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lical doctrine baptized into the death of Christ, is by his SERM." blood washed from their sins. Because there could be no LXXI. true regeneration, unless there were made also a true redemption ; since in the sacraments of the Church there is nothing empty, (or vain,) nothing ludificatory; but all thoroughly true, and supported by its own very truth and sincerity. Yet that out of the very company of believers and the redeemed, some are eternally saved, because by God's grace they faithfully abide in their redemption, bearing the Lord's speech in their hearts, He that perseveres to the end shall be saved ; and that others, because they would not abide in the salvation of the faith, which they at first received, and did rather choose to frustrate the grace of redemption by evil doctrine or life, than to keep it, do nowise arrive to the plenitude of salvation, and to the perception of eternal beatitude. It is then a catholic and true doctrine, that at least Christ is a Saviour of all appearing Christians; and supposing the truth thereof, I say that by consequence he is also the Saviour of all men. For it appeareth thence, that the design of our Saviour's performances did not flow from, or was not grounded upon any special love, or any absolute decree concerning those persons who in event shall be saved; since according to that supposition it extendeth to many others; wherefore it proceeded from God's natural goodness, and common kind affection toward mankind; from the compassion of a gracious Creator toward his miserable creature, whence all men are concerned and interested therein. Why God's merciful intentions were not explicitly declared and propounded to Socrates and Epictetus, as they were to Judas Iscariot and Simon Magus, is another question, which we may afterward in some manner assoil; at present, it suffices to say, that the overture of mercy made to such wretches doth argue God's kind disposition and good intention toward all men; so it did in St. Ambrose's opinion; who says, that our Lord ought not to pass by the man who should betray him, that all men might take notice, that in
SERM. the choice even of his traitor, he did hold forth a pledge LXXI.
or mark of all men's being to be saved n.
But the truth of this doctrine will farther appear by the declaration and surveyal of those respects according to which Christ is represented the Saviour of men, as also by considering how useful and conducible to piety this doctrine is, as ministering grounds and obligations, encouragements and motives to the practice of most considerable duties required from all men. But these things must be reserved to another occasion.
* Et ideo nec proditurum debuit præterire, ut adverterent omnes, quod in electione etiam proditoris sui servandorum omnium insigne prætendit. Ambr. de Parad, 8.
The living God; who is the Saviour of all men,
especially of those that believe. That our Lord Jesus is the Saviour of all men, we SERM. have before from plain testimonies of holy Scriptures, and LXXII. from some arguments grounded there, assayed to shew. The same will be made farther apparent by considering the respects according to which he is such; and those we may first consider generally and in the gross, then survey them more particularly and distinctly.
In general we may say, that our Lord is the Saviour of all men, for that he hath rendered all men salvabiles, capable of salvation ; and salvandos, designed to salvation. For that he hath removed all obstacles peremptorily debarri..g men from access to salvation, and hath procured competent furtherances to their attainment of it. For that he hath rescued mankind out of that dead and desperate condition, wherein it lay involved ; being the bread John vi.83. of God, who hath descended from heaven, that he might give life to the world, as he saith of himself. For that he hath performed whatever on his part is necessary or fit in order to salvation, antecedently to the acceptance and compliance with those reasonable conditions, which by God's wisdom are required toward the instating men into,
SERM. a full and immediate right to salvation, or to a complete and LXXII. actual fruition thereof. He made the way to happiness Luke iii. 5. plain and passable; levelling the insuperable cliffs, and fill
ing up the chasms, and rectifying the obliquities, and smooth
ing the asperities thereof, as the Prophet foretold ; so that Lukeiv. 18. all men, who would, might conveniently walk therein. 2 He Αιχμαλώ. τοις άφε
set the doors of paradise wide open, so that who pleased might enter in ; all the bonds and restraints under which men lay, he so far loosed, that any man might be free, who would concur to his own liberty and enlargement. All the protection, aid, and encouragement which was needful toward obtaining salvation, he afforded and exhibited to every one, that would embrace and make use of them. In respect to which performances he might be justly esteemed and truly called a Saviour, although all men do not in effect become saved. For the estimation and denomination of performances are to be grounded upon their own nature and design, not upon events depending upon the contingent and arbitrary behaviour of men. As he that freely offers a rich boon is no less to be accounted a benefactor and liberal, although his gift be refused, than if it were accepted; as he that opens the prison is to be styled a deliverer, although the captive will not go forth; as he that ministers an effectual remedy, although the patient will not use it, deserves the honour and thanks due to a physician; so is our Lord in regard to what he hath performed for men, and offered to them, (being sufficient to prevent their misery, and promote their happiness,) to be worthily deemed, and thankfully acknowledged, their Şaviour, although not all men, yea although
not one man should receive the designed benefit. AccordKelayyin. ingly we may observe, that in the Scripture-style, those per.
sons are said to be saved, who are only in a way toward salvaσωτηρίας.1 Cor. i. 18. tion, although they do not arrive thither; and the means conActs ii. 47. ducing to salvation are said to save, although their effect may
be defeated; wózzsvou and Growe/uévos are terms applied to all Eph. 5.
Mimi Christians, and Christ is é búras, he that hath saved them;
Acts xvi. 17.
Rev. xxi. 24.
* 'H gari natágas súróguran i ragaðurns øvíyx, &c. Athan. in poss.
Tit. iii. 8.
2 Pet. ii.
and faith is said to have saved them, although some of them SERM. sixñ irissuguv, have believed in vain, or to no effect, forsaking LXXII. and renouncing their faith; and baptism saves them who 1 Cor. xv. partake it, although being washed, they return to their wal-2 lowing in the mire. And as our Lord is so termed a Saviour 1 Pet. iii. in respect to them, who are, by faith and admission into the Church, put into a more near capacity of salvation, as St. 22. Paul speaketh : εγγύτερον ημών ή σωτηρία, ή ότε επιςεύσαμεν, (Now Rom. ii. is our salvation nearer than when we believed ;) so is he in 11. respect of all those, who are in any capacity thereof, although a more remote one.
But let us now view more nearly and distinctly the respects in which he is a Saviour of all men, or the particular benefits and advantages conducing to salvation, which by his performances accrue to mankind; for πάμπολυ την σωτηρίαν απάση Clem. Αlex.
Pædag. 11. magileru tñ ngwróryti, In very many ways he bestoweth salvation upon all mankind, as Clemens Alexandrinus speaks.
1. Our Lord is the Saviour of all men, as having effected that Almighty God (who upon great provocations was justly displeased and angry with man, who had averted his face, and withdrawn his favour from mankind, whom our apostacy and rebellion had rendered a stranger and an enemy to us) hath deposed his wrath toward mankind, hath conceived a kind affection to it, doth cast a favourable aspect upon it ; being thoroughly reconciled and made a friend thereto by our Saviour's mediation. This Matt. iii. is my beloved Son, è suðinnoc, in whom I have been well pleased, was the attestation given from God to our Lord; the meaning whereof in regard to men, the holy choir of angels did interpret, when after the gladsome report of his birth, (that great joy, which should be to all Luke il 10. people,) they sang, Glory be to God on high, on earth peace, good-will toward men. Which St. Paul farther declareth, when he saith, that by him sobanos, God pleased to recon- Col. i. 20. cile unto himself all things, upon earth, and in heaven ; Eph. i. 10.
2 Cor. v. 11. and when he saith, That God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their sins. And, When we
17. xii. 18.