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Hath vex'd the Red-Sea coast, whose waves o'erchrew
Busiris and his Memphian chivalry,
While with perfidious hatred they pursued
The sojourners of Gothen, who beheld
From the safe shore their floting carcases 310
And broken chariot wheels: so thick beftrown
Abject and loft lay these, covering the flood,


Virgil (and therefore may be al. In the sense of riding and fighting lowd to Milton) in a comparison, on horseback this word chivalry is after they have shown the refem- used in ver. 765. and in many blance, to go off from the main places of Fairfax's Tallo, as, in purpose and finish with some other Cant. 5. St. 9. Cant 8. St. 67. Cant. image, which was occafion'd by 20. St. 61. In the fense of riding the comparison, but is itself very and fighting in chariots drawn by different from its Milton has done horses, Milton uses the word chi. thus in almost all his fimilitudes; valry in Parad. Reg. III. ver. 343. and therefore what he does so fre. compar'd with ver. 328. Pearce. quently, cannot be allow'd to be

308. - perfidious hatred, Because an objection to the genuinness of Pharaoh, after leave given to the this paffage before us. As to Mil. Ifraelites to depart, follow'd after ton's making Pharaoh to be Busiris. them like fugitives. Hume

..." (which is another of the Doctor's

310. From the safe fore their. objections to the passage) there is -- foting carcafés &c.] Much authority enough for to justify a has been said of the long fimilipoet in doing so, tho' not an hi- tudes of Homers Virgil, and out itorian: It has been suppos'd by author, wherein they fetch a comfome, and therefore Milton might pass as it were to draw in new follow that opinion. Chivalry for images, besides those in which the cavalry, and cavalry (says Dr. Bent- direct point of likeness confifts. I ley) for chariotiy, is twice wrong. think they have been fufficiently But it is rather twice right: for chi- justify'd in the general: but in this valry (from the French chevalerie) before us, while the poet is digresdignifies not only knighthood, but fing, he raises * new fimilitude thofe who use horses in fight, both from the Aoting carcases of the such as ride on horses and fuch as Egyptiany. Heyhineride in chariots drawn by them:

328. with

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Under amazement of their hideous change.
He call’d so loud, that all the hollow deep
Of Hell resounded. Princes, Potentates, 315
Warriors, the flow'r of Heav'n, once yours, now loft,
If such astonishment as this can seife
Eternal Spi'rits; or have ye

chos’n this place
After the toil of battel to repose
Your wearied virtue, for the ease you find

To flumber here, as in the vales of Heaven?
Or in this abject posture have ye

To'adore the conqueror? who now beholds
Cherub and Seraph rolling in the flood;
With scatter'd arms and ensigns, till anon 325:
His swift pursuers from Heav'n gates discern
Th’advantage, and descending tread us down
Thus drooping, or with linked thunderbolts
Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf.
Awake, arise, or be for ever fall’n.

330 They heard, and were abaih'd, and up they sprung

Upon 328. with linked thunderbolts: Turbine corripuit, fcopuloque inTransfix us to the bottom of this fixit acuto. : gulf.] This alludes to the

Virg. Æn. I. 44, 45. fate of Ajax Oileus,

Who pleaseth to read the Devil's Illum expirantem transfixo pectore speech to his damned assembly in Rammas

Tasso, Cant. 4. from Stanza 9 10 :


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Upon the wing, as when Men wont to watch:
On duty, sleeping found by whom they dread,
Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake.
Nor did they not perceive the evil plight 335
In which they were, or the fierce pains not feel;
Yet to their general's voice they soon obey'd
Innumerable. As when the potent rod
Of Amram's son, in Egypt's evil day,
Wav'd round the coast, up call'd a pitchy cloud 340
Of locusts, warping on the eastern wind,
That o'er the realm of impious Pharaoh hung
Like night, and darken'd all the land of Nile :
So numberless were those bad Angels seen
Hovering on wing under the

of Hell

345 'Twixt upper, nether, and surrounding fires; Till, as a signal giv’n, th’up-lifted spear Of their great Sultan waving to direct Their course, in even balance down they light On the firm brimstone, and fill all the plain ; 350


Stanza 18, will find our author has upon the land, and the enf-wind seen him, tho’ borrow'd little of brought the locufts: and the locusts him.

Humé. went up over all the land of Egypt 338. As when the potent rod &c.] so that the land was darken'd. See Exod. X. 13. Moses fitretched

341.--warping) Working them. forth bis rod over the land of Egypt, selves forward, a sea term. and the Lord brought an eafl-wird

Hume and Richardfors. VOL. I.



351. A

A multitude, like which the populous north
Pour'd never from her frozen loins, to pass
Rhene or the Danaw, when her barbarous fons
Came like a deluge on the south, and spread
Beneath Gibraltar to the Lybian sands. 355
Forthwith from every squadron and cach band
The heads and leaders thither hafte where stood
Their great commander; Godlike shapes and forms
Excelling human, princely Dignities,
And Pow'rs that erst in Heaven sat on thrones; 360
Though of their names in heav'nly records now

Be 351. A multitude, like which &c.] count of the coldness of the cliThis comparison doth not fall be- mate. To pass Rhene or the Danaw, low the rest, as some have imagin’d. He might have said consistently They were thick as the leaves, and with his verse The Rhine or Danube, numberless the locusts, but such a but he chose the more uncommon multitude the north never pour'd names Rbene of the Latin, and forth; and we may observe that Danaw of the German, both which the subject of this comparison rises words are used too in Spenser. very much above the others, leaves When her barbarous fons &c. They and locufts. The populous north, as were truly barbarous; for besides the northern parts of the world exercising several cruelties, they are observed to be more fruitful destroy'd all the monuments of of people, than the hotter coun- learning and politeness wherever tries : Sir William Temple calls it they came. Came like a deluge. she northern hive. Pour'd never, a Spenser describing the same people very proper word to express the has the same fimile. Fairy Queen. inundations of these northern na- B. 2. Cant. 10. St. 15. tions. From her frozen loins, it is

And overflow'd all countries far the Scripture expresiion of children and descendents coming out of the Like Noye's great food with their

away, loins, as Gen. XXXV. 11. Kings

importune sway. Prall come out of thy loins ; and these are call'd frozen loins only on ac. They were the Goths, and Huns,


Be no memorial, blotted out and ras'd
By their rebellion from the books of life.
Nor had they yet among the sons of Eve 364
Got them new names, till wand'ring o'er the earth,
Through God's high sufferance for the trial of man,
By falfities and lies the greatest part
Of mankind they corrupted to forsake
God their Creator, and th' invisible
Glory of him that made them to transform

370 Oft to the image of a brute, adorn'd With gay religions full of pomp and gold,

And and Vandals, who overrun all the is, as Mr. Upton observes, by false southern provinces of Europe, and idols, under a corporeal represencrossing the Mediterranean beneath tation, belying the true God. The Gibraltar landed in Africa, and poet plainly alludes to Rom. I. 22, spread themselves as far as the &c. ithen they knew God, they glosandy country of Libya. Beneath Gi. rified him not as God and changed braltar that is more southward, the the glory of the ur:corruptible God north being uppermost in the globe. into an image who changed the

353.the books of life.] Dr, Bent- truth of God into a lie. So Amos ley reads the book of life, that being H. 4. Their lies caused them to crr. the Scripture expression. And Jerem. XVI. 19. Surely our fathers Shakefpear fays likewise blotted have inherited lies &c. from the book of life, Richard II. 369. and th' invisible AA I.

Glory of him that made them to

transform My name be blotted from the book of life.

Oft to the image of a brute,] Al

luding to Rom. I. 23. And changed But the author might write books in the glory of the uncorruptible God, the ploral as well as records just into an image made like to corruptible before; and the plural agrees bet- man, and to birds, and four.footed ter with the idea that he would give beasts, and creeping things. of the great number of Angels. 372. With gay religions full off 367. By falfities and lies] That

pomp and gold,] By religions M 2


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