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A judge is just; a chancellor, juster still;
A gownman, learn'd; a bishop, what you will;
Wise, if a minister; but, if a king,

More wise, more learn'd, more just, more every thing.


Court virtues bear, like gems, the highest rate, Born where heaven's influence scarce can pene



In life's low vale, the soil the virtues like ;
They please as beauties, here as wonders strike.
Though the same sun, with all-diffusive rays, 145
Blush in the rose, and in the diamond blaze,
We prize the stronger effort of his power,
And justly set the gem above the flower.
"Tis education forms the common mind;
Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined.
Boastful and rough, your first son is a squire;
The next a tradesman, meek, and much a liar:
Tom struts a soldier, open, bold, and brave;
Will sneaks a scrivener, an exceeding knave.
Is he a churchman? then he's fond of power:
A quaker? sly: a presbyterian? sour:
A smart freethinker? all things in an hour.

Ask men's opinions: Scoto now shall tell
How trade increases, and the world goes well:
Strike off his pension, by the setting sun,
And Britain, if not Europe, is undone.



mediocrity of station can neither require nor exercise the more eminent public virtues: the prelate, the judge, the statesman, and the monarch, have duties which demand the most vigorous capacities of the heart and understanding: if they fail, their failure is the more glaring from their rank; but if they succeed, the more conspicuous should be their praise. The sentiment in the text is from Boileau, Sat. viii.


That gay freethinker, a fine talker once, What turns him now a stupid, silent dunce? Some God or spirit he has lately found; Or chanced to meet a minister that frown'd. Judge we by nature? Habit can efface, Interest o'ercome, or policy take place: By actions? those uncertainty divides: By passions? these dissimulation hides: Opinions? they still take a wider range : Find, if you can, in what you cannot change. Manners with fortunes, humors turn with climes,

Tenets with books, and principles with times.




Search then the ruling passion: there, alone, The wild are constant, and the cunning known; The fool consistent, and the false sincere: Priests, princes, women, no dissemblers here. This clew, once found, unravels all the rest, The prospect clears, and Wharton stands confess'd.

179 Wharton stands confess'd. One of the most remarkable instances on record of the abuse of nature, fortune, of great talents turned into contempt, of high rank degraded, of vast opulence made useless, and of memorable opportunities perverted into disaster, shame, and ruin. Philip Wharton, born to the possession of a marquisate, the reward of his father's fidelity to the Brunswick line, made the first use of his inheritance to revolt to the pretender. From him he obtained the empty title of duke of Northumberland. Growing weary of the little court of the Stuarts, he revolted from the pretender. On being suffered to sit in the Irish house of peers, he became a zealous advocate of the Hanoverian succession reinstated in his English honors, and created a duke, he


Wharton, the scorn and wonder of our days, 180
Whose ruling passion was the lust of praise:
Born with whate'er could win it from the wise,
Women and fools must like him, or he dies:
Though wondering senates hung on all he spoke,
The club must hail him master of the joke.
Shall parts so various aim at nothing new ?
He'll shine a Tully and a Wilmot too :
Then turns repentant, and his God adores
With the same spirit that he drinks and whores :
Enough, if all around him but admire,
And now the punk applaud, and now the friar.
Thus with each gift of nature and of art,
And wanting nothing but an honest heart;
Grown all to all; from no one vice exempt;
And most contemptible to shun contempt;
His passion still, to covet general praise;
His life, to forfeit it a thousand ways;



again adopted the Stuart cause, and distinguished himself as a defender of its rash partisan Atterbury. Thrown into comparative poverty, he retired to the continent, and recommenced his intrigues with the pretender and the court of Spain. His singular abilities made him still an object of importance to the British minister; and Walpole offered him a general restoration to his titles and estates. But the daring spirit was now giving way; and sinking under disease and disappointment, he lingered on the continent till the close of his brief, but singularly eventful, history. Returning to Spain to drink the waters of a mineral spring, he died on his journey; and was said to have been buried in the habit of a monk. He was born in 1699, and died in 1731. Thirty-one years thus closed the career of this brilliant profligate, who, if his principles had but equalled his genius, was formed to be one of the most memorable ornaments of his country.

187 John Wilmot, earl of Rochester, famous for his wit and extravagances in the time of Charles II.

A constant bounty, which no friend has made;
An angel tongue, which no man can persuade;
A fool, with more of wit than half mankind; 200
Too rash for thought, for action too refined;

A tyrant to the wife his heart approves ;

A rebel to the very king he loves;


He dies, sad outcast of each church and state,
And, harder still! flagitious, yet not great.
Ask you why Wharton broke though every rule?
'Twas all for fear the knaves should call him


Nature well known, no prodigies remain ; Comets are regular, and Wharton plain.

Yet in this search, the wisest may mistake, 210 If second qualities for first they take.

When Catiline by rapine swell'd his store;
When Cæsar made a noble dame a whore;
In this the lust, in that the avarice,

Were means, not ends; ambition was the vice.
That very Cæsar, born in Scipio's days,
Had aim'd, like him, by chastity at praise.


206 Ask you why Wharton. This celebrated peer,' says lord Orford, like Buckingham and Rochester, comforted all the grave and dull by throwing away the brightest profusion of parts on witty fooleries, debaucheries, and scrapes, which may mix graces with a great character, but never can compose one.'

213 When Casar made a noble dame. Servilia: she was the sister of Cato and mother of Brutus. The vices of public men have often, as if for the purpose of warning, led visibly to their ruin. Cato's passion for liberty might have spent itself in harangues, but for the insult thus offered to his house; and it has been probably asserted, that the dagger of Brutus was drawn as much to extinguish the suspicion of his illegitimacy, as to avenge the wrongs of Rome.

Lucullus, when frugality could charm,
Had roasted turnips in the Sabine farm.
In vain the observer eyes the builder's toil,
But quite mistakes the scaffold for the pile.


In this one passion man can strength enjoy, As fits give vigor, just when they destroy. Time, that on all things lays his lenient hand, Yet tames not this; it sticks to our last sand. 225 Consistent in our follies and our sins, Here honest Nature ends as she begins. Old politicians chew on wisdom past, And totter on in business to the last; As weak, as earnest, and as gravely out, As sober Lanesborow dancing in the gout.



227 Here honest Nature ends as she begins. Warton gives some amusing instances of the ruling passion strong in death.' An usurer in the last agony was presented by his confessor with the crucifix it was ornamented with jewels: the dying man suddenly fixed his eyes on the gems, and cried out, 'Those stones are counterfeit: I cannot lend more than ten pistoles on the pledge.' Malherbe's passion was to reform his native tongue. The priest, who visited him on his deathbed, promised him the joys of paradise; but observing some impatience in his hearer, asked whether he might not go on with the description :-'Not another word,' gasped the old critic, unless you speak of paradise in purer French.' The classic examples are numerous. The habit among the ancients of finishing their career with some memorable sentences, was a ruling passion in itself. Augustus, the man of ostentatious elegance, died in a compliment to his wife, Livia, conjugii nostri memor, vive, et vale;' Vespasian, in a jest on the vanity of his deified predecessors, 'Ut puto, Deus fio;' Galba, with the heroism of a public sacrifice, Feri, si ex re sit populi Romani;' Severus, with the public care of a great functionary, Adeste, si quid mihi restat agendum.'

231 Sober Lanesborow. Lord Lanesborow, who danced when a cripple in the gout. His enthusiasm on this point was so ardent,

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