread corn, ever for any assistance from me in the and is fearlul of diminishing its consump- construction of his instrument, either tion, as well as increasing the demand for scientific, original, or mechanical; for, rice. In the second place, he will recol. at the period when he first requested my lect that rice is like most other things, attention, “though he had not one coincomposed of good and bad, and most pleted, yet he had many in hand with likely be procured very bad rice, on puro six pedais."-Secondly, That all the sci. pose to, endeavour to frustrate Colonel entific knowledge I pretended to have Jolines's well-meant intentions. Ex- afforded him, as something exclusively clusive of that gentleman's recoinmenda. my own, was to be found in Kercher's tion, in your Magazine for June, there and Dr. Sunith's Harmonics; though he was another under the signature of " Phi- onlitted to inform your readers at what lanthropist," in the number for May; part of either of ihese authors' works, nor is this all, for I have seen it (with the knowledge in question is to be found; mine own eyes) recommended in twelve and stating that, “it was from repeated Magazines, which I could and would interviews with an Ilonourable Gentleman Specify were it necessary, exclusive of and Dr. Kemp, he was induced and several country and London Newspapers; enabled to periect bis invention.” and what, sir, have they all been de My circumstantial refutation of all ceived by their servants !" for they were these particulars, by a full detail of facts, all under signatures.

dates, and an explicit statement of the MONTILY Mag. No. 237.

E

intormation

information I actually pfforded Mr. gaged, he could not see me." In conLoeschman, through your kind indul. sequence, I communicated iny business gence, appeared in your Magazine for by letter, requesting he would have the 'June last. And I flatter myself, I must goodness to inforın me what instructions have fully substantiated my claim, and he had afforded Mr. L. in the construcsatisfied your readers of the veracity of tion of his six-pedal instrument, and at all my respective statements.

what time. Though this was at the beAnd, so conclusive, so unanswerable, ginning of April, I have never yet rewere these statements, that Mr. Loesch. ceived any answer. man has never since ventured the slight- About the same time, I also addressed est animadversion on any one of my a letter to the Honourable George Pocharges or observations.

meroy, the gentleman to whom Mr. That Mr. Loeschman should intro. Loeschman alludes. It was delivered duce the name of Dr. Kenip, and allude at his residence to a person who proto an Ilonourable Gentleman, in the mised to give it him the moment he rehope of prejudicing the public by their turned, The contents was siinilar to united respectability against crediting the one addressed to Dr. Kemp, but I my single assertion, is not at all surpri. have not been favoured with any reply. sing; but, that these gentlemen should I, therefore, thus publicly call upon the seem by their tacit acquiescence to give Hon. George Pomeroy and Dr. Kemp, currency to his misrepresentations, is either to disavow all participation in Mr. 'what indeed dves surprise me! Parti- Loeschman's misrepresentations, or to cularly, as soon as I bad read Mr. substantiate by indubitable evidence, Loeschman's answer to my statements, that, previous to October 1808, they and found their namnes implicated as sup- furnished Mr. Loeschman with the piec portung bis misrepresentations, I waited cise instructions which enabled him to upon Dr. Kemp and requested a few construct his “ six-pedal patent pianoinimutes' conversation with him; but re- forie."

Thomas GRENVILLE. ceived for answer, “he was so much en- No. 24, Store-street, Dec. 2, 1812.

For the Monthly Magazine.
METEOROLOGICAL. ABSTRACT for the lus! TWELVE MONTHS at CARLISLE.

Wind.

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Snow, &c.
Days of Rain,

E. S.W.N.E. S. & N. & S. E N.W.

High. Low. Mean High. Low. Mean. Inches.

50 52 53 51 72 76

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January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Movember
December

10 36 30-35 28.85 39.818 1.41
S2 41.05/29.95 29.00' 29.53 4.62
23 36.65 30.42 29.11 29 811 2.75
30 40.97130.27 29:30, 29 972 1:12
S5 51.3 30:3429.31 29 887 1.71
46 55.8 50 53 29.17 29.932 5.81
47 56*8130.51 29:37 29.969 1.61
47 57.3 30:30'29.62 30-045 2:58
38 5404 30:31 29 75, 30-04 2.91
33 483 29.94 28:13 29.107 2.72
20 40 2 30.35 29.98 29.842 2:02
15 31.7930 63 29.25. 30.017 .61

10

8 22 23 18 10 15

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15 16 14 22 15 11

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53 48

Annual Mean 46•14 Ann. Mean 29.856 26.87 488 180 186

Total Tot.' Tor. Total! General Remarks on the Weather, &c. 11°, 000n. 18°, and night 10°, average

observed at Carlisle during the year 190 below the freezing point. The wea1812.

ther afterwards, with regard to tenpeJunuary.--The beginning was mild rature, was variable, but chiefly mild. and moist; the 3d, 4th, 5ii, and Oih, On the 16th we had a heavy drizzling were intense frost, with falls of snow, fog. From the 19th will the 26th, ibe ale which amounted to about four inches in mosphere was remarkably serene and depth; on the 5th ibe frost was unusually pleasant. The winds were very mode. severe, the morning temperature being rate, and for several successive dars we

experienced

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