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XVII. And ever as she went, her toung did walke--] The Fayre Sir, queth be -- ] The following story usual phrase is, her tongue did run : but the which this young man tells, is taken from the rhime required it otherwise, and 'tis to be de- fifth book of Orlando Furiofo: Harrington, fended as a catachrestical expression.

who translated Ariosto, mentions that this

story too was written by Mr. Turbervill. Part IX.

of the tale Skakespeare has formed into his Still called upon to kill him in the place.] Acts vii. play called Much Ado about Nothing. 59. And they stoned Stephen calling upon, and say

ing, Lord Jesus receive my spirit. και ελιθοβόλον τον

So me weake wretch, of many weakest wretch,
Στέφανον ΕΠΙΚΑΛΟΥΜΕΝΟΝ και λέγοντα, κύριε Ιησύ

Unweeting, and unware of such mishap,
ombas aviupõrs.

She brought to mischiefe through her guileful trech, X.

Where this Jame wicked villein did me wandring He is not, ah, he is not such a foe.] Spenser cor

ketch.] Thus altered in the 2d qualco, and rected it himself, among the errata added to the

manifestly by Spenser's direction,
ist edition in quarto, not.

So me weake wretch, of many weakest one,

Uncveeting and unware of such mishap,
The bankes are overflowne when stopped is the flood.] She brought to mischiefe through occasion,
The river runs on in its usual course,unless you Where this fame wicked villain did me light upon.
ftop it, but stopped it rages and overflows its
banks : so try not to stop this madman in his Through occasion is very rightly added, the whole

episode and allegory plainly requiring it.
career, but begin first with Occasion, the root
of all wrath.


With whom from tender dug of commune nourse Dum Furor in cursu est currenti cede FURORI.

Attonce I was upbrought-] He seems to allude Difficiles aditus impetus omnis habet.

to the Italian phralgwhich calls a fofter broOvid Rem. Am. 119. ther, fratello di latte. 'Tis not to be passed He seems likewise to have Ovid in view, where

over likewise, that the Irish, in particular, he describes Pentheus ; the verses are so well look upon their foster brothers in a higher turned and the description fo masterly that I degree of friendship and love, than their own cannot help transcribing them.

brothers; which Spenser takes notice of in his

view of Ireland. This consideration makes Fruftraque inhibere laborant. Acrior admonitu eft; irritaturque retenta

the pathos more sensibly affecting.
Et crefcit rabies ; remoraminaque ipsa nocebant,

Sic ego torrentem, quâ nil obftabat eunti,

My friend, hight Philemon, I did partake-) i. e.
Lenius, et modico ftrepitu decurrere vidi :

I made partaker. Nothing can excuse this At quacunque trabes obstructaque faxa tenebant,

breaking through all rules of measure ; Spenser

should have written,
Spumeus, et fervens, et ab objice saevior ibat,

My friend, Philemon bight -
- her ungratious tong.] So Spenser ordered Below, St. 39, 30. He errs the same error
it to be written among the Faults escaped in thrice,
print: before it was printed tongue. You see Confes boru Philemon her wrought to chaunge her
what care he took that even the letters should

answer, as well as their jingling terminations.'

To Philemon, false faytour Philemon.

The following is equally as bad,
With hundred yron chaines he did him bind.) Hunc Great Ganges and immortal Euphrates.
framnis, hunc tu compefce CATENA, says Horace,

B. v. C. 11. St. 21. speaking of this same perturbed state of mind, If authorities can excuse, I could bring many represented by this monster Furor. So Juvenal, like instances from the old poets, who paid no S. viii.

regard to proper names, whether long or short, - Pone irae fraena modumque.

but measured them by fyllables, not quantity. See note above on St. iv.

But I hope, in this one respect, no moderns

will ever imitate them. Vol. II.


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XXXVI. Saying, he now had boulted all the floure.] Sifted Leaft worst betide thee-] It should have been the whole affair ; bolted it all to the very printed, worse. bran.

But I ne cannot bouite it to the brenne.
Ch. in the Nonnes Priest's tale 1281.

Which mingled all with sweat did dim his eye.] i. e.

Did dim his countenance, quite alter his feai. e. I cannot fift it, examine it thoroughly.

tures, pars pro toto. Hence comes Bolting, an exercise of Gray's-Inn, so named from sifting or examining into some

XXXIX. law points.

Yet mildly him to purpose answered.) i. e, to disXXV. course with him. See the Gloff

. in Purpose. He Who glad to' embosom bis affretion vilc.] Who glad answers mildly : Varlet, therefore, in the fol

lowing Stanza, is not to be taken in its modern, to cherish (in fiu complecti) his vile affection.

but ancient signification : for our poet is all Ibid.

ancient.--The reader at his leisure may consult Pryene, so the hight.) Her name in Orlando Menage in Valet ; and Junius in Valjal.

, Furioso, is Dalinda ; in Shakespeare Margaret.

XLI. But as Spenser varies in his names, so he varies likewise in many other circumstances from the Howe hight he then, said Guyon, and from original story.

whence ®]° I have printed it, How hight be, then XXIX.

said Guyon, and from whence? i. e. Then And chawing vengeaunce.) And chawing the cud, Guyon answered and faid, How is he called, and

) ruminating upon vengeance.

from whence came he? To whom Atin, His

name is Pyrochles, &c.
Mofi wretched man,

τις 3 πόθεν εις ανδρών και

Hom. Od. { 187. & 105. That to affections does the bridle lend : In their beginnings, &c.] Affections, i. e. paffions. Qui genus ? unde domo ? .

Virg. viii. 114. So the Latin, affectus. The thought is the same as in Seneca,

Unde domo ? quis ?

Horat. Epift. i. viii. 53. Quifquis in primo obftitit Repulitque amorem, tutus ac victor fuit.

Ibid. Qui blandiendo dulce nutrivit malum,

Acrates SONNE of Phlegeton and larre; Scro recufat ferre, quod fubiit, jugum.

But Phlegeton is SONNE of Herebus and Night;

Hippolyt. ver. 131. But Herebus SONNE of Aeternitie is hight.] The Presently after,

second verse, which is broken loose from his

fellows, is very eafily reduced to his pristine Strong wars they make and cruell batt'ry bend

state and regularity, by our easy accounting Gainst fort of reason

for that source of perpetual error, which runs This is preparing you before-hand for the through the printing of Spenser's poem : We Castle and Fort, wherein the Soul, Reason, and have printed the word in capitals to thew the Wisdom, dwells ; more minutely, described, reader what we have to often mentioned,

fo B. ii. C. 9. St. 10. and C. 11. St. 5. . namely, the printer's eye being caught by some

word above or below : I make no doubt thereXXXV.

fore myself but that Spenser gave it, Wrath, gealousies, griefe, love, do thus expell.] i. e. Do thou thus expell. - Presently after, The But Phlegeton, of Herebus and Night. monster filth did breede, i. e. The fire did breed

The construction is very easy and natural, both of sparks, the weed (gealousie) of a little feed, the food of small drops, the monster (love) of son of Phlegeton and Farre, but Phlegeton of Her

which are the sons of Acrates and Despight, Acrates filthiness. Do thus delay, i. e. See that thou

"ebus and Night ; and Herebus son of Aeternity is dost thus delay, put off, take away, &c. The

hight. The two Buts likewife seem a printer's whole Stanza is very pretty, and worth a little

manufacture and blunder. attention.'

Batha Mmm 2

Both which arre,

Fierce PHLEGETON The sonnes of old Acrates and Despight,

Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with ráge. Acrates fonne of Phlegeton and Jarre ;

ii. 580. But Phlegeton of Herébus and Night :

You see then how proper this fiery infernal And Herebus fonne of Aeternitie is hight.

deity is the supposed father of Acrates. Jarre See their genealogy, which I have drawn up in is the Litt

is the Litigium of Boccace, the "Epos of Homer a note on B. i. C. 5. St. 20. Aeternitie is men- and Hefiod, and the Discordia of Virgil, viii. 702. tioned in Boccace, sequitur de Aeternitate, quam Et fcilā gandens vadit Discordia pallâ. ideo veteres Demogorgoni fociam dedere, ut is qui nullus erat videretur aeternus ; quae quid fit fuo je ipsa Acrates

, (Axpaths) and Despight (dispetto, malice, pandit nomine-de illa fuc Claudianus,

ill-will, &c.) are not mentioned particularly

by the mythologists, but they may be included Es ignota procul, noftraeque impervia menti, under those vile affections of the mind, which Vix adeunda deis, annorum (qualida mater,

are said to be the offspring of Night and Erebus. Immens spelunca aevi, &c.

The sonnes of Acrates and Despight, are Cymochles Phlegeton according to Spenser is the son of and Pyrochles, the former has his name from Erebus and Nox : according to Boccace, Küva non modo fluctus sed et variorum malorum Flegeton in the son of Cocytus: and mentioned frequentia, et rhéos gloria : meaning one who as an infernal river and deity in Virgil, vi. 265.

seeks for vain honours in a sea of troubles : Dii

quibus imperium eft animarum, umbraeque filentes Pyrochles, from wüp ignis et xníos gloria. Et Chaos et PHLEGETHON

XLII. Again alluding to its etymology, vi. 550. ATIN.] The squire of Pyrochles, the stirrer Quae rapidus fiammis ambit torrentibus amnis

up of strife, and revenge. He has the same Tartareus Phlegetion, torquétque fonantia faxa. and who had just the fame offices allotted her.

name of a goddess, whom Homer mentions, Milton spelt it as Spenser did, tho'since altered in the latter editions,

-"Ατη, ή πάντας άάται.





Argument. This I have printed from the ift Nec vero perturbationes animorum, quae vitam insiquarto : the 2d and folios read thus,

pentium miferam acerbamque reddunt, quas Graeci AN N D Furors chayne unbinds,

Fábn adpellant (poteram ego verbum ipsum interpreOf whom fore hurt for his revenge

tans, morbos adpellare, fed non conveniet ad omnia : Attin Cymochles finds.

quis enim misericordiam, aut ipfam iracundiam, mor

bum folet dicere? at illi dicunt rádas. Sit igitur I.

perturbatio, qua nomine ipso vitiofa declarari videThen stubborn perturbation

tur) nec hae perturbationes vi aliqua naturali moventur: To which right well the wife do give that name, omnesque sunt genere quatuor, partibus plures, aegriFor it the goodly peace of played mindes,

tudo, formido, libido, quamque Stoici communi nomine Does overthrow. Perturbatio, à perturbando, for corporis & animi ndono adpellant, égo malo laetitiam

) it does overthrow the peace of the mind. To adpellare, quasi gestientis animi elationem voluptuariam. which right well the wise do give that name: Cicero Perturbationes autem nulla naturae vi conmoventur, Tusc. Disp. iii. 11. Perturbatio, animi motus, vel omniaque ea funt opiniones ae judicia levitatis : itaque rationis exfers, vel rationem afpernans, vel rationi his fapiens Jensper vacabit. We may find all thefe non obediens : isque motus aut boni aut mali opiniore four perturbations characterized by Spenser, excitatur. iv. 15. Perturbationes, quae funt turbidi Aegritudo i. e. Sorrow and discomfort, exemplianimorum concitatique motus, averfi à ratione et ini- fied in the mother of the babe with the bloody miciflimi menti vitaeque tranquillaé. De Finib. iji. 11. hand : Formido, in Braggadochio and Trom


part. Libido, in Cymochles and Acrasia. 'H domi logy; he says just above, St. 4. the sharpe steele
i. e. laetitia, seu gestientis animi elatio voluptuaria, bitt not. This expression he uses very often,
in Phaedria.

The cruel steel so greedily doth bite,
In tender flesh

B.i. C. 5. St. 9. His owrie woes author, whoso bound it findes, His BITING sword, B.i. C.7. St. 48. MORDACI As did Pirrhocles, and it willfully unbindes.] ferro. Hor. L. iv. Od. 6. So his friend Sydney, Spenser, among the errors of the press prefixed Arcad. p. 255. His enemies bad felt how sharp the to his first edition, ordered this wight's name ford could bite of Philoclea's lover. But it is endto be spelt Pyrochles; I have obeyed his orders less to cite similar places. in this edition, and have altered it accordingly

VIII. above C. 4. St. 41, 45. and below C. 5. St. 8. 16. 19. 20. 21. 25. 36. 38. The construc- Or frike, or hurtle rownd in warlike gyre.) This tion of this passage is ? . He is the author of word is corrupted in all the editions except the

: • his own woes, whosoever finds perturbation first. See the Glossary. To burtle rownd in war• bound or restrained, and wilfully unbinds it, like gyre, is to skirmish wheeling round the foe, • as here acted Pyrochles.'

trying to strike him with advantage. II.

Or da un lato, or da un' altro il va tentando, And formed yre.] See note on B. i. C. 5. St. 28. Quando di quà, qua nde di s'aggira.

Ariosto. xlv. 74 V. Disleall knight whose coward corage chose-] This L'uno, e l'altro s'aggira, e scuote, e preme.

Ariosto. xlvi. 131. is spelt from the Ítalian, di seale; 'tis a frequent expression in romance writers, and carries with

IX. it the highest affront; perfidious, false, treacher. But yielded pasage to His cruell knife : ous, &c. Corage is heart or mind : coragium in But Guyon in the heat of all his strife the base latinity was used for cor.

Was wary wise-] I would rather read, this Thereby thine armes seem strong, but manhood frayl. ftrife, this fight between them, Knife comes

from tipos, and is used in the same sense by our Perhaps he wrote,

old poets : but I have mentioned this already. Thereby thine arm seems Nrong, but manhood frayl.

Ibid. And in the concluding verse of the Stanza,

And falsed oft his blowes t'illude him with such bayt.] If wonted force and fortune do me not much fayl, i. e. he made feints ; he falsified his thrust in This is altered in all the editions, but the first, fencing by making feigned pasles. Chaucer

says of Crefeide, she fulled Troilus. L. v. 1053. into. -doe not much me fayl.

i. e. she acted falsely by, she deceived Troilus.

From the Ital. Falsare. To make the accent fall stronger on me, I would rather read,

He traverseth, retireth, presseth nie,

Now strikes he out, and now he falfifieth. If wonted force and fortune doe not me much fayl.

Fairfax. vi. 42. VII.

X. Tho hurling high his yron braced arme,

Like as a lyon, whose imperial powre, He fincte

A proud rebellious unicorne defyesYet there the steele stayd not, but inly bate

He fips aside-] Ille, öyt. See Bentley on Deepe in his fiefh.) Read as one word, yron-braced: Horace, L. 1. Od. 9. Servius on Virg. xiii

. 5. then hurling aloft his arm which was braced Clark on Homer Il. y 409. This addition of hĘ, about with iron armour, mañštv ásco xómeros. Hom. I have mentioned above. -As to the stories told Il. . 362. Çacyáva, čiasi. Il. K'. 456. corpore of the fighting of the Lyon and Unicorn, they icto Alte sublatum confurgit Turnus in enjem. Virg. are fit for children, though told by grave xii. 729 And high advancing his blood thirsitie

writers. Rebellious he calls it, according to blade. B. i. C. 8. St. 16.

what is said in Job xxxix. 10. of the unicorn,

and by the commentators: see Bochart conYet there the steele ftoid not, but inly bate

Cerning this creature, and its pretious and i. e. did bite. As ate from eat : taught from wonderful horn. The following is translated teach : so bate from bite : though the rhime from Gesner, “. The unicorn is an enemy to may excuse, yet 'tis to be defended from ana- lyons ; wherefore as soon as ever a lyon seeth


« a unicorn, he runneth to a tree for succour, See maugre in the Glossary, where this verse is " that fo when the unicorn maketh at him, he explained. “ may not only avoid his horn, but also destroy

XIII. " him : for the unicorn in the swiftness of his

For th' equal die of warre he well did know. ] Sec “ course, runneth against the tree, wherein his

note on B. i. C. 2. St. 36. « sharp horn sticketh faft : then when the lyon

XV. « seeth the unicorn faltened by the horn, with“ out all danger he falleth upon him and kilieth Yet shortly gaind, that lofje exceeded farre] the 6 him. These things are reported by a king of which gain far exceeded the loss. “ Aethiopia in a Hebrew epistle unto the bishop

Ibid. 66 of Rome. - They speak of the horn as the But to bee leffer then himself—] This is a Grecism « molt excellent remedy in the world. There irlwr iauri, minor, i. e, inferior seipso

. So again “ was brought unto the king of France, a very below St. 16. “great unicorn's horn valued at fourscore thou66 fand ducats." There is an allusion to this That in thyself thy lesser parts


move, ftory, told by Gesner, in Shakespeare, Julius i. e. those parts which are inferior and ought to Caesar, Act. ii. where Deciuscharacterizes Caesar be subservient to the more noble part. Minor as a lover of strange and unaccountable stories.

in certamine, Hor. L. i. Epift. x. He loves to bear

But know that in the soul
That unicorns may be betrayd by trees.

Are many lesser faculties that serve
Reason as chief.

Milt. V. IOL.
And soone his dreadful blade about he cast.] Rotat Lesser, i.e. inferior.
ensem fulmineum. Virg. ix. 441.

If in power and splendor less,
In freedom equal.

V. 796. Then on his breft his victor foote he thrus.] This is

Though his tongue, according to ancient custom.

And it came to

Dropp'd manna and could make the worse [Tor it?w] pass, when they brought out those kings unto Joshua, appear, that Joshua called for all tbe men of Israel, and said The better reason [ròr upéutla dógov] unto the captains of the men of war, which went with

Ibid. him, come near, put your feet upon the necks of them. Vain others overthrowes, wbe felf doth overthrow.] Hence figuratively for subjection and servitude 'Tis thus printed in the two old quarto's, but ?tis frequently used, Pf. viii. 8. Thou haft put all in the folios and following editions, things under his feet. See 1 Cor. xv. 25. Heb. ii. 8.

Vain others overthrowes whose self doth overthrow. Aa& in sndion Cás. Pede pectoribus impolito. The way to understand Spenser is to translate Hom. II. S 65.

him, fruftra alios subvertit, qui se fubvertit. You

see he is omitted and self is for himself ; he in ο δε λαξ εν σηθεσι Εάντων,

vain overthrowes others who doth overthrow himself. τεύχεα τ' οξενάριξε και ευχόμενος Ρεπος ηύδα.

Ille antem calcem in peeloribus ponens,

That thee against me drew with so impetuous
Armaque interfe&to exuit, et glorians verbum dixit.
Hom. II. v. 618, dread.] i. e. fo impetuously. B. i. C. 9. St. 45.


And maister those mishaps with patient might, i. e. Quem Turnus super adfiftens--et laevo presit pede.

patiently. B. ii. C. 2. St. 22. both with greedy

Virg. x. 495. force at once upon him ran, i. e. greedily. B. i. Tum fuper abjectum posito pede nixus et hasta. C. 2. St. 39. but with feigned paine, the false

x. 736. witch did my wrathful hand withhold, i.e. feignedly. Taffo ix. 80. Indi lui preme col piede. Spenser ford with vaine disease, i. e. in vain.

B. iii. C. 5. St. 19. But labour'd long in t hat deepe frequently alludes to this custom ; it may not therefore be improper to mention it this once.


Great mercy fure for to enlarge a thrall.] Great

thanks truly! Gall.grandmerci. B. ij. C. 7. St. 50. Ne deeme thy force by fortunes doomé uniuft That bath (maugre her fight) thus low me laid in gramercy Mamman.

TH duft.]

i. 113



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