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or otherwise, to see that this cause is brought before each church for its generous contribution.

To conclude: In the judgment of your Committee, the great need of the Freedmen to-day is a supply of competent preachers and teachers, raised up from among themselves. For help in this matter we look with hope to Lincoln University, at Oxford, Pa.; to Biddle Memorial Institute, at Charlotte, N. C.; to the Normal School of Winchester, Va.; and to other similar institutions established by our Church. We urge espe cially the necessity of providing schools where females may enjoy advantages that may enable them to keep pace with the other sex in intellectual and moral elevation.

The Committee beg leave to nominate the following persons to constitute the Presbyterian Committee of Missions for Freedmen:

Ministers.-James Allison, D. D., Samuel J. Wilson, D. D., John Gillespie, Peter S. Davies, Frederick A. Noble, Elliot E. Swift.

Laymen.-Joseph Albree, John C. McComb, Robert C. Totten, Oliver McClintock, James B. Lyon, George B. Logan.-1870, p. 105.


In the Assembly of 1870 overtures relating to the Sustentation Fund were referred to a Committee consisting of M. W. Jacobus, D. D., Walter Clark, D. D., James McCosh, D. D., Hon. Wm. Strong, Hon. Nathaniel Ewing and Hugh McAllister, to report to the next Assembly.-1870, pp. 28 and 31. In 1871 the Assembly adopted the following


I. That all the charges throughout the Church be divided into two classes" Full Pastoral Charges" and "Church Extension (or Mission) Charges." The former comprising such as have pastors and are suffi ciently advanced to pay a salary of $500, provided only that this be equal to the minimum hereinafter named for the membership; the latter class to include all such charges as have stated supplies, and such pastorates as pay less than $500 per annum of salary or less than the minimum rate per member. Only the former class are at present to come under the Sustentation Scheme for aid. The latter class, if needy, are to be under the care of the Board of Home Missions, until they are advanced to full pastoral charges, and are so certified by vote of Presbytery as entitled to aid under this scheme.

This does not leave the smaller pastorates and stated supply charges unprovided for; they are classed as more or less incipient and experimental, and they are to be treated as exceptional and special. They require aid according to their case, sometimes even more aid for the time than this scheme proposes.


The propriety of thus beginning with pastoral charges, already somewhat developed, is: 1st. That all cannot be aided by this scheme at the 2d. A beginning is made with those who are in regular ecclesiastical relation, in hope of thus aiding to bring to an end the anomalous and disorderly system of stated supplies, that it may give place to the pastoral relation in the great majority of cases; and 3d. This will encourage new churches to spring up in prospect of such help as they advance.

II. The aim of this Sustentation Scheme shall be to make the minimum of salary in the full pastoral charges $1000 per annum. At present the annual value of the manse shall be included in this, but ultimately, and so soon as possible, $1000 in money shall be the minimum it being always

understood that the pastor shall be wholly employed in his work, and that no grant shall be made without the endorsement of the Presbytery.

This is not "equalizing salaries," it is only aiming to establish a fair minimum, and by the plan this is so far subject to the inspection of the Presbytery in any case that it is not granted except on the presbyterial endorsement. It is, therefore, not likely in any instance to be excessive. The figure is believed to be only fair. If, in some cases, a smaller sum might answer, because of a less numerous or less expensive household, this may be reserved for the Presbytery to indicate; but who will say that it is too much, if a boy-clerk or average mechanic may claim as much and more? But, on the other hand, much of this sustentation work is to be done by bringing those churches which are now delinquent up to their proper rate of contribution to the pastoral support. Here the Presbytery may lawfully insist, for every call which is presented by the hand of the Presbytery to a pastor contains an obligation to pay him a certain sum, " in order that he may be free from worldly cares and avocations." The sum, then, ought in all fairness to meet this end. The Presbytery may so require. It is their duty to search into the transaction just at this point, and to demand that this admitted obligation be faithfully complied with. We have estimated that a moderate rate would be an average of two cents per day for each member of the church, or $7.30 per annum—not that each member should actually give this amount, but that, some more and some less, the membership, aided by the congregation, should contribute an average equal to this. This average rate from the entire membership would give every minister in the church a salary of one thousand dollars. Accordingly, it is hereby provided—

III. That only those churches shall be at present entitled to aid from the Sustentation Fund who are paying the pastor an average of $7.30 per annum for each member.

This is not discriminating unfairly against poor charges, for very few cases will be found where this rate cannot be reached with a little enlargement of view and a little self-denial of the people. They who cannot reach it will come under the Board of Home Missions for aid as church extension charges.

This proviso aims to screw up one very loose part of our financial machinery. Not a few churches are reported in our farming districts, of 200, 300 and over of members, where the salary does not exceed $600 or $800, less than $3 per member, and even down to $1.50. It is believed that in many cases this is from sheer parsimony, while in exceptional cases of weak and struggling churches it is all that can at present be done, and such will be aided by the Home Mission Board as candidates for the full pastoral charge. An incentive will thus be furnished to the smaller churches to increase their pro rata of contribution, so as to come within the scope of this provision, and the liability to abuse is reduced to a minimum, because by the conditions (of $500 salary and $7.30 pro rata) those aided are the young and enterprising churches who pay the largest pro rata, while the aid ceases so soon as they reach 135 members. (We find, by calculation, that of those between $500 and $1000 salary the larger portion pay the largest average salary, but the smallest pro rata, and that the smallest membership pay the largest percentage.)

IV. It is further provided, That each Presbytery be enjoined by the General Assembly, through the Synod, to investigate immediately the case of all churches having over 200 members who are paying less than $1000 salary, and that, unless good and sufficient cause can be shown for the lack, those churches be enjoined to raise the amount to an average

of $7 30 per member as the fair minimum for the pastor, and that all cases of flagrant neglect be treated by the Presbytery as the case may be, reporting the same to the Synod and General Assembly. By this means we aim to make the churches self-sustaining as rapidly as possible.

A case may be mentioned which we would fain believe is rare in our Church: a membership of 200, owning forty first-class farms, promising only $625 salary, and pretending actually to pay only $400 or $500 of this, and at the time of reporting to your Committee not a cent of the salary had been paid for 1870, and part of 1869 was yet unpaid, and this not on the frontier, but in one of our old States.

And whereas it is believed that much of the deficiency in funds comes from a failure to Presbyterianize and popularize our finances with a view to enlisting all the people; therefore,

V. It is provided, That every church session, as a condition of aid from this scheme, shall in co-operation with the trustees or other representatives of the congregation appoint a Committee, who shall institute and carry out a plan of weekly or monthly contribution to this object and to all the Boards of the Church, so as to present to every member of the church and congregation the opportunity of such stated contribution, according to the apostolic order (1 Cor. xvi. 2); that so every church seeking aid may give every reasonable assurance of self-aid, as an ordinance of worship in the way of God's appointment, and according as it has gone well with them. VI. That in like manner not only such churches as are aided by this scheme, but every church session, be required by the General Assembly to set on foot forthwith and earnestly to prosecute a plan that shall extend to every member of the congregation an opportunity of contributing to this cause (and to all the Boards of the Church), either by the envelope system or by collectors reaching each in person, and that the Presbyteries be enjoined to see to it that this requirement is complied with.

Many of our churches give nothing to our great schemes of beneficence. Many in our best churches are not reached by the ordinary method. It is the plain duty of the officers to afford to each worshiper the opportunity to contribute, and every church has a right to this means of education and cultivation in the divine life; and then the mites are mighty. "The power of the littles," as Chalmers pleaded for it, wrought such distinguished success for his church schemes.

VII. To cultivate the principle of ministerial fraternity and sympathy, that each pastor shall aim to secure from his people an amount equal to at least one-twentieth (and rather one-tenth) of his own salary annually toward supplementing the salaries under this scheme.

VIII. That each church be required to report through the Presbytery to the General Assembly the pastor's salary actually paid by them for the year, and any arrearage if there be any, and that this be published in a separate column of the Assembly's minutes year by year.

This is regarded as of great importance, in order thus to lay bare the whole subject to the eyes of the Church at large and of the individual churches; that thus each church may compare what they are doing with the membership and with the average of other churches, so that the delinquent may be stimulated by such needful statistics to a higher aim.

IX. That each Presbytery shall appoint one efficient member, whose duty it shall be to examine every application for aid under this scheme, and to report to the Presbytery full information as to the prospects of the church for usefulness and growth, and as to the possibility of consolidation or association with a neighboring church, and as to the amount of selfhelp, with other conditions, entitling it to aid under this scheme; also to

receive moneys from the churches of the Presbytery, and to remit monthly to the Central Sustentation Committee.

X. That a Central Committee of Seven be annually appointed by the General Assembly to supervise this work, having a secretary, appointed by the Assembly, to conduct the operations, to keep accounts with the presbyterial treasurers of sustentation, and every way and by all means to further the great object in view.-1871, pp. 564-567.

Rev. Melanchthon W. Jacobus, D. D., LL.D., was elected secretary of the Committee on Sustentation.-ib., 587.


The Committee was established by the Assembly of 1871, p. 551, and a plan of proceeding adopted. In 1872 the Assembly

Resolved, 1. That in order to the systematizing and developing of the liberality of our people and fostering the aggressive interests of our Church in accomplishing the work assigned us in the providence of God, there shall be a Committee on Benevolence and Finance, which shall consist of fifteen members, composed largely of business-men of acknowledged skill in the management of financial affairs. It shall be located in the city of New York, and it shall be its duty to use all proper means to promote throughout the Church the regular and systematic consecration of property to the Lord, and to superintend the collection of funds for the whole benevolent work of the Church, the contributions to be sent either directly to the treasurers of the several Boards and Committees of the Church or to this Committee for distribution, according to the direction of contributors, which distribution shall be at least monthly. The treasurer of the Board of Home Missions is designated as the treasurer of this Committee. Resolved, 2. It shall receive regular monthly statements of their receipts from all the Boards of the Church, that the financial condition of these Boards, as well as the actual benevolence of each congregation, may be at all times before the Committee.

Resolved, 3. The expenses of said Committee shall not be a charge upon any funds, unless expressly given for this purpose.

Resolved, 4. The Assembly enjoin upon all the churches the practice of periodical giving to all causes recommended by the General Assembly, according to the principles commended in the word of God.

Resolved, 5. In order to carry out this plan, the General Assembly enjoin upon every Presbytery to appoint a Standing Committee on the benevolent work of the Church, of which the stated clerk shall be secretary. It shall be the duty of this Committee to use all means in its power to have brought before all the congregations in the Presbytery the plans that may be recommended for securing contributions, and to give each pastor and session information of the wants of the various objects and what is expected of each congregation. Every Presbytery is required to question each pastor, stated supply and elder present, at every stated meeting in the spring and fall, whether the directions and recommendations on this subject have been complied with, recording the answers on the minutes.

Resolved, 6. At least as often as once every six months these Standing Committees shall report to the Committee on Benevolence and Finance, so far as they can, in relation to the different objects for which contributions have been made by the churches within the limits of their respective Presbyteries, with the amount contributed for each, together with such other information as to the general benevolent work of their churches and Presbyteries as shall seem necessary, or shall be called for by the Committee.

Resolved, 7. No church not complying with the directions of the Assembly to make collections for the several Boards shall receive aid from the funds of the Church.-1872, p. 39.


For the history of successive steps which led to the appointment of the Board, see New Digest, p. 404. In 1854 the Assembly directed the trustees to obtain a charter from the Legislature, which is as follows, viz.:


Whereas, The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America which held its sessions in the First Presbyterian Church, on Washington Square, in the city of Philadelphia, in May, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, did appoint John A. Brown, Samuel H. Perkins, Charles S. Wurts, Matthias W. Baldwin and John C. Farr, trustees of the Presbyterian Publication House, and recommended that the said Board obtain an act of incorporation under the laws of this State, and that the said act should contain a general provision, authorizing the said trustees to hold in trust for said Assembly any property committed to them by donations, bequests or otherwise;

And whereas, Several gentlemen in the city of Philadelphia, feeling the necessity of some suitable place for the business of the societies and churches connected with the said Assembly, purchased a property for that purpose which they are desirous of conveying to the said trustees;

And whereas, The said trustees will labor under serious disadvantages as to receiving and holding the title of said property, as well as any that may be committed to them by donations, bequests or otherwise in trust for said Assembly; therefore,

SEC. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That John A. Brown, Samuel H. Perkins, Charles S. Wurts, Matthias W. Baldwin and John C. Farr, citizens of the United States and of this Commonwealth, and their successors, are hereby constituted and declared to be a body politic and corporate by the name of "The Trustees of the Presbyterian House," and as such shall have perpetual succession, and be able to sue and be sued, and to purchase and receive, take and hold, to them and their successors for ever, lands, tenements and hereditaments, goods, money and chattels, and all kinds of property and estate, which may be devised or bequeathed or given to them, or to said Assembly for them, and the same to sell, alien, demise and convey, also to make a common seal, and the same to alter and renew at their pleasure, and also to make such rules, by-laws and ordinances as may be needful for the government of said corporation, and not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States and of this State: Provided always, That the clear yearly income of the real estate held by the said corporation shall not at any time exceed the sum of five thousand dollars.

SEC. 2. That the trustees above named shall hold their office till the first day of June, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, and until their successors are duly qualified to take their places, who shall be chosen by the said Assemibly and their successors, who may at any annual meeting increase the number of said trustees to ten, if, in their judgment, the interest of the churches under their care require it.

SEC. 3. That the said Assembly and their successors shall, at their annual meeting in each and every year, wherever held, elect at least five trustees, who shall hold their office for one year, and until their successors are elected and qualified; Provided, That the said corporators shall be citizens of Pennsylvania.

SEC. 4. That the trustees hereby incorporated, and their successors, shall, subject to the direction of the said Assembly and their successors, have full power to manage all funds, property and effects committed to their care by gift, purchase, bequest or otherwise, and to execute any trusts confided to them by the said General Assembly of their successors, in such manner as shall be deemed most advantageous, and not contrary to law or the intention of the donor or testator.

SEC. 5. That the Act entitled "An Act to incorporate the Trustees of the Constitutional Presbyterian Publication House," approved the thirteenth day of April, Anno

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