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The conditions and premiuins offered To speak of either of the mighty inas. by the Club, for the ensuinig year, differ ters of barmony, Ilandel and Haydn, as ni no material degree from those of last having attained the ne-plus-ultru of mu. scar; and the bills, with printed forinssical excellence, would be equally idle ;for the certificates required from candic but we may give the palm to one or the dates, inay be liad as usual.

other without an imputation of blind atJan. 16, 1813. J. Farey, Sec. tachment to either.

Those of your

readers, Mr. Editor, who can understand To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine, the scientific points between Oxensis and SIR,

Mar. Gardiner, will perceive the meriis


paper on Modern Music, my ad. No one would measure the powers of piration of the great master of the old Newton's mind by a philosophical ville; scbool, has drawn from me a few re. por of Locke's understanding by a meta. Biarks, which possibly you may deem physical subtiliy; ror of Shakespeare's buworthy your notice; though I feel genius by a point of grammar; nor would some encouragement in offering them, I decide between Handel and Ilaydn by from recollecting your reception of a a chord of the 13tlı, or 4 minor 3ds. former cominunication, containing an Admitting that they possessed equal inquiry concerning the poetical contri- science, or even tbat Ilayan refined on buiors to Handel,

thal of Flandel, I cannot but prefer the In your Magazine for April, 1807, latter, on the basis of his truth to pature, amongst other replies to it, the one from and his faithful, powerful, and must alMr. Evans, of Bristol, by communica- fecting language of human sentiments ting considerable information, laid me and passion, wliich the genius of the under an agreeable obligation to that former has not equally expressed. This gentlemans, for which my thanks are but is the ground on which we must compare ü pour return.

these great composers. They hare, in Your correspondent W. G. whose mu- their works, addressed themselves to the sical genius and eccentricity equally de- niost profound, dignified, and amianie Joght and annuse his friends, has spread emotions of man: query, which of thern over his first paper a blaze of inagina- wili niost complete success? Thousands tion, through which it is somewhat diffi- have felt something like inspiration after cult to discern the justness of his criti- a sacred performance of Handel's,-a eism, as resulting from the soundness of holy sentiment and impression, as though bis judgment, and the purity of his taste. a celestial ambassador, with a choir of Some suspicion of an obliquity of judge angels, had been speaking to them; and ment, or of an aberration fruin the truth there has been a consciousness of an ex. of nature and good taste, can hardly he ercise of the soul under it, similar in puavoider, when an enthusiast talks of a rity and elevation to the enthusiasm of “ nuenstreur" chord, in which all the devotion and virtue. A grand sentiment chords are chemically changed; of che- and a higti tone of feeliny have also been mical “precipitation,"

," "volcanic erup- communicated to many by the Creation; tions," &c. It opens a new expectation but, I do not think it so obvious, Mr. to me, that the next discovery of musical Editor, that Haydn's ambitious splendor, science will issue from Sir H. Davy's la- " theatrical" air, ' elab'raie ornament, boratory. Let not Mr. G. take excep. and brilliant science, have eminently inrion at ibe word enthusinst; I mean io spired the hallowed feeling, that bearş so dignify, not degrade, him in it; esteem- powerful a testimony to the genius of his iny enthusiasm in music to have an allia rival. ance with the great and goud of human I cannot but feel, sir, there is a character.

degree of sophistication (if you will allow

1813.] Superiority of the Ancient Nlusic. the term in music) in the compositions and inferior writers frequently debase of the new school; and the admiration it with tricks and prettinesses, that make they have drawn froin me has not always sensible men ashamed of it: retinement had the according approbation of moral tuo has nearly made it incapable of feeling, or religinus sentiment; any more speaking to the honest and genuine afthan the iinposing, bui false, sentimenta. fections of the human bosom: it is inore lity of a Korzebue; or the grand, but frequently the language of affectation pernicious, morality of a Goethe or a than of truth; of a sickly sensibility than Schiller.

of good feeling. But I would allude It might be supposed the continental more particularly to a special quack con philosophers and musicians had disco- ceit of musical expression, with whicla vered some new region of human nature, some composers have plaved strange fanto which their works were addressed; tastic gambols, and nearly exposed by bearing some relation perhaps to the sen, them the whole science to derision and sation, intellect, moral sense, and iona. conteinpt; but it is, Mr. Editor, a strain gination, we generally ascribe to inan; ing of musical sound to represent mechayet not expressiy referable to any one of nic motions in nature, which were never them; for they certainly often succeed intended to be so represented. That by the magic of talent to raise a great there is some relation between sound and feeling, which with ditculty we can de- motion, I acknowledge; and great beauty fine, approve, or account for.

and effect in one accompanying the other Iirust, Nir. Edicor, that, with all our but, to take one to express the other, is erotic follies and minicry, there is less using the former at some hazard--as the adulteration of natural sentiment in this ludicrous is ever close at hand to mock country, than on the continent; and I the foolish attempt. would wish a jealous veneration of Ilan. Many of your readers will recollock del long to remain at once an evidence the most notable “Batile of Prague,'' of it, and a pledge of security to the and the imminent danger they have been distincion.

in from the flying bullets and charge of Matchless in sublimity as Handel's cho. cavalry, as exhibited on the keys of the russes are, I conceive, sir, the test of piano: instances' might be mentioned, his inspiration and powerful genius is less sir, ten times more absurd than these. in thein than in the profound emotion The greatest masters are in equal danger he produces by a few simple notes in his when they desert the proper sphere of sacred songs; as in the three following, musical expression, and case to use it of the minor key: "Behold and see,” in as he language of strong or amiable pasa the Messiah; “ Farewel, ye limpid sion. My reverence for the Creation," Springs,” in Jeptha; and “ Total Eclipse," (which surely bas given to Haydu a deathia in Sampson. There is no language to less name,) restrains my pen; and will describe the feeling these compositions not permit me to particularize incongruigive me; none will be necessary to those ties of a similar kind, which I would who have felt them with a kindred spirit, have ever offensive to good taste, and to that which inspired them. To the scouted by all who have at heart the true grace and sweetness of Haydn's melo- dignity and honour of musical science. dies, we can scarcely conceive a rival Beethoven (whom Mr. G. names with excellence; and, accompanied as they great honour) mocks all criticism; a witch are with such refinement of scientific insanity of genius bears him to some suskill and exquisite beauty of ornament, pra-lunary region, where human judge they will ever be a feast of the first order ment and feeling are equally at fault. to a cultivated taste; but this, sir, is Oi the greater works of Mozart, I am very distinct from the soul-moving awful too ignorant to form an opinion ; the simplicity of Handel, and certainly elegance, pathos, and chastity, of his mis evinces a mind of a different order, with nor ones challenge a more general study less of the divinity stirring within it. of bis refined genus.

Venerating Handel as I dy, conceive, Had Mr. Gardiner spoken in much sir, how it moves one's spleen to hear, as stronger terms of the emasculared cha. I have done, quacks in the art deny that racter of the lialian opera, many, with Handel has any music of characteristic inysulf, would have learuly coincided expression, and then perhaps amble on with him; for certainly that prostituted the keys a scrap of Italian inanity, and forın ot a noble art and science, sube call it perfection. There is, indeed, a serves inerely to voluptuousness, and in great deal of quackery in musical science, a spus ious refinement of sentiment, winch MONTHLY Maw. No. 237,


erel is

erects irself on the ruin of all manly feel- equally admired in the Pantheon; and, ing, pure taste, and virtuous sensibility. in my preference of Handel, I fear no

In concluding this paper, which I fear, ridicule in declaring, it is a necessity of Mr. Editor, you nay think tedious, I my nature to bow to the power of his would express my feeling of the distinc- genius, and that I am pressed to hear tion between the ancient and modern my testimony to it under a persuasion school, by observing, that the perform- that it was pre-eminently touched by ance of Handel's sacred compositions, I the spirit of Deity. W. MARSHALL, always refer to a Christian temple; while Stur Cross, Devon, Haydn (did I worship Jupiter) would be July 23, 1812.




SOME ACCOUNT of the Life of DON a proper age he was sent to the King's

MARIANO MORENO, SECRETARY Of School, (Escuela del Rey,) a seminary the JUNTA of BUENOS AYRes; inclu- supported by funds from the Royal Treading a SKETCH of the REVOLUTION of sury. At the age of eight years, he had the PROVINCES in SOUTH nearly fallen a victim to the small-pox,

which, as vaccination nor even inocua THE TUIE subject of this inemuir died on lation had then been introduced, was a

the 4th of March, 1811, while on mortal plague, carrying off at least a his vovage 1o England, as deputy from third of those who took the infection. the Revolutionary Junta of Buenos At twelve, he was sent to study the clas. Ayres, to this government. Ilis eloquent sics at the college of St. Carlos, supported exertions in the cause of liberty, and also by the crown, and, further, by the more especially his memorial on the pa- property which devolved wit on the licy of opening a free trade with En- expulsion of the Jesuits. gland, caused him to be regarded by his This establishment is quite monastic'; countrymen as the Fox of South Ame- it is calculated to make friars and curates, rica. This title testified the opinion rather than good citizens. At five in the they had formed of his talents, and per- morning, in summer, the pupils are called haps more particularly tended to express up to go to the chapel and perform men. the hopes they had formed of his poli. tal devotions, or hear mass; in winter, at tical career, which unfortunately termi- seven. They mess all together, and are nated ere he had completed his thirty- lodged three or four in a room, in a very second year. As an accomplished scho- homely way. They have a number of lar, a bold and enlightened orator, an out-students, at least double that of the undaunted and incorruptible champion collegians. This seminary, compared of liberty, and a decided friend to Ene with any of the colleges of Oxford or gland, he is an object of interest and re. Cambridge, would inake a vile figure. spect to the readers of this · Miscellany; The course of studies pursued, tends to and, it is hoped, they will gladly admit a foron the youths into intolerant theolofew pages as a biographical tribute to his gians, who waste their time in agitating memory.

Don Mariano Moreno was and defending abstract questions on dio ibe eldest son of Don Manuel Moreno, vinity, angels, &c. and spend their lives one of the officers in the Treasury of the in supporting the ridiculous and exploded Royal Chest, at Buenos Ayres. He re- systems of the schoolmen. The injury ceived the rudiments of education under done to the minds of the pupils by these his father's roof, and gave early proofs exercises, might be compensated by the of extraordinary capacity and keen sen- lectures on logic, mathematics, natural sibility, a quality which almost uniformly and experimental philosophy, and ethics; characterizes men of superior minds. which are given to the students for three From his very infancy he displayed a spirit years, as preparatory to their studying which could neither brook humiliation, theology; which, as it is the science they nor give way to violence; and this noble ought to preserve most fresh in their temper was the more remarkable in him, memory, is served up the last. It is because, being born to a slender patri- painful however to add, that, in these mony, and in a Spanish colony, he must branches, the scholastic systein is mainhave been often teinpeed to descend to tained in all its rigour, and the theories the usual arts of rising in the world. At which have been abandoned in Europe 1


1813.) Account of the Life of Don Mariano Moreno. for-these fifty years, are warmly main. driguez, now provincial prelate of Buenos tained. The ignorance of the professors Ayres. This worthy ecclesiastic gave in practical science is such, that there bim access to the library of the convent, are many among them who, though they introduced him to his friends, and con can speak with ability on any subject in tributed to prepare the way for the physics, are quite embarrassed on at. honourable career he afterwards com. tempting to use a pneumatic machine, menced. or the apparatus for evolving the gases;

Dr. Moreno had now spent eight years the theory of which they can explain ada in study, and had reached the twentieth mirably, but cannot perform the opera- of his age. His father, possessed of small tion. This shameful state of education property, and having other children to is attributable to the system of despotism provide for, found it difficult to furnish and oppression constantly pursued by the money necessary to establish him in Spain, especially in her colonies; and a profession. The church was the usual is a natural consequence of the exclusive resource for young men of small fortune title which the ecclesiastics have main. in that colony, for a military life there tained ever since the time of the monks, involved them in indigence and corrupof presiding over every literary establish- tion. Mariano long hesitated, whether ment. Under the pretext of possessing or not to take orders, as his father and that virtue, which it was requisite the mother, who were pious people, desired pupils should possess, the clergy and him. friars have occupied all the collegial At length he decided on going to the chairs, and have dexterously cultivated city of La Plata, capital of the province this powerful means of augmenting their of Chuquisaca, in Peru, in order to be credit and their power.

inade a priest. There then resided in At the end of each year there is a pri- Buenos Ayres, a rich curate of the ArFate exarnination before a tribunal formed chiepiscopal jurisdiction of La Plata, who of all the professors in the college, une had come as deputy froin bis brethreu to der the presidency of a chancellor; and conduct a lawsuit against the Royal Huthe students cannot pass to the higher diencia, which had oppressed thein; and, lectures without having received appro. from this act of oppression, an appeal lay bation on their advancement. The same to tbe Council of the Indies in Diadrid: forms are observed in the halls of theo. this individual came invested with the Ingy; these are governed by three pro. powers of his compeers, and had at his fessors, who give each day an hour's lec- disposal a suni of eighty thousand dola ture in turns: all degrees are obtained Jars, which had been subscribed to defray by public disputation, in the presence of the costs of the suii ; and, as the war their a magistrate, commissioned by govern- prevented all intercourse with Old Spain,

he remained long in Buenos Ayres. He Dr. Moreno soon acquired a thorough bad been present at the last conclusions knowledge of Latin, spoke it with ease which Mariano delenited in the collece and elegance, and produced some toler- of San Carlos; admired his talents, and able verses in that language. lle went took him under his protection, promising through the higher classes with singular to use his influence with the prelare for

At a yearly meeting, in which his advancement. The father of Mariwere assembled the principals of all the ano, who had just been promoted to a convenis in the city, young Moreno was higher situation in the tribunal of acchosen to sustain the honour of the counts, and received an advance of school, in an act of conclusions in pliilne twelve hundred dollars a year, found sophy, for such this ceremony is called; means to provide the young ductor with and, on another occasion, he did the the necessaries for his journey. same in theology.

On his arrival at La Plata, he found He was a most voracious reader, and that the good curate nad franked his kis father at times found it necessary to board and lodging, in the house of his keep books from him, out of regard to intimate friend, the canon, Dr. Mathias bis health. His zeal for knowledge, and Terragas, to whom he gave him every the talents he displayed, enabled him to kind of recommendation, and an open form connections with literary persons of letter of credit. consequence, who treated lim with par- The city of La Plata is head of the ticular distinction, and opened their li province ndich bears the name of Chobraries to him: among these was a re- quisaca, in Peru, and is the seat of a goa speotable Franciscan friar, Cayetano Ro- vernment, an intendancy and presidency



of the Royal Audiencia of the district; it empirics and quacks, who infested the is subject, in civil and judicial matters, province, will have no successors to supto the authority of this local tribunal; port their exertions, though the profes. but it acknowledges a dependence, in sion is lucrative and honourable. matters of government, on the city of Dr. Moreno set out for Peru in the Buenos Ayres, capital of the wbole vice. middle of November, 1799. The reader royalty; there is an University in it, will be surprised to learn, that a road so rather ancient, in wbich jurisprudence, much frequented as is that to the interior theology, and philosophy are studied; provinces, with which a continual com. botsio degrees are conferred, except in munication is maintained for trade, as the tivo first faculties. At this time it well as on government business, has been was the only establishment of the kind in to this very day so much neglected, that the whole viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, there is not to be found on the whole of and those studerts who were inclined to it, any tolerable accommodation for a decorate themselves with the title of traveller. The whole course of it is disDoctors, or really wanted the distinction tributed into miserable postus, situated at wlich is necessary for the exercise of cer great distances from each other, under tain literary functions, bad to traverse a the management of rude and poor In. large tract of country through roads en dians, who, far from being able to relieve tirely destitute of the conveniences of the traveller from his fatigue on arriving, life, or to pass the dangerous Cordillera afflice him with the sight of their extreme of the Andes, which separates Buenos indigence; and, with the exception of Ayres from the provinces of Chilé, where those in the villages, on the line of comThere is another college less celebrated, munication, such as Luxan, Cordova, though it is the first in point of the im- Santiago del Estern, Salta, and Tucu. pericuion of its instructions. There was man, which are better managed; there another establishment in Cordova, the is not one which affords either food, bed, capital of the province of Tucuman, dis or any thing but horses; and these, iant (wo hundred and fifty leagues from though the country abounds with them, Buenos Ayres, and the first anong the are of a perverse description. This cities of the interior; but that institution reprehensible neglect of a piont so is so insignificant, that the students avoid interesting to the internal and external It as involving the reproach of bad dis- trade of the Viceroyalty, arises from cipline and abandonment. It is only this circumstance: the maintenance of since the time of the establishment of the postas is an establishment belonging the present Junta, that this college has to the adıninistration of the Post Office, Tetrieved its credit,

which branch is one of the rents The protection of government has of the royal family; and hence the adoften been solicited for making the col ministrators think of nothing but the lege of San Carlos, in Buenos Ayres, an mere transport of the mail, and for this University, but to no purpose. Indeed, purpose they have fixed, at each distance there is some inconvenience in forming of twelve and fourteen leagues, a mise. such an institution in a capital; which is, rable hut, with a small yard for the post that the bustle and corruption of large horses. Subsequently perceiving the cowns are decidedly injinical to the profit that might result from supplying studies of youui. Since the inilitary travellers with their horses on the road, efforis which the country was obliged they extended that benefit to the public to make to resist the invasion of on very moderate charges. Consequente the English troops under Beresford ly the traveller cannot require more than and Whitelock, ihe young men of relays of borses, and a guide from one Buenos Ayres have lived in a state of post to another; and, if he must neces. licentiousness, wluch was unknown be- sarily he subject to great inconvenience fore; and bave been strongly tempted and privation for the space of a month Lo einbrace a military life, whicla gives and a half, which is occupied in travelthem a kind of independence on their ling to Lover Peru, he suffers no less iam parents, and a figure in society much the immense extent of desert plains and inore attractive ban that of a poor stu. steep mountains, without any other safedent in a cloister. It is painful to see guard than that of the Indian who conibat the hails of surgery and medicine ducts him. Equal inconveniences are mnie suspended their lectures for want of tend the weighty convoys vf money be. asrundents; and that more than twenty pro. longing to the king and in the merchants, foss, wlis went out to supplant the aluca frequently so the saine roari to


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