Sivut kuvina

he will lose the smartness of the reply. John- And Canto x. 20. fon, in the Alchemist.

aquila portar ne l'unghia torta

Suole, o colombo, o simile altro augello. He may make us both happy in an houre.

XXXVI. Hom. Il. a'68. érdeos páxapos xat ápspcv viri beati.

Some scumd the drosse-] Milton had his favourito 1. e. locupletis, per arvum. Schol. páropos, Spenser in his thoughts, when he described i πλασία,

Mammon and the rest of the hellish fiends emUt Nafidieni juvit te coena beati ?

ployed about the building of Pandæmonium. Hor. Sat. viii. Lib. 2.

See Par. L. i. 704. And hence I explain the epithet given to Sestius,

A second multitude, Hor. i. Od. 4. 6 beate Selti, meaning that he

With wondrous art, founded the masly ore, was rich, and in happy circumstances.

Severing each kind, and scumd the bullion dross. Satis beatus ( i. e. rich enough) unicis Sabinis. Founded, i. e, melted--the bullion-drofs, i.e. the

L. ii. Od. 18. drofly ore then melted in the furnace ; which Ibid.

Spenser calls the molten ore. Milton either mil

takes the word bullion, or with great poetical But I in armes

latitude, and abusively uses it for a melted mass; Do rather choose my flitting houres to spend, when 'tis always used for a consolidated mass. And to be lord of those that riches have,

See Billon, in Menage. But poets have a licence Then them to have myself and be their servile felave.] for using words catachrestically, as grammarians Cyrus told Craesus that he had his treasures too;

love to speak. for I make my friends rich (faid he) and reckon them both as treasures and guards. Xenoph. pag. 584. And every one did swincke, and every one did sweet, edit. Hutchinson : where the learned editor When Thetis came to Vulcan she found him mentions a like saying of Alexander, who being thus swincking and sweating, tò d'op" idqúortaasked where his treasures were : answered, Here, Il. ó'. 372. Compare Callim, in Dian. ver. 49. pointing to his friends. And Ptolomy the son of

&c. Virg. viii. 445, &c. Lagus, said, that it more became aking to make

XXXVII. others rich, than to be rich himself. See Plutarch's apothegms.

Their staring eyes sparkling with fervent fire.] Plato XXXIV.

de Repub. L. x. speaking of the infernal torMore light then culver in the faulcons fif.] Virg. et ignei aspectu.

mentors calls them, angios xj drámugar idin, feroces .

XL. Quàm facile accipiter saxo facer a les ab alto Confequitur pennis fublimem in nube columbam, He brought him through a darksome narrow strayt.) Comprensamq; tenet, pedibusq; eviscerat uncis. i. e. Street, Strata viarum.-The letters answer to

the rhime. The same kind of simile he has again, C. 8.

St. 50.
For as a bittur in the eagles clawe,

As if the highest God defy he would.] Spenser among

the faults escaped in the print, instead of the orThat may not hope by flight to scape alive

ders it should be that in pag. 283. of his quarto Still waytes for death

edition. We must therefore alter the into that Nec fegnius ardens

either in this verse, or in St. 42. Accurrit, niveo quàm flammiger ales olori

For nothing might abash the villein bold Imminet, et magnâ trepidum circumligat umbra.

Statius viii. 675 Non aliter quàm cum pedibus praedator obuncis

And the fierce carle commanding to forbeare. Depofuit nido leporem Jovis ales in alto :

Ibid. Nulla fuga eft capto : spectat fua praemia raptor. Ovid Met. vi. 516. And he himself was all of yron mould.) So the

unt . . In his right hand an eron Club he held,

ift Come casca dal ciel falcon maniero,

quarto, but other editions, golden mould. The Che levar veggia l'anitra, o'l colombo.

reader sees the reason of the context being corAriosto ii. 50. rupted.


xi. 721.

Or in St. 43.

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Disdayne he called was

to another lady; he does not say to whom : but

in his fhield he bears the head of the Fairy We have another monstrous giant of thc fame name in B. vi. C. 7. St. 44. Disdayn is a fairy queen.


knight introduced in Ariosto. xlii. 53. 64. who
frees Rinaldo from the monster Jealousy.

Not such as earth out of her fruitful womb.

Throwes forth to men Sterne was his look] So the old quarto, and But direful deadly black both leafe and bloom.] 'Tis right : δεινόν δερκόμενος. The 2d quarto and

not unlikely that Spenser imaged the direful deadly folio 1609. Stern e was to look : but altered in and black fruits, which this infernal garden the edition 1617, agreeable to the reading of bears, from a like garden, which Dante de

scribes, Infern. C. xiii. the first quarto, which I print from. XLIV.

Non frondi verdi, ma di color folio, And thereon fatt a woman-} This description per: Non pomi veran, ma

Non rami schietti, ma nodosi e 'nvolti,

Non pomi v'eran, ma ftecchi con toco. . haps our poet had from Joh. Secundus, in his poem called, Reginae Pecuniae regia.

This garden or grove is mentioned likewise in

Virgil Georg, iv. 467.
Regina in mediis magnae penetralilus aulae,
Aurea tota, sedet folio fublimis in aureo-

Taenarias etiam fauces, alta osia Ditis,
Haec eft illa, cui famulatur maximus orbis Et caligantem nigrå formidine lucum

[St. 48.) Ingrellus. Telluris magnae Plutique facerrima proles.

There mournful Cyprelje grew

[ St. 48. Cold Coloquintida and TETRA mad, This woman's name we have St. 49. Spenser Mortal SAMNITIS, and Cicuta bad, loves for a while to keep his readers in doubt. Which with th' unjust Atheniens made to dy

Wise Socrates, WHO THEREOF quating glad XLVI.

Pour’d out his life and last philosophy That was ambition, ras desire to fly.) That chain

To the faire Critias his dearest belamy. imaged ambition, a rash delire of mounting higher. Spenser often omits the particle a. TetrA i. e. tetrum solanum, deadly nightThe reader will find all the old words explained fhade. or rather Tetragonia, a name for the in the Glossary

Euonymus, which bears a fruit of poisonous XLVII. quality. MorTAL SAMNITIS, he means, I

, I

believe, the Savine-tree, arbor SABINA : and Those that were low themselves held others hard,

calls it mortal, because it procures abortion. Ne suffred them to rise or greater grow.) Hor. L. i. The Samnites and Sabines being neighbour S. I. III.

nations, he uses them promiscuously, according Hunc atque hunc superare laboret ? to the licence of poetry, as is more particularly Sic festinanti semper locupletior obflat.

mentioned in a note on B. ii. C. 9. St. 21. This XLIX.

passage gave me a deal of trouble : and I conAnd fayre Philotime the rightly hight] Çoxotipuíce. I sulted every botanist, I could think of, whether had rather the poet had given it,



such plant or tree, as the Samnitis;

but could not get the least information or hint And Philotime fayre

about it. Upon considering Spenser's manner But he too often, like the ancient English poets, of confounding neighbour nations and countries, breaks through all rules of quantity in his and his manner likewise of altering proper names, proper names.

I am fixed myself, with respect to my rightly L.

interpreting this place : but leave it however to

the reader's further examination and jugdBut I that am frail flesh and earthly wight-) Perhaps he wrote thus,

And Cicuta bad,
But I that am fraile flesh, an earthly wight,
Unworthy match for such immortal mate

IVhich with th' unjus Atheniens made to dy
Myself will wotem

Wise Socrates, who thereof guaffing glad

Poured out his life, and last philosophy
Sir Guyon excuses himself with irony and good To the fayre Critias his deareft belamy.
humour. He says too that his love is avowed
Vol. II.






Ibid. 42.

vi. 136.

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This paslage I criticized upon in a letter to Mr. Cicero joins these two philosophers together,
Weft concerning a new edition of Spenser : I as both unjustly put to death, and hoth after
there said, that which-with, was used according the same manner : Vadit in eundem carcerem
to the Latin Idiom, quacum : but as Spenser atque in eundem paucis poft annis Scyphum So-
never writes in this manner any where else, I CRATES ; eodem fcelere judicum, quo tyrannorum,
somewhat now question, whether 'tis not the Theramenes. "Cic. Tuf. Disp. i. 46. fed quid
printer's idiom; and thus the error resembling ego Socratem aut THERAMENEM, praestantes
truth, may easily impose upon us. But there viros virtutis et fapientiae gloriâ commemero ?
are yet more corruptions gotten into the con-
text: no school-boy is ignorant of the death of

Socrates ; I shall therefore make no citations

The gardin of Proserpina this hight.] This is
on this subject, so well known already. The

taken from Claudian, where Pluto comforts
Athenians usually put to death their state cri-
minals with poison mixed with the cold juice Proserpina, Lib. ii. 290. Compare Virg.

of hemlock, which mixture they called xuvenoj,
Cicuta, because that was the chief ingredient Eft etiam lucis arbor praedives opacis,
in this mixture : so Socrates and Theramenes Fulgentes viridi ramos curvata metallo;
were put to death.

Haec tibi facra datur ; fortunatamque tenebis
And Cicuta bad,

Autumnum, et fulvis femper ditabere pomis.
With which th' unjust Atheniens made to dy

This is the tree whose branches bear golden
Wife Socrates ; and him, who quaffing glad

Pourd out his life and last philosophy

Their fruit were golden apples glifiring bright,
To the faire Critias his deares belamy.

That goodly was their glory to behold;
Thus all is easy, and the corruption easily ac-

On earth like never grew, ne living wight
counted for, by supposing a blotted copy sent

Like ever saw, but they from hence were soLD; to the printer : Socrates was put to death by

For those, which Hercules with conquest bold drinking the juice of the Cicuta; fo Plato and Got from great Atlas daughters, hence began, Xenophon tell us ; and Xenophon likewise

And planted There did bring forth fruit of gold, tells us very particularly how Theramenes was He says, No creature ever saw the like golden thus put to death, Eainu. Isop. B.6. 6'. The

fruit on earth, unless they were sold from
ramenes was a Philofoper, and an admirer of this garden :- with a little variation I would

Critias; who afterwards becoming one of the read STOLD,
thirty tyrants that harrassed the Athenian state, he
was deservedly resisted by Theramenes ; which

- but they from hence were STOLD.
Critias could not bear : fo he prosecuted him, i. e. procured by stealth. He goes on and says,
and unjustly had him put to death: when that the Hesperian apples, which Hercules with
Theramenes drank the poison ; what was left bold conquest gain'd, originally came from this
at the bottom of the cup he fung out (after the garden of Proserpina, and being THERE planted,
manner of the sport they formerly used, called there, viz. where the daughters of Atlas

Cottabus) calling upon by name his once lived) did bring forth fruit of gold.—This is

deareft, and now deadliest BeLAMY : (observe by the construction: the story is, that the daugh-

the bye Spenser's word deareft, which takes in ters of Hesperus, the brother of Atlas, had
both significations : see Critical Observations on orchards in the southern parts of Africa, which
Shakespeare, pag. 327:) Kår izi ye áno Jrhoxeir produced apples of gold. Spenser calls them

, . αποθνήσκειν
αναγκαζόμενος το κώνειον έπιε, το λειπόμενον έφασαν daughters of Atlas ; and he has the authority

αποκοτιαβισαντα ειπέιν αυτόν, Κριτία τύτ' έτω τα καλώ. of Servius, whose commentary on Virg. iv.
Tandem quum mortem obire cogeretur Theramenes, 484, the reader (if he pleases) may consult
e cicutam biberet; proditum eft, id, quod reliquum at his leisure.

Ovid tells us, that Perseus
erat in poculo, fic ipsum ejecisë, ut refonaret, fimulque visited Atlas, who had trees with branches
dixife, Hoc pulcro illi Critiae propinatum efto. This of gold, that bore golden fruit; but fearing
Spenser calls pouring out his life and las philosophy the fulllling of an oracle, which foretold that
10 the fair Critias his dearest belamy. The fame a son of Jupiter should rob him of his precious
story is told by Valerius Maximus, and by fruit, he fortified his orchards with strong en-
Cicero, Tusc. Disput. i. 40. In confirmation closures, and set a watchful dragon to guard
of this ealy correction, let me observe, that them.



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Virg. Ecl.

Arborcae frondes, auro radiante virentes,

Hippomenes won the race and his mistress Ex auro ramos, ex auro poma tegebant.

Atalanta, through craft, by throwing a golden -Solidis pomaria clauserat Atlas

apple at her feet (three of which fort were Maenibus, et vasto dederat fervanda draconi. given for this intent by Venus) whenever she

Ov. Met. iv. 636. was likely to get the start of him. Hippomenes

was of Onchestos, a city of Boeotia, so he As nothing is more perplex aad contradictory than ancient mythology, fo 'tis no wonder that says of himself

so this fabulous story should be fo variously related Namque mihi genitor Megarcus Onchestius by various mythologists and poets. If the rea

Ov. Met. x. 605. der has a mind to exercise his critical skill in

He is called likewise Aonius Juvenis, Ibid. 589. reconciling, or correcting authors, he may Eubea is an island near Boeotia ; some say confult the Schol. on Statius, ii. 281. Apol- formerly joined to it, but afterwards by inunlodorus, Hyginus, Fulgentius, & Hef. Otoy. ver. dations and earthquakes rent from it, as Sicily 215. See too Salmas. Plin. exercit. p. 372, was from Italy. But Spenser confounds neigh373. I could wish that the reader would con- bour countries and nations, as I mentioned above. sult the two engravings in Spanh. de Usu et

The reader may see the story in Ovid, Met. x. Præft. Numismatum : the one of Hercules Fab. xi. where Venus says she gave Hippoattacking the serpent; the other, when he has

manes three golden apples gathered from her conquered it. This ferpent was named Lado, golden tree in her garden of Cyprus. Virgil according to Apollonius, iv. 1396.

says the apples were gathered from the gardens

of the Hesperides, ξον δ' ιερόν πέδον, ώ ένι Λάδων Εισέτι πε χθιζόν παγχρύσεα γύετο μήλα

Tum canit Hesperidum miratam mala puellam. Χώρω έν "Ατλαντος, χθόνιος όφις: αμφί δε νύμφαι 'Εσπερίδες πόιπννον, εφήμερον αέιδεσαι.

Compare Theocrit. Idyll. iii. 40. Pervenere autem facrum campum, in quo Lado Here also sprung that goodly golden fruit Ad hefternam ufque diem aurca custodiebat mala With which Acontius got his lover trew, In regione Atlantis, terreftris ferpens ; circum autem Whom he had long time fought with fruitlesse fuit.

nymphae Hesperides adminiftrabant, fuaviter canentes.

Observe here a playing with sound, a jingling

pun; which Spenfer is not so delicately nice as 'Tis not to be supposed that Milton in his Pa- to avoid, when it comes fairly in his way, radise Loft should forget this story, so applica- Here fprung that golden FRUIT with which Acontius ble to his own poem, considering too his fond- got Cydippe, whom long time he fought with FRUITness for introducing mythological tales : LESSE Juit. As bad as this pun may appear,

the great Milton borrowed it, ix. 647. Others, whose fruit burnijnd with golden rind Hung amiable (Hesperian fables true,

Serpent, we might have spar'd our coming hither If true, here only) and of delicious taste.

Fruitless to me, though fruit be here to excess. Milton likewise in his Mask alludes to this

But 'twas not with an apple of gold, that Aconftory, and seems to have translated Apollonius, mythology; which he often varies and changes

tius got his lover trew : this seems our poet's own as cited above.

just as he pleases. The whole story of the All amidst the gardens fair

loves of Acontius and Cydippe, may be seen, Of Hesperus and his daughters three

elegantly told, in the Epistles of Ariftænetus That sing about the golden tree.

(as they are named) Lib. i. Epift. x. where the Might not all this wonderful tale be easily apple is called, xudúvtor uñrov, malum Cydonium, accounted for, if we suppose this Hesperus, or i. e. an orange, citron, or quince: but this Atlas, to have had three fair daughters, and apple is there faid to be gathered from the fine groves

of oranges (aurea mala) and to have gardens of Venus. Tlie inscription written guai ded them all very strictly ?

upon the apple was, MA THN APTEMIN AKON.

TINI TAMOYMAI. Cydippe took up the apple, And those, with which thEuboean young man wan

and reading, she swore the would marry AconSwift Atalanta, when through craft he her out-ran.

tius, without knowing the thus swore, being And those golden apples likewise hence began, unwaringly betray'd by this ambiguous inscripviz, from the garden of Proserpina, with which tion.

Ооо 2


Postmodo nescio quâ venisse volubile malum

eris aliquando dignus convira deorum. Virgil too Verba ferens DUBIIS insidiosa notis.

has the same allusion, Ecl. iv. 63.
Epist. Heroid. xx. 209.

Cui non risere parentes
So I would read, and not Doctis, nor DUCTIS. Nec deus hunc menfa, dea nec dignata cubili.
Here eke that famous golden apple grew,

That Tantalus was admitted to the banquet
The which emongst the gods false Ate threw. - of Jupiter, we have the testimony of Euri-
Jupiter ('tis faid) invited all the gods and god- pides, in Orest. ver. 4.
delles to banquet at the wedding of Peleus and Ο γαρ μακάριος, κέκ ονειδίζω τύχας
Thetis, excepting only the mifchievous goddefs Διός πεφυκώς, ώς λέγεσι, Τάνταλος
Discord, [Hygin. xcii. Exceptâ Eride, id est, Kopuçõis útéptándorta despre vw witpor
Discordia. See too Servius, Virg. i. 31.] who Aépo notă Tæi, rj given távinu dienu,
being angry at this negleit, threw a golden ΚΟΙΝΗΣ ΤΡΑΠΕΖΗΣ ΑΞΙΩΜ' ΕΧΩΝ ΙΣΟΝ,

Ως μεν λέγεσιν, ότι ΘΕΟΙΣ άνθρωπος ών apple among the goddesles with this inscription, Axónason isxe giãocar, esoxisny vóoor. Let it be given to the fairet : Juno, Minerva and Venus, all claimed this goiden prize : and Nam ille beatus (nec ci fortunam exprobro) Ex Paris was chosen to determine the dispute, Jove natus, ut aiunt, Tantalus Timens Jaxum quod who was then a thepherd on mount Ida : and fupra caput ejus imminet Pendet in aëre, et iftam because these three goddesses met on mount pænam luit, Ut dicunt quidem, quod diis, cum esset Ida, the poet calls them the Idaean ladies. Com- mortalis, Communi menfa dignatus Effraenem

B. iv. C. 1. St. 19 and 22. pare

habuit linguam, turpissimum morbum. See like

wise the Schol. on Hom. Od. a'. 581. Let me LVII.

add Ov. Met. vi. 173. Saw many damned wights

mihi Tantalus auctor In those fad waves, which direfull deadly flancke, Plonged continually of cruell sprights.] He says, fad Cui licuit soli, superorum tangere menfas. waves, alluding to the etymology of Cocytus : Instead of Soli, I read soLITAS: the librarian Cocytus, namd of lamentation loud

omitted the three last letters : Solitas mensas : Heard on the rueful stream.

Milt. ii.



many mortals were admitted to the banThe construction is, He faw many damned crea

quets of the gods ; 'twas no unusual thing.

How easy now does the emendation offer tures continually plunged by cruel sprights in those itself? sad waves, which stank deadly -- of is a preposition. And this kind of synchysis is frequently Lo Tantalus I here tormented lye used by Spenser. Perhaps in saying these waves WHO OF HIGH Jove wont whylome feafted bee. ftank so direful deadly, he alludes to the ancient Let me add in confirmation of this emendation, vulgar opinion concerning the state of the the Greek epigram, Antholog. p. 307. uninitiated, that they lie is Copców in caeno. See Plato's Phaedo, Sect. 13. And Aristophanes, 'Outos o pio parc zooi ovvistos, ötes ó modus

“Ουτος ο πρίν μακάρεσσι , έτος και νηδύν who writ bis Frogs, to ridicule the ceremonies

ΠΟΛΛΑΚΙ νεκταρία πλησάμενος πόματος,

Νυν λιβάδος θνητης ιμέιρεται η φθονερή δε and notions of these mysteries, has the same

Κράσις αει χέιλευς έσι ταπεινοτέρη.
ůso isi

expression, ver. 145.
Είτα ΒΟΡΒΟΡΟΝ πολών,

Hic Tantalus quondam beatorum conviva ; hic qui Και σκωρ άει νων εν δε τέτω κειμένες

ventrem SAEPE nectareo impleverat potu, jam guttam

mortalem defiderat : nam invidus humor semper labio LIX.

eft inferior. – Jupiter and the rest of the gods L. Tantalus I here tormented lye,

once were feasted by Tantalus, who cut in pieces Of whom high fove wont whylome feafted be.] his son Pelops, and served him up as a choice "Tis not improbable but this reading was owing dish. See Servius, Virg. Georg. iii. 7. If Spenser to the copy being blotted ; Jupiter admitted alluded to this story, he would not have said, Tantalus to the banquets of the immortals : for great and good men (till known to be other- of whom high Jove wont whylome feasted be. wise) were said to be often admitted to feaft Some say, for this im pious feast and murder of with the gods; fo Peleus, Hercules, &c. and his own son, that he was punished in hell. likewise Ixion and Tantalus, while they pre- But Spenser does not allude to this story at all, served their characters. Hence Epictetus says but to another, which is, that being admitted [Ench. xv.] ion wote ärživos Two Si wo oup.trótus, to the feast of the gods, he betrayed the hea

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