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XIX.

and which is more, nor with the scripture. The th' one, said hee

same mistake seems to be gotten into the ediBecause he wonne; the other because hee-1 This tions of Chaucer, in his prologue to the Canterreading (the occasion of which is plain) is in bury tales, ver. 233. the ist and 2d edit. in quarto, but the edit. of His tippet was ay farsid ful of knives. 1609, has it right.-Presently after.

But the poet characterizes him, as then dressed, and garre them disagree.

and as then setting out on his journey for CanterSo in his pastorals, Ecl. iv.

bury. I would read therefore, Tell me good Hoblinol, what gars thee grete? His tippet was yrarsid full of knives. i. e. what causeth thee to weep? Douglass in

XXIII. his translation of Virgil, uses it often. IA. giora Tho gan That villein wax fo fiers and Arong, facere. See Junius. Spenser heard this word That nothing might sustaine his furious forse.] So often when he resided in the northern parts of the ist and 2d quarto edit. but the folio of 1609, England. Whether he himself altered it after reads, the villein. wards, or his editor, I can't say ; but in 2d

XXVII. edit. 'tis printed,

Whom then she does trasforme to monstrous bewes.] and do them disagree.

He follows the Italian spelling, trasformare. XXII.

The 2d quarto and subsequent editions read His mother eke, more to augment his spight,

transforme.

XXIX.
Now brought to him a flaming fyer-brond,
IVhich she in flygian lake, ay burning bright,

And over him art fryving to compayre Had kindled.] Ay burning bright, cannot agree with nature, did an arber green despred.] This with flygian lake, for he calls it the BLACK stygian whole episode is taken from Tafto, Canto xvi. lake. B. i. C. 5. St. 10. So he describes the where Rinaldo is described in dalliance with river Cocytus, in a BLACK flood, B. ii. C. 7. Armida. The bowre of bliss is her garden. St. 56. See B vi. C. 12. St. 35. There is no

Stimi (fi mifto il culto è col negletto) brightness in hell; táptapos negoista, Hom. Il. %. !3. Tartara nigra, Virg. vi. 145. 'Hell is called Sol naturali e gli ornamenti, è i fiti, in scripture outer darkness. Matt. xxii. 13. and

Di natura arte par, che per diletto emphatically in Jude, v. 13. The blackness of L'imatrice sua scherzando imiti.

Canto xvi. 10. d.irkriess

. Compare Spenser's description in the passages referred to above. Nor can hell alle- Cujus in extremo est antrum nemorale receffu, gorized have any reference to brightness, light, Arte laboratum nullâ, fimulaverat artem chearfulness, joy, &c. but to gloominess, dark- Ingenio natura suo : nam pumice vivo, ness, &c. -Observe by the bye Spenser's abuse Et lenibus tophis nativum duxerat arcum. and confusion of the river Styx, with Phlegethon, Fons fonat à dextra, tenui perlucidus undå, which burnt with sulphur, so as to make dark- Margine gramineo patulos incinctus hiatus. ness visible. Stygian he uses for hellish: but

Ovid. Met. iii. 157. rightly distinguishes in B. i. C. 5. St. 33. The

XXXI. fery flood of Phlegeton, and very properly, B. iv. C. 2. St.

1. calls discord, a fyre brand of hell for And on the other syde a pleafaunt grove tyned in Phlegeton.--Nor can ay burning bright, was shott up high, full of the flately tree agree with fyer-brond : for it had not been for ever

That dedicated is t'Olympick Jove, kindled. In hort, the printer has often blundered And to his foune Alcides, whenas hee seeing y prefixed to participles, sometimes he In Netmus gayned goodly victoree :) Spenser ormistook it for gue and here for ay. Let us then

dered it to be red Nemus, among the errors of read :

the press, added at the end of the first edition in Now brought to him a flaming fyer-brond,

quarto, but the 2d edition reads, Which jne in stygian luke, yburning bright

Whenas hee Had kindled

Gaynd in Nemea goodly victorie. Thus all is easy and proper, and Spenser di

And the folios, 2erees not with himself nor his brother poets, Gaind in Nemea goodly victorce.

As

As Spenser altered it into Nemus, so I have fol- Compare these xxxiii. and xxxiv. Stanzas with lowed his direction : for as to the editor of the Taffo, xvi. 18, and 19. from whom they are second edition, he seems to me never to have translated. seen Spenser's corrections of the errors of the

XXXIV. press.

Our poet gives his proper names, in imitation Up, up, thou womanish weake knight--] This of Chaucer and Gower, and the Italian poets,

likewise is imitated from Ubaldo's speech to

Rinaldo whom he finds in the bowre of Armida, often both a new spelling and a new termination ; and this the reader may perpetually ob- Qual sonno, è qual letargo li sopita serve. Let him here however judge for himself. La tua virtute, ò qual viltà Palletta? The flately tree dedicated to Jupiter, is the oak; , , te il campo, e te Goffredo invita, and the stately tree dedicated to his fonne Alcides, (for la fortuna, e la vittoria aspetta so the passage is to be supplied) is the Poplar.

Taffo I xvi. 33See Broukh. on Tibullus p. 82.

Spenser supposes that the Poplar was then firit Fairfax thus translates them, with Spenser in dedicated to Hercules, when he slew the lyon in Nemea. The reader at his leisure may consult What letharge hath in drowsiness uppend what Servius and other commentators have ob. Thy courage thus ? what floth doth thee infekt? served on Virg. Ecl. vii. 61.

Up, UP, our camp and Godfrey for thee ferid,

Thee Fortune, praise and victory expect.
Populus Alcidae gratissima.
XXXIV

Womanish weak knight, is Homeric, 'Ayuidis, šv. So he them deceives, deceived in his deceipt.] So the

it' Axurá Il. C'. 235. two first editions in quarto : but the folios, O vere Phrygiae, neque enim Phryges. So them deceives, deceived in his deceipt.

Virg. ix. 617. He omitted, which is after Spenser's manner :

Or he expresses Tasso, xvi. 32. Egregio campion if Spenser wrote as the two most authentic edi- d'una fanciulla. which Fairfax very well transtions read, we must thus scan the verse,

lates, them] đặceries] đếnesd] = b] deceipt. A carpet champion for a wanton dame.

eye.

C A N T O VI.

I.

i. e. keep from; the preposition being contained A Harder leffon to learne continence

in the verb : but as there is an eafier and better In ioyous pleasure then in grievous paine : reading in the 2d quarto and in the folios, viz. For sweetneje doth allure the weaker sence

restraine, this I chose therefore to follow. So strongly, that uneathes it can refraine

Yet vertue vaunts in both her viétories. From that which feeble nature covets faine :

in both, rebus in arduis, non fecus in bonis. ComBut griefe and wrath, that be her enemies And foes of life, the better can abstaine:

pare B. v. C. 5. St. 38. I believe Spenser had Pa vertue vauntes in both her victories;

that truly philosophical sentiment in view, which And Guyon in them all shewes goodly mayfteries.] Xenophon gives to Gobrias, Kug. said Coc. . Let us stay awhile to reflect on this observation,

Δοκία δέ μοι, κύρε, χαλεπώτερον ειναι εν ρέιν άνδρα fo true of man and human nature. But firft let

τάγαθά καλως φέροντα, ή τα κακά τα μεν γαρυφρίν τοις us see the meaning, “ 'tis a harder lesson to

πολλοις, τα δε σωφροσύνην τοις πάσιν έμποιέι. o learn temperance in pleasure and prosperity Arbitror autem, Cyre, difficilius effe reperire hominem, 6 than in pain and adversity, &c.”

qui res fecundas, quam qui adversas relle ferał.

The same observation we find in other writers. But grief and wrath--the better can abstaine

Ques

ton ü.

Quos inter prisci sententia dia Catonis

not be thus divided, it cut A WAY-VIAM fecat Seire adeo magni fecisset, utrumne secundis

illa per undas.
An magis adverfis ftaret Romana propago : About her little frigot therein making way.
Scilicet adver/15--
Sulpiciæ Sat. ver. 48.

St. 28. A. Gell. L. viii. C. 3. has preserved this godlike B.i. C. 5. St. 28. Her ready way he makes. sentence of the old Cato, Adversae res se domant B. i. C. 11. St. 18. He cutting way with his et docent quid opus fit facto : fecundae res

broad failes. He adds, " laetitiâ transvorsum trudere solent à recte con

More swift then swallow fberes the liquid sky, • sulendo atque intelligendo. Seneca epift. 67. Attalus Stoicus dicere folebat, malo me fortuna in Which perhaps he imitated from Ariosto. castris suis quàm in deliciis habeat. Nor less philofo- XXX. 11. phically has Horace expressed himself on the Per l'acqua il legno va con quella fretta, fame subject. L. ii. Od. iii.

Che va per l'aria irondine, che varca. Acquam memento rebus in arduis

And the expreffion ( as I formerly mentioned ) Servare mentem, non secus in bonis,

he borrowed from Virgil. Scepan, tendert, Ab insolenti temperatam

RADERE to sheare, to shave. Somn. à xelgesio Laetitia,

praepofita. RADIT iter liquidum. Aen. v. 217. Phaedria here represents in person, the infolens Now shaves with level wing the deep. MilLaetitia in Horace. I.

But we should not pass unnoticed this wonderSometimes she laught, as merry as pope Jone.] So ful ship of Phaedria, that fails without oars the first edition in quarto; the 2d,

or fails. Old Homer is the father of poetical

wonders, and romance writers are generally his Sometimes me laught, that nigh her breth was imitators. This self-moved, and wondrous gone.

ship of Phaedria, may be matched with the no With respect to the first reading, I find it a pro

less wondrous ship of Alcinous : verbial expression and alluded to in an old So Malt thou instant reach the realm affign'd play, called Damon and Pythias, pag. 270. in In wondrous ships self-MOVED, instinkt with mind the collection of plays printed by Dodsey. As No helm secures their course, no pilot guides, merie as pope John. Jack. That pope was a Like man intelligent they plow the tides, merrie fellow, of whom folke talk fo much. And this Conscious of every coast and every bay, proverb is mentioned by Fox in his acts and That lies beneath the suns all-feeing ray: monuments, pag. 178. ann. 979. who there Though clouds and darkness veil th’encumberd sky, gives us a short history of this merry pope John Fearless thro' darkness and throʻ clouds they fly : XIII. if mirth consists in following the pleasures Though tempests rage, though rolls the swelling main, of Venus, Bacchus and Ceres : As merry as pope The seas may roll, the tempests rage in vain, John, a proverb.-But this proverb surely falls

While careless they convey below the dignity of an epic poem, he therefore Promiscuous every guest to every bay. seems to me to have altered it himself, into

The Tripods likewise that Vulcan made were Sometimes she laught, that nigh her breath was self-moved. gone.

That plac'd on living wheels of maly gold And though there are many liberties taken in (Wondrous to tell) INSTINCT WITH SPIRIT the 2d edition, yet the alteration now before us, rolled, I think Spenser's own.

From place to place, around the bleft abodes,

Self-moved, obedient to the beck of gods.
V.

Hom: Il. xviii. 440. Estfoones her shallow ship away did flide,

The elegant translator had plainly Milton in More swift than swallow jeres the liquid skye,

view, vi. 749. Withouten oar or pilot it to guide, Or winged canvas with the wind to fly :

Forth rushed with whirlwind found Onely she turned a pin, and by and by

The chariot of paternal deity, It cut AWAY upon the yielding wave.] I somewhat Flashing thick flame, wheel within wheel, undrawn, question whether away in the last line should Itself instinct with spirit.

As

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Ibid St. 31.

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As Milton had the prophet Ezekel. i. 16. The

Ibid.
Spirit of the living creature was in the wheels. The whiles with a love-lay me thus him sweetly
Besides thips, tripods, and chariots, we read of charmed.] In the 2d edition in quarto 'tis printed
Gates, instinct with spirit and spontaneously a loud lay : and so in the folios, Chaucer uses
moving: so the gates of heaven open sponta- la ses for songs, Gall. lai. This love song
reous, Hom. II. v. 749. and Milton, a perpetual which the nymph sings is imitated from a song
imitator of Homer, has borrowed this specious sung to Rinaldo, who arriving at an inchanted
miracle, the gate self opened wide, v. 254. Heaven island is lulled alleep. Compare Tasso. xiv.
opened wide her ever during gates, viii. 205. So too St. 62. &c.
Spenser. B. ii. C. 7. St. 26.

XV.
So soon as Mammon there arrived, the dore
To him did open-

Whiles nothing envious nature them forth throwes

Out of her fruitful lap- ] Nothing envious nature -They came unto an iron dore

is a latinism : as nature is nihil indiga, so she is Which to them opened of his owne accord.

nihil invida. Milton calls her, boon nature, iv. 242. Phaedria's bark moves spontaneously, directed

Ibid, er steered by the turning of a pin. -Peter of Yet no man to them can his careful paines compare.) Provence and the fair Magalona rode through Their beauty rivals all art: Not Solomon in all his the air on a wooden horse, which was directed glory was arrayed like one of these. by the turning of a pin. See Don Quixote,

XVI. Vol. i. B. iv. C. 22. and Vol. ii. B. iii. C. 8. C. 9. This illustrates the story in Chaucer, The' lilly lady of the flowring field—) Consider the where the king of Araby sent to Cambuscan a lillies of the field. This verse is a fine example horse of brass, which by turning of a pin, would of Spenser's favourite iteration of letters.

So travel wherever the rider pleased. Compare Shakespeare in King Henry VIII. calls the this wonderful bark, with that mentioned in lilly, the mistress of the field. The whole allusion Taffo, xv. 3. where the knights go on board a is manifeft, (Šee Matt. vi. 28.) and seems very strange vefsel steered by a Fairy.

elegantly brought in here, in this mock repreVider picciola nave, e in poppa quella,

sentation of tranquillity, to thew how the best Che guidar gli dovea, fatal donzella.

of sayings may be perverted to the worst of

meanings.
x,

XVII.
-Ne lowd-thundring Jove.) Jove, must be pro-
nounced lowe, for the rhime. See note on B.v. –That swimming in the main

Will die for thrift.]

Not in the main fea, but in XII.

some great river. The expression seems to have a

kind of catachresis.
It was a chosen plot of fertile land,

XVIII.
Emongst wille waves fet, LIKE A LITLE nest.)

This expression is litterally from Cicero de The flothful wave of that great griesy lake.] I have
Oratore, i. 44. Patriae tanta est vis ac tanta natura, printed it griefly lake from the 2d edition in quarto:
ut Ithacam illam in asperrimis faxulis, TANQUAM So St. 46. of this idle lake he says
NIDULUM, affixam sapientifimus vir immortalitati The waves hereof fo now and Nuggish were,
anteponeret,

Engroft with mud which did them fowle AGRISE.
XIII.
Trees, branches, &c.] Observe here a kind of Grifly

, Anglo-s.griplu comes from Agnýsan,
poetical beauty, which consists fometimes of terrere, horrere, inhorrefcere : to AGRISE. The
separating your images, and then bringing of very same blunder, viz. griefy for griefly has been
them together ; as in this stanza : sometimes, taken notice of already.
in bringing all your images together, and then

XIX.
separating them, as in B. ii. C. 12. St. 70.71.

Shee soone to HOND
XIV.

Her ferry brought.] None of the books have the
Where soone he Pumbered fearing not be harmed.] reading I looked for, which was,
Not fearing to be harmed. See note on B. i.

Shee foone to LOND
C. 1. St.
50.

Her ferry brought
VOL. II.

For

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C. 6. St. 32.

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2d quarto,

XX.

XXIX. For the flitt barke obaying to her mind-] So

And with importune outrage him affayld.] The again, B.ii. C. 2. St. 35.

Aud with importance outrage him asfayld. Lo, now the heavens obey to me alone. Wickliff, Rom. i. 30. not obeyinge to fadir This is apparently a blunder of the press. The and modir. Chaucer, Troilus and 'Crest. ii. 1490. folios, 1609, 1617. But godely gan to his prayere obeye.

And with important outrage him asfayld. And in the Legende of good women, ver. 90.

But importune is right, and signifies cruel, savage,

&c. as importunus in Latin. So above, imporThat as an harpe obeyith to the honde.

tune fate : fata importuna. Sydney's Arcadia, pag. 6o. To whom the other

Ibid. Jhould obey. See Dr. Bentley on Milton, i. 337. Wo Soone prepared to field.] i. e. to battle. Yet to their general's voice they foon obeyd.

Germ. teld, belluin. Acts vii. 39. To whom our fathers would not

Ibid. obey. Rom. vi. 16. His servants ye are, to And him with equall valew countervayld.] The whom ye obey.

2d edition, and folios, with equal value. In XXI.

Hughes, with equal valour. Spenser wrote value,

or in the old spelling valew. Menage, “ VALUE, And pase the bonds of modeft merimake.] So the

valeur, merite personnel. Marot, oft and ad Edit. in quarto. But the Folios have bounds which is better.

-Premier donc je salue

Tres-humblement ta hautelje et VALUE.
XXIII.

Ibid.
The sea is wide and easy for to firay.] And easy to
caule us to go astray.

Wo WORTH the man,

That first did teach the cursed feel to bight XXVI. And thewed ill.] Ill thewed, male moratus : with Sydney's Arcadia, pag. 316. How often have

In his own fiesh, and make way to the living spright.] ill thews or manners. Chaucer's expression.

I bleft the meanes that might bring mee neere thee? XXVII.

Now woe worthe the cause that brings me fa But marched to the Strond, their pasage to require.] neere thee. Chaucer, Troilus and Crefeide, ii. So the first and second editions in quarto : but 344. the Folios have it right,

Wo worthe the faire gemme that is vertulesse ; there passage to require.

Wo worthe that herbe also that doth no bote Just above, In Nothful peepe his molten hart to Wo worth the beaute that is routhelelje ; steme, i. e. to exhale, to evaporate, his melted

Wo worth that wight that trede eche undir fete. heart in flothful sleep.

And B. iv. ver. 763.
XXVIII.

Wo worth that daie, that thou me bare on live. Loe, loe alreadie how the fowles in aire

i. e. Curfed be that day, on which thou Doé flocke-] Spenser has plainly the scripture broughtest me forth. Somner, Þeorpan. in view, where the proud Philistine speaks to David, Come to me and I will give thy fiefh unto

elle, fore, redigi, fieri, to be, to beconie. Belgis,

werven, worden, woe worth the man, woe be to the fowles of the air, and to the beasts of the field,

the man. Ezek. 30. 2. Wo worth the day. The 1 Sam. xvii. 44. and perhaps too he used the

thought seems taken (as the author of the re

marks has likewise observed) from Tibullus, i. Loe, loe alreadie how the fowles of th' aireThis expression too is in other places, And thy Quis fuit horrendos primus qui protulit enses? carcaje shall be meat unto all the fowles of the Quam ferus et vere ferreus ille fuit! air, and unto the beasts of the earth, Deut. In these verses of Tibullus, the reader may xxviii. 26.

observe a kind of jingling play upon the words, αυτές δ' ελώρια τεϊχε κύνεσσιν, ,

ferus, ferreus, which Spenler often uses. ΟΙΩΝΟΙΣΙ τε ΠΑΣΙ. .

XXXIV. 5

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very words,

xi. I.

Hom. II. á. 5.

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