Sivut kuvina


he will lose the smartness of the reply. John

And Canto x. 20. son, in the Alchemist.

Ol'aquila portar ne l'unghia torta

Suole, o colombo, o simile altro augello. He may make us both happy in an houre.

XXXVI. Hom. Il. a' 68. árgeàs páxapos xat’äpapur viri beati.

Some scumd the drosse-] Milton had his favourito 1. e. locupletis, per arvum. Schol. páx.cpos, Spenser in his thoughts, when he described πλασία, ,

Mammon and the rest of the hellish fiends emUt Nasidieni juvit te coena beati ?

ployed about the building of Pandæmonium.

Hor. Sat. viii. Lib. 2. See Par. L. i. 704. And hence I explain the epithet given to Seftius,

A fecond multitude, Hor. i. Od. 4. beate Sesti

, meaning that he With wondrous art, founded the masly ore,
was rich, and in happy circumstances. Severing each kind, and scumd the bullion drofs.
Satis beatus ( i. e. rich enough) unicis Sabinis. Founded, i. e, melted--the bullion-dross, i. e. the

L. i. Od. 18. drofly ore then melted in the furnace; which

Spenser calls the molten ore. Milton either mil

takes the word bullion, or with great poetical But I in armes

latitude, and abusively uses it for a melted mass; Do rather choose my fitting houres to spend,

when 'tis always used for a consolidated mass. And to be lord of those that riches have, Then them to have myself and be their servile sclave.] for using words catachrestically, as grammarians

See Billon, in Menage. But poets have a licence Cyrus told Craesus that he had his treasures too;

love to speak. for I make my friends rich (faid he) and reckon them both as treasures and guards. Xenoph. pag. 584.

And every one did swincke, and every one did sweet, edit. Hutchinson : where the learned editor

When Thetis came to Vulcan she found him mentions a like saying of Alexander, who being thus fwincking and sweating, tòy d' epidéostaasked where his treasures were : answered, Here, Il

. o'. 372. Compare Callim. in Dian. ver. 49. pointing to his friends. And Ptolomy the son of &c. Virg. viii.

&c. Virg. viii. 445, &c. Lagus, said, that it more became aking to make

others rich, than to be rich himself. See Plutarch's

Their staring eyes sparkling with fervent fire.] Plato

de Repub. L. x. speaking of the infernal torMore light then culver in the faulcons ff.] Virg. et ignei aspectu.

mentors calls them, άγριοι και διάπυροι ιδειν, feroces

Quàm facile accipiter saxo facer a les ab alto
Consequitur pennis fublimem in nube columbam, He brought him through a darksome narrow strayt.)
Comprensamq; tenet, pedibusq; eviscerat uncis.

i. e. Street,Strata viarum. -The letters answer to

the rhime, The same kind of simile he has again, C. 8.


As if the higher God defy he would.] Spenser among
For as a bittur in the eagles clawe,
That may not hope by flight to fcape alive

the faults escaped in the print, instead of the or

ders it should be that in pag. 283. of his quarto Still waytes for death

edition. We must therefore alter the into that Nec segnius ardens

either in this verse, or in St. 42. Accurrit, niveo quàm flammiger ales olori

For nothing might abash the villein bold Imminet, et magnâ trepidum circumligat umbra.

Statius viii. 675. Non aliter quàm cum pedibus praedator obuncis

And the fierce carle commanding to forbeare. Deposuit nido leporem Jovis ales in alto :

Ibid. Nulla fuga eft capto : spectat fua praemia raptor.

Ovid Met. vi. 516. In his right hand an yron Club he held,

And he himself was all of YRON mould.] So the ift Come casca dal ciel falcon maniero,

quarto, but other editions, golden mould. The Che levar veggia l'anitra, o'l colombo.

reader fees the reason of the context being corAriosto ii. 50. rupted.


xi. 721.

St. 50.

Or in St. 43.

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Canto VII.

465 Difdayne he called was

to another lady; he does not say to whom : but
We have
another monstrous giant of the same in his shield he bears the head of the Fairy

name in B. vi. C. 7. St. 44. Dildayn is a fairy
knight introduced in Ariosto. xlii. 53. 64. who

frees Rinaldo from the monster Jealousy. Not such as earth out of her fruitful womb

Throwes forth to men
Sterne was his look-] So the old quarto, and

But direful deadly black both leafe and bloom.] 'Tis right : deurdy dipróueros. The 2d quarto and not unlikely that Spenser imaged the direful dendly folio 1609. Stern e was to look : but altered in and black fruits, which this infernal garden the edition 1617, agreeable to the reading of bears, from a like garden, which Dante de

scribes, Infern. C. xiii.
the first quarto, which I print from.

Non frondi verdi, ma di color fosio,
And thereon fatt a woman-) This description per-

Non rami schietti, ma nodosi e nvolti,

Non pomi v'eran, ma stecchi con tosco.
haps our poet had from Joh. Secundus, in his
poem called, Regince Pecuniae regia.

This garden or grove is mentioned likewise in

Virgil Georg, iv. 467.
Regina in mediis magnae penetralil us aulae,
Aurea tota, sedet folio sublimis in aureo-

Taenarias etiam fauces, alta osia Ditis,
Haec eft illa, cui famulatur maximus orbis Et caligantem nigrâ formidine lucum

[St. 48.] Ingresus.
Telluris magnae Plutique facerrima proles.

There mournful Cyprese grew

[ St. 48. Cold Coloquintida and TETRA mad,
This woman's name we have St. 49. Spenser Mortal SAMnitis, and Cicuta bad,
loves for a while to keep his readers in doubt. IVhich with th' unjust Atheniens made to dy

Wife Socrates, WHO THEREOF quaffing glad

Pour'd out his life and last philosophy
That was ambition, rash desire to fly.] That chain

To the faire Critias his dearest belamy.
imaged ambition, a rash desire of mounting
higher. Spenser often omits the particle a. Tetra i. e. tetrum folanum, deadly night-
The reader will find all the old words explained thade. or rather Tetragonia, a name for the
in the Glossary

Euonymus, which bears a fruit of poisonous

quality. MORTAL SAMNITIS, he means, I XLVII.

believe, the Savine-tree, arbor SABINA : and Those that were low themselves held others hard, calls it mortal, because it procures abortion. Ne suffred them to rise or greater grow.] Hor. L. i. The Samnites and SABINES being neighbour S. 1. III.

nations, he uses them promiscuously, according Hunc atque hunc fuperare laboret?

to the licence of poetry, as is more particularly Sic festinanti semper locupletior obftat.

mentioned in a note on B. ii. C. 9. St. 21. This XLIX.

passage gave me a deal of troublé : and I conAnd fayre Philotime she rightly hight] Qizotipuíce. I sulted every botanist, I could think of, whether had rather the poet had given it,

there was any such plant or tree, as the Samnitis;

but could not get the least information or hint And Philotime fayre

about it. Upon considering Spenser's manner But he too often, like the ancient English poets, of confounding neighbour nations and countries, breaks through all rules of quantity in his and his manner likewise ofaltering proper names, proper names.

I am fixed myself, with respect to my rightly L.

interpreting this place : but leave it however to

the reader's further examination and jugdBut I that am frail flesh and earthly wight-) Per

haps he wrote thus,

And Cicuta bad,
But I that am fraile flesh, an earthly wight,

IVhich with th' unjust Atheniens made to dy
Unworthy match for such immortal mate
Myself will wote-

Wife Socrates, who thereof guaffing glad

Poured out his life, and last philosophy
Sir Guyon excuses himself with irony and good To the fayre Critias his dearest belamy.
humour. He says too that his love is avowed



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Ibid. 42.

vi. 136.

This passage I criticized upon in a letter to Mr. Cicero joins these two philosophers together,
Weft concerning a new edition of Spenser : I as both unjustly put to death, and hoth after
there said, that which-with, was used according the same manner : Vadit in eundem carcerem
to the Latin Idiom, quacum : but as Spenser atque in eundem paucis poft annis fcyphum So-
never writes in this manner any where else, I CRATES ; eodem fcelere judicum, quo tyrannorum,
somewhat now question, whether 'tis not the Theramenes. Cic. Tuf. Disp. i. 46. sed quid
printer's idiom; and thus the error resembling ego Socratem aut THERAMENEM, praeftantes
truth, may easily impose upon us. But there viros virtutis et sapientiae gloriâ commemero?
are yet more corruptions gotten into the con-
text: no school-boy is ignorant of the death of

Socrates ; I shall therefore make no citations

The gardin of Proserpina this hight.] This is on this subject, so well known already. The

taken from Claudian, where Pluto comforts
Athenians usually put to death their state cri-
minals with poison mixed with the cold juice Proserpina, Lib. ii. 290. Compare Virg.
of hemlock, which mixture they called xMVELOP,
Cicuta, because that was the chief ingredient Ef etiam lucis arbor praedives opacis,
in this mixture : so Socrates and Theramenes Fulgentes viridi ramos curvata metallo ;
were put to death.

Haec tibi facra datur ; fortunatamque tenebis
And Cicuta bad,

Autumnum, et fulvis semper ditabere pomis.
With which th' unjust Atheniens made to dy

This is the tree whose branches bear golden Wife Socrates ; and him, who quaffing glad

fruit. Pourd out his life and last philosophy

Their fruit were golden apples gliftring bright, To the faire Critias his dearefl belamy.

That goodly was their glory to behold; Thus all is easy, and the corruption easily ac

On earth like never grew, ne living wight counted for, by supposing a blotted copy fent

Like ever saw, but they from hence were soLD; to the printer : Socrates was put to death by

For those, which Hercules with conquest bold drinking the juice of the Cicuta; fo Plato and Got from great Atlas daughters, hence began, Xenophon tell us ; and Xenophon likewise

And planted There did bring forth fruit of gold, tells us very particularly how Theramenes was

He says, No creature ever saw the like golden thus put to death, Eran. Isop. B.C. 6. The

fruit on earth, unless they were sold from ramenes was a Philofoper, and an admirer of this garden :- with a little variation I would Critias ; who afterwards becoming one of the read STOLD, thirty tyrants that harrassed the Athenian state, he was deservedly resisted by Theramenes ; which

but they from hence were STOLD. Critias could not bear : so he prosecuted him, i. e. procured by stealth. He goes on and says, and unjustly had him put to death: when that the Hesperian apples, which Hercules with Theramenes drank the poison ; what was left bold conquest gain'd, originally came from this at the bottom of the cup he flung out (after the garden of Proserpina, and being THERE planted, manner of the sport they formerly used, called (there, viz. where the daughters of Atlas Cottabus), calling upon by name his once lived) did bring forth fruit of gold. This is dearest, and now deadlief BelAMY : (observe by the construction: the story is, that the daughthe bye Spenser's word dearest, which takes in ters of Hesperus, the brother of Atlas, had both significations : see Critical Observations on orchards in the southern parts of Africa, which Shakespeare, pag. 327:) Kdo inés ye emo drhoxe produced apples of gold. Spenser calls them αναγκαζόμενος το κώνειον έπνε, το λειπόμενον έφασαν daughters of Atlas ; and he has the authority atroroticbio OUTC limivv UTÒY, Kgoriæ röt' isw tớ xade of Servius, whose commentary on Virg. iv. Tandem quum mortem obire cogeretur Theramenes, 484, the reader (if he pleases) may consult et cicutam biberet; proditum eft, id, quod reliquum at his leisure. Ovid tells us, that Perseus erat in poculo, fic ipsum ejecisë, ut refonaret, fimulque visited Atlas, who had trees with branches dixille, Hoc pulcro illi Critiae propinatum efto. This of gold, that bore golden fruit; but fearing Spenser calls pouring out his life and las philosophy the fulfilling of an oracle, which foretold that to the fair Critias his deareft belamy. The same a son of Jupiter should rob him of his precious ftory is told by Valerius Maximus, and by fruit, he fortified his orchards with strong enCicero, Tusc. Difput. i. 40. In confirmation

In confirmation closures, and set a watchful dragon to guard of this ealy correction, let me observe, that them.


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Virg. Ecl.

Arborcae frondes, auro radiante virentes,

Hippomenes won the race and his mistress Ex auro ramos, ex auro poma tegebant.

Atalanta, through craft, by throwing a golden -Solidis pomaria clauferat Atlas

apple at her feet (three of which fort were Maenibus, et vasto dederat fervanda draconi. given for this intent by Venus) whenever she

Ov. Met. iv. 636. was likely to get the start of him. Hippomenes

was of Onchestos, a city of Boeotia, so he As nothing is more perplex aad contradictory than ancient mythology, fo 'tis no wonder that says of himself this fabulous story should be so variously related Namque mihi genitor Megareus Onchestiusby various mythologists and poets. If the rea

Ov. Met. x. 605. der has a mind to exercise his critical skill in He is called likewise Aonius Juvenis, Ibid. 589. reconciling, or correcting, authors, he may Eubea is an island near Boeotia ; some say consult the Schol. on Statius, ii. 281. Apol- formerly joined to it

, but afterwards by inunlodorus, Hyginus, Fulgentius, & Hef. Osoy. ver. dations and earthquakes rent from it, as Sicily 215. See too Salmaf. Plin. exercit. p. 372, was from Italy. But Spenser confounds neigh373. I could wish that the reader would con

bour countries and nations, as I mentioned above. fult the two engravings in Spanh. de Usu et The reader may see the story in Ovid, Met. x. Præst. Numismatum : the one of Hercules Fab. xi. where Venus says she gave Hippoattacking the serpent; the other, when he has

manes three golden apples gathered from her conquered it. This ferpent was named Lado, golden tree in her garden of Cyprus. Virgil according to Apollonius, iv. 1396.

says the apples were gathered from the gardens

of the Hesperides,
For dispór zidov, in nádwy
Εισέτι πε χθιζόν παγχρύσεα ρύετο μήλα

Tum canit Hesperidum miratam mala puellam.
Χώρω εν "Ατλαντος, χθόνιος όφις αμφί δε νύμφαι
'Εσπερίδες πόιπνυον, εφήμερον αέιδεσαι.

Compare Theocrit. Idyll. iii. 40.
Pervenere autem facrum campum, in quo Lado Here also sprung that goodly golden fruit
Ad hefternam ufque diem aurea custodiebat mala

With which Acontius got his lover trew,
In regione Atlantis, terrestris serpens ; circum autem Whom he had long time fought with fruitlesse suit.

Hesperides adminiftrabant, fuaviter canentes.

Observe here a playing with sound, a jingling

pun; which Spenser is not so delicately nice as 'Tis not to be supposed that Milton in his Pa to avoid, when it comes fairly in his way, radise Lost Mould forget this story, so applica- Here sprung that golden FRUIT with which Acontius ble to his own poem, considering too his fond- got Cydippe, whom long time he sought with FRUITness for introducing mythological tales : LESSE fuit. As bad as this pun may appear,

the great Milton borrowed it, ix. 647.
Others, whole fruit burnijnd with golden rind
Hung amiable (Hesperian fables true,

Serpent, we might have spar'd our coming hither
If true, here only) and of delicious taste.

Fruitless to me, though fruit be here to excess. Milton likewise in his Mask alludes to this

But 'twas not with an apple of gold, that Aconstory, and seems to have translated Apollonius, mythology; which he often varies and changes

tius got his lover trew : this seems our poet's own as cited above.

just as he pleases. The whole story of the All amid the gardens fair

loves of Acontius and Cydippe, may be seen, Of Hesperus and his daughters three

elegantly told, in the Epistles of Aristænetus That sing about the golden tree.

(as they are named) Lib. i. Epist. x. where the Might not all this wonderful tale be eafily apple is called, rudinov uñaov, malum Cydonium, accounted for, if we suppose this Hesperus, or i. e. an orange, citron, or quince: but this Atlas, to have had three fair daughters, and apple is there said to be gathered from the fine groves of oranges (aurea mala) and to have gardens of Venus. The inscription written guarded them all very strictly ?

upon the apple was, MA THN APTEMIN AKON. And those, with which th' Euboean young man wan

TINI TAMOYMAI. Cydippe took up the apple,

and reading, the fwore the would marry AconSwift Atalanta, when through craft he her out-ran.

tius, without knowing she thus swore, being And those golden apples likewise bence began, unwaringly betray'd by this ambiguous inscripviz. from the garden of Proserpina, with which tion.

Ooo 2



Poftmodo nefcio quà venisse volubile malum

eris aliquando dignus conviva deorum. Virgil too Verba ferens DUBIIS insidiosa notis.

has the same allusion, Ecl. iv. 63.
Epist. Heroid. xx. 209.

Gui non risere parentes
So I would read, and not Doctis, nor DUCTIS. Nec deus hunc menså, dea nec dignata cubili.
Here eke that famous golden apple grew,

That Tantalus was admitted to the banquet
The which emongst the gods false Ate threrv.

of Jupiter, we have the testimony of EuriJupiter ('tis faid) invited all the gods and god- pides, in Orest. ver. 4. desles to banquet at the wedding of Peleus and Ο γαρ μακάριος, κέκ ονειδίζω τύχας Thetis, excepting only the mischievous goddess Διός πεφυκώς, ώς λέγεσι, Τάνταλος DISCORD, (Hygin. xcii. Exceptâ Eride, id eft, Kopuenis otipráadoria desuesve nispor Discordia. See too Servius, Virg. i. 31.] whó Aips Fotātei, rytívet távrno dienu, being angry at this neglect, threw a golden KOINHE TPATIEZHE AZINM' EXNN ISON,

Ως μεν λέγεσιν, ότι ΘΕΟΙΣ άνθρωπος ών apple among the goddeftes with this infcription, Ακόλαςον έσχε γλώσσαν

, αισχίνην νόσον. Let it be given to the fairelt: Juno, Minerva and Venus, all claimed this goiden prize : and Nam ille beatus (nec ei fortunam exprobro) Ex Paris was chosen to determine the dispute, Jove natus, ut aiunt, Tantalus Timens faxum quod who was then a thepherd on mount Ida : and fupra caput ejus imminet Pendet in aëre, et iftam because these three goddesses met on mount

pænam luit, Ut dicunt quidem, quod diis, cum esset Ida, the poet calls them the Idacan ladies. Com- mortalis, Communi menfa dignatus Effraenem

B. iv. C. 1. St. 19 and 22. pare

habuit linguam, turpissimum morbum. See like.

wise the Schol. on Hom. Od. n. 581. Let me LVII.

add Ov. Met. vi. 173. Saw many damned wights

mibi Tantalus auctor In those fad waves, which direfull deadly fancke, Plonged continually of cruell sprights.] He says, sad Cui licuit soli, superorum tangere menfas. waves, alluding to the etymology of Cocytus : Instead of SOLI, I read SOLITAS: the librarian Cocytus, namd of lamentation loud

omitted the three last letters : Solitas menjas : Heard on the rueful stream.


many mortals were admitted to the bay

quets of the gods ; 'twas no unusual thing. The construction is, He saw many damned creatures continually plunged by cruel Sprights in those How, eafy now does the emendation offer sad waves, which fank deadly of is a preposition. And this kind of synchysis is frequently Lo Tantalus I here tormented lye used by Spenser. Perhaps in saying these waves WHO OF HIGH Jove wont whylome feafted bee. ftank to direful deadly, he alludes to the ancient Let me add in confirmation of this emendation, vulgar opinion concerning the state of the the Greek epigram, Antholog. p. 307. uninitiated, that they lie in Corow in caeno. See Oures i reiz pariziosi cuvísuos, šros o medio Plato's Phaedo, Sect. 13. And Aristophanes, who writ his Frogs, to ridicule the ceremonies

ΠΟΛΛΑΚΙ νεκταρία πλησάμενος πόματος,

Νυν λιβάδος θνητής ιμέιρεται η φθονερή δε and notions of these mysteries, has the same

Κράσις αει χέιλευς έσι ταπεινοτέρη. expression, ver. 145. Είτα ΒΟΡΒΟΡΟΝ πολύ», ,

Hic Tantalus quondam beatorum conviva ; hic qui Και σκωρ αει νών εν δε τέτω κειμένες

ventrem SAEPE nectareo impleverat potu, jam guttam

mortalem defiderat : nam invidus humor semper labio LIX.

eft inferior. – Jupiter and the rest of the gods L. Tantalus I here tormented lye,

once were feasted by Tantalus, who cut in pieces Of whom high fove wont whylome feasted be.] his fon Pelops, and served him up as a choice "Tis not improbable but this reading was owing dish. See Servius, Virg. Georg. iii. 7. If Spenser to the copy being blotted ; Jupiter admitted alluded to this story, he would not have said, Tantalus to the banquets of the immortals : for great and good men (till known to be other Of whom high fove wont whylome feafted be. wise) were said to be often admitted to feaft Some say, for this im pious feast and murder of with the gods; so Peleus, Hercules, &c. and his own son, that he was punished in hell. likewise Ixion and Tantalus, while they pre- But Spenser does not allude to this story at all, served their characters. Hence Epictetus says but to another, which is, that being admitted [Ench. xv.] ion wotè ãžuos são Säño quumótas, to the feast of the gods, he betrayed the hea

Milt. ii. 579.

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