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and which is more, nor with the scripture. The th' one, said hee
same mistake seems to be gotten into the edi. Because he wonne; the other because hee-] This tions of Chaucer, in his prologue to the Canterteading (the occasion of which is plain) is in bury tales, ver. 233. the ist and 2d edit. in quarto, but the edit. of His tippet was ay farsid ful of knives. 1609, has it right.- Presently after.
But the poet characterizes him, as then drefled, ---and garre them disagree.
and as then setting out on his journey for Canter
bury. I would read therefore, So in his pastorals, Ecl. iv. Tell me good Hoblinol, what gars thee grete? His tippet was yfarsid full of knives. i. e. what causeth thee to weep? Douglass in
XXIII. his translation of Virgil, uses it often. IA. giora Tho gan THAT villein wax lo fiers and strong, facere. See Junius. Spenser heard this word THAT nothing might sustaine his furious forfe.] So often when he resided in the northern parts of the ist and 2d quarto edit. but the folio of 1609, England. Whether he himself altered it after- reads, the villein. wards, or his editor, I can't say; but in the 2d
XXVII. edit. 'tis printed,
Whom then she does trasforme to monstrous hewes. -and do them disagree.
He follows the Italian spelling, trasformare, XXII.
The 2d quarto and subsequent editions read
transforme. His mother eke, more to augment his spight,
And over him art fryving to compayre Had kindled.] Ay burning bright, cannot agree With nature, did an arber green despred.] This with sygian lake, for he calls it the BLACK Stygian whole episode is taken from Tallo, Canto xvi., lake. B. i. C.
So he describes the where Rinaldo is described in dalliance with river Cocytus, in a BLACK flood, B. ii. C. 7. Armida. The bowre of bliss is her garden. St. 56. See B vi. C. 12. St. 35. There is no brightness in hell ; Táprapor nagoésta, Hom. Il. .
Stimi (li mifto il culto è col negletto)
Sol naturali e gli ornamenti, ei fiti, 13. Tartara nigra, Virg. vi. 145. Hell is called
Di natura arte par, che per diletto in scripture outer darkness. Matt. xxii. 13. and emphatically in Jude, v. 13. The blackness of L'imatrice sua scherzando imiti.
Canto xvi. IC. darkiess
. Compare Spenser's description in the passages referred to above. Nor can hell alle- Cujus in extremo est antrum nemorale recesu, gorized have any reference to brightness , light,
Arte laboratum nulla, fimulaverat arter chearfulness, joy, &c. but to gloominess, dark- Ingenio natura fuo : nam pumice vivo, ness, &c. -Observe by the bye Spenser's abuse Et lenibus tophis nativum duxerat arcum. and confusion of the river Styx, with Phlegethon, Fons sonat à dextra, tenui perlucidus undi, which burnt with sulphur, so as to make dark- Margine gramineo patulos incinctus hiatus. ness visible. Stygian he uses for hellish: but
Ovid. Met. iii. 157. rightly distinguishes in B. i. C. 5. St. 33. The
XXXI. fery flood of Phlegeton, and very properly, B. iv. C. 2. St. 1. calls discord, a fyre brand of hell firji And on the other syde a pleasaunt grove tyned in Phlegeton.--Nor can ay burning bright
, Was fhott up high, full of the stately trce agree with fjer-brond : for it had not been for ever
That dedicated is i Olympick Jove, kindled. In thort, the printer has often blundered
And to his foune Alcides, whenas hee seeing y prefixed to participles, sometimes he
In Netmus gayned goodly viltorer :) Spenser or mistook it for you and here for ay. Let us then dered it to be red Nemus, among the errors of read :
the press, added at the end of the first edition in Now brought to him a fiaming fyer-brond,
quarto, but the ed edition reads, Which the in stygian lake, yburning bright
Whenas bee Had kindled
Gaynd in Nemea goodly victoree. "thus all is easy and proper, and Spenser di :
And the folios, 2rees not with himself nor his brother
poets, Gaind in Nemea goodly viétoree
As As Spenser altered it into Nemus, so I have fol- Compare these xxxiii. and xxxiv. Stanzas with lowed his direction : for as to the editor of the Tasso, xvi. 18, and 19. from whom they are second edition, he seems to me never to have translated. seen Spenser's corrections of the errors of the
Our poet gives his proper names, in imitation up, up, thou womanish weake knight-] This of Chaucer and Gower, and the Italian poets, Rinaldo whom he finds in the bowre of Armida,
likewise is imitated from Ubaldo's speech to often both a new spelling and a new termination; and this the reader may perpetually ob- Qual sonno, ò qual letargo hà fi fopita serve. Let him here however judge for himself. La tua virtute, ò qual viltà l'alletta? The fately tree dedicated to Jupiter, is the oak; Sů, sù, te il campo, e te Goffredo invita, and the frately tree dedicated to his sonne Alcides, (for Te la fortuna, e la vittoria aspetta so the passage is to be supplied) is the Poplar.
Taffo I xvi. 33See Broukh. on Tibullus p. 82.
Fairfax thus translates them, with Spenser in Spenser supposes that the Poplar was then first dedicated to Hercules, when he slew the lyon in Nemea. The reader at his leisure may consult What letharge hath in drowsiness uppend what Servius and other commentators have ob- Thy courage thus ? what sloth doth thee infest ? served on Virg. Ecl. vii. 61.
Up, up, our camp and Godfrey for thee ferid,
Thee Fortune, praise and victory expect.
Womanish weak knight, is Homeric, 'Ayuidis, šv So he them deceives, deceived in his deceipt.) So the
it' . . 6.
τ' Αχαιός 11. C'. 235. . two first editions in quarto : but the folios, O vere Phrygiae, neque enim Phryges. So them deceives, deceived in his deceipt.
Virg. ix. 617. He omitted, which is after Spenser's manner :
Or he expresses Taslo, xvi. 32. Egregio campion if Spenser wrote as the two most authentic edi- d'una fanciulla. which Fairfax very well transtions read, we must thus scan the verse,
lates, So be them] đenezues] dèced] = b] đèceipt. A carpet champion for a wanton dame.
i. e. keep from; the preposition being contained Harder leson to learne continence
in the verb : but as there is an eafier and better In joyous pleasure then in grievous paine :
reading in the ad quarto and in the folios, viz. For sweetnesse doth allure the weaker fence
reftraine, this I chose therefore to follow. So strongly, that uneathes it can refraine
Yet vertue vaunts in both her vietories. From that which feeble nature covets faine :
in both, rebus in arduis, non fecus in bonis. ComBut griefe and wrath, that be her enemies And foes of life, she better can abftaine :
pare B. v. C. 5. St. 38. I believe Spenser had
that truly philosophical sentiment in view, which Va vertue vauntes in both her victories; And Guyon in them all shewes goodly
' maysteries.] Xenophon gives to Gobrias, Kug. wad 6.6. 5. Let us stay awhile to reflect on this observation,
pot, ώ κύρε, χαλεπώτερον ειναι εν ρέιν άνδρα fo true of man and human nature. But Frt let ταγαθά καλώς φέροντα, ή τα κακά τα μεν γαρίφρίν τοις us see the meaning, “ 'tis a harder lesson to
πολλοις, τα δε σωφροσύνην τοις πάσιν έμποιέι. o learn temperance in pleasure and prosperity Arbitror autem, Cyre, difficilius effe reperire bominem, " than in pain and adversity, &c."
qui res fecundas, quam qui adversas relle ferat.
The same observation we find in other writers. But grief and wrath-fhe better can abstaine
Quos inter prisei sententia dia Catonis
not be thus divided, it cut A WAY-VIAM fecat Seire adeo magni feciset, utrumne secundis
illa per undas.
St. 28. A. Gell. L. viii. C. 3. has preserved this godlike B.j. C. 5. St. 28. Her ready way she makes. fentence of the old Catı, ' Adversae res se domant B. i. C. 11. St. 18. He cutting way with his
et docent quid opus fit facto : secundae res broad failes. He adds, • laetitiâ transvorsum trudere solent à recte con
More swift then swallow sheres the liquid sky, fulendo atque intelligendo.' Seneca epist. 67. Attalus Stoicus dicere solebat, malo me fortuna in Which perhaps he imitated from Ariosto. castris suis quàm in deliciis habeat. Nor less philoso- XXX. II. phically has Horace expressed himself on the Per l'acqua il legno va con quella fretta, same subject. L. ii. Od. iii.
Che va per l'aria irondine, che varca. Acquam memento rebus in arduis
And the expression ( as I formerly mentioned ) Servare mentem, non fecus in bonis,
he borrowed from Virgil. Sceran, tindert, Ab insolenti temperatam Laetitia.
RADERE to sheare, to shave. Somn. à xelgrove
praepofitâ. RADIT iter liquidum. Aen. v. 217. Phaedria here represents in person, the infolens "Now shaves with level wing the deep. MilLaetitia in Horace. III.
But we should not pass unnoticed this wonder. Sometimes she laught, as merry as pope Jone.] Soful ship of Phaedria, that fails without oars
or fails. Old Homer is the father of poetical the first edition in quarto; the 2d,
wonders, and romance writers are generally his Sometimes me laught, that nigh her breth was imitators. This self-moved, and wondrous gone.
Thip of Phaedria, may be matched with the no With respect to the first reading, I find it a pro- less wondrous ship of Alcinous : verbial expression and alluded to in an old So shalt thou instant reach the realm asign'd play, called Damon and Pythias, pag. 270. in In wondrous ships self-MOVED, instinct with mind the collection of plays printed by Dodsley. As No helm secures their course, no pilot guides, merie as pope. John.' Jack. That pope was a Like man intelligent they plow the tides, merrie fellow, of whom folke talk so much. And this Conscious of every coast and every bay, proverb is mentioned by Fox in his acts and That lies beneath the suns all-feeing ray: monuments, pag. 178. ann. 979. who there Though clouds and darkness veil th’encumberd sky, gives us a short history of this merry pope John Fearless thro’ darkness and thro' clouds they fly :
' XIII. if mirth consists in following the pleasures Though tempests rage, though rolls the swelling main, of Venus, Bacchus and Ceres : As merry as pope The seas may roll, the tempests rage in vain, John, a proverb.—But this proverb surely falls
-While careless they convey below the dignity of an epic poem, he therefore Promiscuous every guest to every bay. seems to me to have altered it himself, into
The Tripods likewise that Vulcan made were Sometimes she laught, that nigh her breath was self-moved. gone.
That plac'd on living wheels of matty gold And though there are many liberties taken in (Wondrous to tell) INSTINCT WITH SPIRIT the 2d edition, yet the alteration now before us,
rolld, I think Spenser's own..?
From place to place, around the bleft abodes,
Self-moved, obedient to the beck of gods.
Hom: Il. xviii. 440.
The elegant translator had plainly Milton in
view, vi. 749. Withouten oar or pilot it to guide, Or winged canvas with the wind to fly :
Forth rushed with whirlwind found Onely she turned a pin, and by and by
The chariot of paternal deity, It cut Away upon the yielding wave.) I fomewhat Flashing thick flame, wheel within wheel, undrawn,
AWAY ] question whether away in the last line should Itself instinct with spirit.-
Ibid St. 31.
Ibid. As Milton had the prophet Ezekel. i. 16. The Spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.- The whiles with a love-lay she thus him sweetly Besides thips, tripods, and chariots, we read of charmed.] In the 2d edition in quarto 'tis printed Gates, instinct with spirit and spontaneously a loud lay : and so in the folios, Chaucer uses moving: so the gates of heaven open sponta- laves for songs, Gall. lai. This love song neous, Hom. II. v. 749. and Milton, a perpetual which the nymph sings is imitated from a song imitator of Homer, has borrowed this specious sung to Rinaldo, who arriving at an inchanted miracle, the gate self opened wide, v. 254. Heaven island is lulled asleep. Compare Tasso. xiv. opened wide her ever during gates, viii. 205. So too St. 62. &c. Spenser. B. ii. C. 7. St. 26.
Whiles nothing envious nature them forth throwes
Out of her fruitful lap] Nothing envious nature -They came unto an iron dore
is a latinism : as nature is nihil indiga, so she is Which to them opened of his owne accord.
nihil invida. Milton calls her, boon nature, iv. 242.
Ibid. Phaedria's bark moves spontaneously, directed er steered by the turning of a pin. Peter of Yet no man to them can his careful paines compare.] Provence and the fair Magalona rode through Their beauty rivals all art: Not Solomon in all his the air on a wooden horse, which was directed glory was arrayed like one of these. by the turning of a pin. See Don Quixote,
XVI. Vol. i. B. iv. C. 22. and Vol. ii. B. iii. C. 8. C. 9. This illustrates the story in Chaucer, The lilly lady of the flowring field —) Consider the where the king of Araby sent to Cambuscan a lillies of the field.--This verse is a fine example horse of brass, which by turning of a pin, would of Spenser's favourite iteration of letters. So travel wherever the rider pleased.- -Compare Shakespeare in King Henry VIII. calls the this wonderful bark, with that mentioned in lilly, the mistress of the field. The whole allusion Tasso, xv. 3. where the knights go on board a is manifest, (Šee Matt. vi. 28.] and seems very frange vessel steered by a Fairy.
elegantly brought in here, in this mock repreVider picciola nave, e in poppa quella,
sentation of tranquillity, to fhew how the best Che guidar gli dovea, fatal donzella.
of sayings may be perverted to the worst of X
Will die for thrift.] Not in the main fea, but in
some great river. The expression seems to have a
kind of catachresis. It was a chosen plot of fertile land,
XVIII. Emongs widle waves set, LIKE A LITLE NEST.] This expression is litterally from Cicero de The slothful wave of that great griesy lake.] I have Oratore, i. 44. Patriae tanta eft vis ac tanta natura, printed it griefly lake from the 2d edition in quarto: ut Ithacam illam in asperrimis faxulis
, TANQUAM So St. 46. of this idle lake he says NIDULUM, affixam fapientiffimus vir immortalitati The waves hereof so now and Nuggish were, anteponeret,
Engroft with mud which did them fowle AGRISE. XIII. Trees, branches, &c.] Observe here a kind of Grifly, Anglo-s.grislu comes from Agnýsan, poetical beauty, which consists sometimes of terrere, horrere, inhorrefcere : to AGRISE.
The separating your images, and then bringing of very same blunder, viz. griesy for griefly has been them together ; as in this stanza : sometimes, taken notice of already. in bringing all your images together, and then
XIX. separating them, as in B. ii. Č. 12. St.
Shee foone to HOND
Her ferry brought.] None of the books have the
Shee foone to LOND Vol. II,
Her ferry brought,
C. 1. St. 50.
XXIX. For the fitt barke obaying to her mind-] So
And with importune outrage him afayld.] The again, B. ii. C. 2. St. 35. Lo, now the heavens obey to me alone.
Aud with importance outrage him asayld. Wickliff, Rom. i. 30. not obeyinge to fadir This is apparently a blunder of the press. The and modir. Chaucer, Troilus and Creff. ii. 1490.
folios, 1609, 1617. But godely gan to his prayere obeye.
And with important outrage him assayld. And in the Legende of good women, ver. 90.
But importune is right, and fignifies cruel, savage,
&c. as importunus in Latin. So above, imporThat as an harpe obeyith to the honde.
tune fate : fata importuna. Sydney's Arcadia, pag. 6o. To whom the other
Ibid. phould obey. See Dr. Bentley on Milton, i. 337.
W30 foone prepared to field.] i. e. to battle. Yet to their general's voice they foon obeyd.
Germ. feld, bellum. Acts vii. 39. To whom our fathers would not
Ibid. obey. Rom. vi. 16. His servants ye are, to And him with equall valew countervayld.] The whom ye obey.
2d edition, and folios, with equal value. In XXI.
Hughes, with equal valour. Spenser wrote value,
or in the old spelling valew. Menage, “ VALUE, And passe the bonds of modeft merimake.] So the
6 valeur, merite personnel
. Marot, ist and 2d Edit. in quarto. But the Folios have bounds which is better.
-Premier donc je salue
Tres-humblement ta hautesë et VALUE.
Wo WORTH the man,
That firft did teach the cursed feel to bight
In his own flesh, and make way to the living spright. ) And thewed ill.] Ill thewed, male moratus : with ill thews or manners. Chaucer's expression.
Sydney's Arcadia, pag. 316. How often have
i bleft the meanes that might bring mee neere thee? XXVII.
Now woe worthe the cause that brings me fo But marched to the Strond, their pasage to require.] ncere thee. Chaucer, Troilus and Crefeide, ii. So the first and second editions in quarto : but 344 the Folios have it right,
Wo worthe the faire gemme that is vertulesse; - there passage to require.
Wo worthe that herbe also that doth no bote ; Just above, In Nothful seepe his molten hart to Wo worth the beaute that is routhelesle ; steme, i. e. to exhale, to evaporate, his melted
Wo worth that wight that trede eche undir fote. heart in flothful sleep.
And B. iv. ver. 763.
Wo worth that daie, that thou me bare on live. Loe, loe alreadie how the fowles in aire
i. e. Cursed be that day, on which thou Doe flocke-] Spenser has plainly the scripture broughtest me forth.
Somner, Peoppan. in view, where the proud Philistine speaks to David, Come to me and I will give thy fiefh unto
elle, fore, redigi, fieri, to be, to beconie. Belgis,
werven, worden. woe worth the man, woe be to the fowles of the air, and to the beasts of the field,
the man. Ezek. 30. 2. wo worth the day. The 1 Sam. xvii. 44. and perhaps too he used the
thought seems taken as the author of the re
marks has likewise observed) from Tibullus, i. Loe, loe alreadie how the fowles of th' aireThis expression too is in other places, And thy Quis fuit horrendos primus qui protulit enfes ? carcaje svall be meat unto all the fowles of the Quam ferus et vere ferreus ille fuit ! air, and unto the beasts of the earth, Deut. In these verses of Tibullus, the reader may xxviii. 26.
observe a kind of jingling play upon the words, αυτές δ' ελώρια τεύχε κύνεσσιν,
ferus, ferreus, which Spenler often uses. ΟΙΩΝΟΙΣΙ τε ΠΑΣΙ.
Hom. II. 6. 5.