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By force impossible, by leave obtain'd

250 Unacceptable, though in Heav'n, our state Of splendid vaffalage ; but rather seek Our own good from ourselves, and from our own Live to ourselves, though in this vast recess, Free, and to none accountable, preferring 255 Hard liberty before the easy yoke Of servile pomp.

Our greatness will appear Then most conspicuous, when great things of small, Useful of hurtful, prosp'rous of adverse We can create, and in what place so e'er 260 Thrive under ev'il, and work ease out of pain Through labor and indurance. This deep world Of darkness do we dread? How oft amidst Thick clouds and dark doth Heav'n's all-ruling Sire Choose to reside, his glory unobscur’d, 265


fhrubs, fee VIII. 517. Not unlike 263.

How oft amida is what we read in Fairfax's Tasso, Thick clouds and dark &c.] ImitaC. 18. St. 20.

ted from Psal. XVIII, 11, 13. He Flowers and odors sweetly smell’d.

made darkness his fecret place; his paPearce.

vilion round about him were dark 254. Live to ourselves, ] Hor. waters, and thick clouds of the skies Epift. I. XVIII. 107.

The Lord also thundred in the

Heavens, and the Highest gave his Ut mihi vivam

voice, hailstones and coals of fire. Quod fupereft ævi.

And from Psal. XCVII. 2. Clouds and Persius, Sat. IV.52.

and darkness are round about him, &c. Tecum habita.


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274. Our

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And with the majesty of darkness round
Covers his throne; from whence deep thunders roar
Must'ring their rage, and Heav'n resembles Hell?
As he our darkness, cannot we his light
Imitate when we please? This desert foil 270
Wants not her hidden lustre, gems and gold;
Nor want we skill or art, from whence to raise
Magnificence; and what can Heav'n show more?
Our torments also may in length of time
Become our elements, these piercing fires 275


274. Our torments also may in

Peace is despair'd, length of time

For who can think fubmiffion? Become our elements, &c.] En War then, War forcing the same argument that Be Open or understood must be relial had urged before, ver. 217;

solv'd. and indeed Mammon's whole speech which was approv'd and confirm'd is to the fame purpose as Belial's; by the whole

host of Angels. And the argument is improved and carried farther, only with such diffe- council he proposes for the subject

accordingly at the opening of the rence as is suitable to their diffe- of their confideration, which way rent characters.

278. The fenfible of pain. ] The they would make choice of, 11. 41. sense of pain. To sensibile, the Whether of open war or covert adjective used for a substantive.


Hume. We now debate: 279. To peaceful counsels,] There Moloch speaks to the purpose, and are some things wonderfully fine in declares for open war, ver. 51. these speeches of the infernal Spirits, and in the different arguments My fentence is for open war: of so suited to their different charac wiles, ters : but they have wander'd from More unexpert, I boast not, &c. the point in debate, as is too common in other allemblies. Satan had But Belial argues alike against war declar'd in I, 660.

open or conceald, ver. 187.


As soft as now severe, our temper chang’d
Into their temper; which must needs remove
The sensible of pain. All things invite
To peaceful counsels, and the settled state
Of order, how in safety best we may

Compose our present evils, with regard
Of what we are and where, dismissing quite
All thoughts of war: ye have what I advise.

He scarce had finish'd, when such murmur fillid Th’assembly, as when hollow rocks retain 285


War therefore, open or conceal'd, where, the sense is, with regard to alike

our present condition and the place My voice diffuades ; for what can where we are; which latter seems force or guile & c.

much better.

285. Mammon carries on the same ar

as when holloru racks re.

tain &c.] Virgil compares guments, and is for dismilling quite the assent given by the assembly of all thoughts of war. So that the the Gods to Juno's speech, Æn. question is changed in the course of X. 96. to the rising wind, which the debate, whether thro’the inattention or intention of the author creasing murmurs,

our author assimilatcs to its deit is not easy to say. 281. with regard

cunctique fremebant

Cælicolæ assensu vario : ceu fa. Of what we are and where, ] It

mina prima, is thus in the first edition: in the

Cum deprensa fremunt sylvis, et second edition it is, with regard of

cæca volutant what we are and were: and it is

Murmura, venturos nautis provaried sometimes the one and some

dentia ventos.

Hume. times the other in the subsequent editions. If we read with regard The conduct of both poets is equally of what we are and were, the sense just and proper. The intent of is, with regard to our present and Juno's speech was to rouse and inour past condition; if we read Aame the allembly of the Gods, with regard of what we are and and the effect of it is therefore pro



The sound of bluft'ring winds, which all night long
Had rous'd the sea, now with hoarse cadence lull
Sea-faring men o'erwatch'd, whose bark by chance
Or pinnace anchors in a craggy bay
After the tempest: Such applause was heard 290
As Mammon ended, and his sentence pleas’d,
Advising peace: for such another field
They dreaded worse than Hell: so much the fear
Of thunder and the sword of Michaël
Wrought still within them; and no less defire 295
To found this nether empire, which might rise
By policy, and long process of time,

In perly compared by Virgil to the Devils with an eye to Claudian's rifing wind: but the design of Mam- council of furies; and the reader mon's speech is to quiet and com- may compare Alecto's speech wich pose the infernal allembly, and the Moloch's, and Megæra's with Beeffect of this therefore is as pro- lial's or rather with Beelzebub's. perly compared by Milton to the

294. the sword of Michaël] wind falling after a tempeft. Clau. The words Michael, Raphael, &c. dian has a limilc of the same kind are sometimes pronounced as of in his description of the infernal two syllables, and sometimes they council. In Rufinum, I. 70. are made to consist of three. When ceu murmurat alti

they are to be pronounced as of Impacata quies pelagi, cum fla. three fyllables, we shall take care mine fracto

to distinguish them in printing thus, Durat adhuc sævitque tumor, du- Michaël, Raphaël. biumque per aitum

302. A pillar of frete;} Pillar is Lafia recedentis fuitant vestigia to be pronounced contractedly as venti.

or ones

and again in Book XII. 202, 203. And in other particulars our author The metaphor is plain and easy seems to have drawn his council of enough to be understood; and thus


In emulation oppofit to Heaven.
Which when Bcëlzebub perceiv'd, than whom,
Satan except, none higher sat, with grave

Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd
A pillar of ftaté; deep on his front ingraven
Deliberation fat and public care;
And princely counsel in his face yet thone,
Majestic though in ruin: fage he stood

With Atlantean shoulders fit to bear
The weight of mightiest monarchics; his look
Drew audience and attention still as night
Or summer's noon-tide air, while thus he spake.


James, and Peter, and John are The whole piểure from ver. 299.
called pillars in Gal. II. 9. And we to the end of the paragraph is ad.
have the same expression in Shake. mirable! Richardson.
fpear, 2 Hen. VI. A& I.

309. Or fummer's noon-tide air,] Brave Peers of England, pillars of when in hot countries there is hard

Noon-ride is the same as noon-time, the ftale.

ly a breath of wind stirring, and 305. Majestic though in ruin:] It men and beasts, by reason of the is amazing how even the greatest intense heat, retire to fhade and critics, such as Dr. Bentley, can rest. This is the custom of Italy sometimes mistake the most obvious particularly, where our author liv'd paflages. These words are to be some time. joind in construction with his face, 309.

while thus he spoke. ] and not with princely counsel, as the Beelzebub, who is reckond the few Doctor imagin'd.

cond in dignity that fell, and is, in 306. With Atlantean fhoulders ] the first book, the second that A metaphor to express his vast ca- awakens out of the trance, and, pacity. Atlas was so great an aftro- confers with Satan upon the fituanomer, that he is said to have tion of their affairs, maintains his borne Heaven on his ihoulders. rank in the book now before us.



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