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to govern said committee in all allowances for such works; and it shall be in order for said committee to report at all times.
R. 105. Six additional standing committees shall be
penditures as relate to the Department of State ;
penditures as relate to the Treasury Department;
penditures as relate to the Department of War;
five mem5. A committee on so much of the public accounts and ex
bers each. penditures as relate to the Post Office; and 6. A committee on so much of the public accounts and ex
penditures as relate to the Public Buildings,
R. 106. It shall be the duty of the said committees to examine into the state of the accounts and expenditures respectively submitted to them, and to inquire and report particularly
Whether the expenditures of the respective departments are justified by law;
Whether the claims from time to time satisfied and discharged by the respective departments are supported by sufficient vouchers, establishing their justness both as to their character and amount;
Whether such claims have been discharged out of funds appropriated therefor, and whether all moneys have been disbursed in conformity with appropriation laws; and
Whether any, and what, provisions are necessary to be adopted, to provide more perfectly for the proper appli
cation of the public moneys, and to secure the Government from demands unjust in their character or extravagant in their amount.
And it shall be, moreover, the duty of the said committees to report, from time to time, whether any, and what, retrenchment can be made in the expenditures of the several departments, without detriment to the public service; whether any, and what, abuses at any time exist in the failure to enforce the payment of moneys which may be due to the United States from public defaulters or others; and to report, from time to time, such provisions and arrangements as may be necessary to add to the economy of the several departments and the accountability of their officers.*
+It shall be the duty of the several Committees on Febry, 19 Public Expenditures to inquire whether any offices belonging to the branches or departments, respectively, concerning whose expenditures it is their duty to inquire, have become useless or unnecessary; and to report, from time to time, on the expediency of modifying or abolishing the same: also, to examine into the pay and emoluments of all offices under the laws of the United States; and to report from time to time such a reduction or increase thereof as a just economy and the public service may require.
R. 107. The several standing committees of the House March 13, shall have leave to report by bill or otherwise.
R. 108. No committee shall sit during the sitting of the Now's 13. House, without special leave.
R. 109. It shall be the duty of the Clerk to make, and March 13, cause to be printed, and delivered to each member at the commencement of every session of Congress, a list of the
Sec notes to rules 78 and 89. | This part of the duties of those committees was, previous to 1841, overlooked, and omitted in the rules.
Dec. 23, 1811.
reports which it is the duty of any officer or department of the Government to make to Congress; referring to the act or resolution, and page of the volume of the laws or Journal in which it may be contained, and placing under the name of each officer the list of reports required of him to be made, and the time when the report may be expected.
R. 110. It shall be the duty of the Clerk of the House, at the end of each session, to send a printed copy of the Journals thereof to the Executive, and to each branch of the Legislature of every State.
R. 111. All questions of order shall be noted by the Clerk, with the decision, and put together at the end of
the Journal of every session. Febr'y 17, R. 112. Whenever confidential communications are De. 30,1793 received from the President of the United States, the
House shall be cleared of all persons, except the members, Clerk, Sergeant-at-arms, and Doorkeeper,* and so continue during the reading of such communications, and (unless otherwise directed by the House) during all debates and proceedings to be had thereon. And when the Speaker, or any other member, shall inform the House that he has communications to make, which he conceives ought to be kept secret, the House shall, in like manner, be cleared, till the communication be made; the House shall then determine whether the matter communicated requires secrecy or not, and take order accordingly.
R. 113. All questions relating to the priority of business to be acted on, shall be decided without debate.
* In the rule as originally established on the 17th February, 1792, it is provided that the House be cleared of all persons, except “ the members and the Clerk.” In the rules of the 13th November, 1794, the language used is “the members of the House and its officers.” In the edition of 7th January, 1802, the terms “ members and Clerk” are again used; and on the 23d De cember, 1811, it was changed to its present form, so as to include the Sergeant and Doorkeeper.
R. 114. Every bill shall be introduced on the report of
April 7, a committee, or by motion for leave. In the latter case, and March at least one day's notice shall be given of the motion* in 2. 1848. the House, or by filing a memorandum thereof with the Clerk, and having it entered on the Journal; and the motion shall be made, and the bill introduced, if leave is given, when resolutions are called for: such motion, or the bill when introduced, may be committed.
R. 115. Every bill shall receive three several readings April 7, in the House, previous to its passage; and bills shall be despatched in order as they were introduced, unless where the House shall direct otherwise ; but no bill shall be twice read on the same day, without special order of the House. R. 116. The first reading of a bill shall be for informa
April 7 tion, and, if opposition be made to it, the question shall be, “Shall this bill be rejected ?". If no opposition be made or if the question to reject be negatived, the bill shall go to its second reading without a question.t
* In the early stages of the Government, before the institution of standing committees, it was the common practice to introduce bills, on motion for leave, by individual members; the bills were then referred to a select committee, to examine and report upon. The practice, however, of introducing bills by members, on leave, gradually grew into disuse as standing committees were created, and, for nearly thirty years, nò case occurs on the Journals. A few cases have occurred within the last five or six years. It is an inconvenient practice, and does not facilitate business. Previous to the 13th March, 1822, so strict was the House upon the introduction of bills, that standing committees had to obtain leave, in every case, to report by bill. On that day the 107th rule was adopted.
† But not on the day of its introduction; that is prohibited by rule 115. The meaning of the rule is, that it passes to its second reading the next day “without motion or question;" it is the duty of the Speaker then to take it up, and give it the second reading when clearing his table under the 25th rule. If no opposition be made to a bill, or if the question to reject be negatived, and the bill receives its second reading forthwith, (as is usual,) it is always understood that it is by “special order of the House.” In the rapid
R. 117. Upon the second reading of a bill, the Speaker shall state it as ready for commitment or engrossment; and, if committed, then a question shall be, whether to a select or standing committee, or to a Committee of the Whole House; if to a Committee of the Whole House, the House shall determine on what day ; [if no motion be made to commit, the question shall be stated on its engrossment; and if it be not ordered to be engrossed on the day of its being reported, it shall be placed in the
general file on the Speaker's table, to be taken up in its Nov'r 13, order.] But, if the bill be ordered to be engrossed, the
House shall appoint the day when it shall be read the
third time. Dec. 29, R. 118. Not more than three bills, originating in the
House, shall be committed to the same Committee of the Whole; and such bills shall be analogous in their nature, which analogy shall be determined by the Speaker.
R. 119. A motion to strike out the enacting words of a bill shall have precedence of a motion to amend; and, if
carried, shall be considered equivalent to its rejection.* April 7, R. 120. After commitment and report thereof to the
House, or at any time before its passage, a bill may be recommitted.t
and hurried manner in which bills are now reported and acted upon, the motion is seldom or never made, nor is the question put, “Shall the bill be now read a second time.” The Speaker takes it for granted that the motion has been made and allowed, and announces the second reading as soon as the first reading is completed. When a bill is read the first time, and no disposition of it be moved, it remains on the Speaker's table, to receive its second reading on the next day, as matter of course, in the 3d class of the 25th rule.
* Rule 119 may be considered an exception to the 46th rule. It was adopted on the same day and takes precedence of a motion to amend. Rule 119 has, however, of late years fallen into disuse. In the ordinary sessions of the House the motion “TO LAY UPON THE TABLE" is used in its stead. In Committee of the Whole its place is supplied by reporting the measure to the House and recommending that IT DO NOT Pass.
| A difference of opinion often arises as to the construction of this rule. Anciently, it was held and practised upon, according to its terms, that a bill