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Containing the Legend of Britomartis, or of Chastity.

to print it so. Hear what the elegant Romance I.

writer says of this female virtue. di món quran

κείαν αρετήν χαρακτηρίζει και φρόνημα βασίλειον.. φuας TT Falls me here to write of Chastity, I vep.] Our in poet

addresses the Fairy queen in his Intro- character eft. Æthiopic, L. iv. C. 10. This duction to every book ; and here his subject led verse is variously printed s for the old quarto him more particularly to such an address ; reads The fayreft vertuemthe 2d quarto and folio's, which explains what he says below, St. 3. That fayreft vertue.

I. II.
Yet now my lucklelle lott doth me constrayne
Hereto perforcem

If poartrayd it might be by any living art,

But living art may not least part exprele, He calls it Lucklesse lott, because, apprentice on- Nor life-resembling pencill it can paynt, ly of the poetical art, he fears to mar so divine All were it Zeuxis or Praxiteles : á subject, though shadowing his virgin queen His daedale hand would faile. In the last versc in coloured thewes," and now neceflarily led to of the first stanza, and in the beginning of the treat of her by the nature of his subject. second, there is a repetition with a kind of corQueen Elizabeth was pleased with this appel- rection; instances of which are frequent in our lation of Virgin; when the Commons or Eng- poet. See note on B. i. C. 4. St. 8, 9. and land petitioned her to marry, she told them that more particularly on B. iii. C. 2. St. 16, 17. The should be well contented if her marble told The construction seems somewhat embarrassed. posterity, Here lies a queene, who reigned so long, Zeuxis was a famous painter, and Praxiteles a and lived and died a Virgin. Hence you will see ftatuary: so that the life-resembling pencil may rethe force and elegance of what he fays, B. iii. fer to Zeuxis, and the living art to Praxiteles : C. 5. St. 50, 51. But not to dwell on a thing so Spirantia figna, Virg. G. iii. 36. Vivos ducent de obvious when hinted at ; in whatever stile or marmore vultus, Æn. vi. 848. Nor is it contrary manner Spenser chose to pay his court to to Spenser's manner to make in construction His Queen Elizabeth, he never would pay it at the daedale hand, refer to living art, viz. the artist's expence of truth : when he took up the poet, ingenious hand. Daedale hand, i. e. ingenious, he did not lay down the philosopher, in a philo- cunning hand áno tô desdárnor, artificiofi fina sophical poem too: nor-would he say, that

gere. Chastity was far above Justice ; much less that Chastity was FAR above all the virtues : doubt

–ός χερσίν επίσατο ΔΑΙΔΑΛΑ πάντα beis it would be an address fufficient to his Virgin Qui manibus fciebat artificiofa omnia fabricari.

Τέυχι». Queen, if he said of Chastity,

Hom. II. 1. 60. That fayreft vertue, FAYRE above the rest.

Hence the Latin poets: Daedalatellus Lucret. i. 7. Nay the very turn of the verse, and the address, and hence Spenser, B. iv.C. 10. St. 44. the daerequire this reading: and I only want authority dale earth, Daedala signa, Lucret. v. 1450. Dar


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dala teeta, Virg. G. iv. 179. O Aupenda opra, o

W. Raleigh, our poet's truly honoured friend, è dedalo architetto ! Ariost. xxxiv. 53. Hence from Timos; imaged and shadowed in this, as well as his art the ingenious artist Daedalus was

in the other books, under the name of Timias. named. Perhaps Spenser had Taslo in view, And Spenser in his letter to Sir W. Raleigh who has the very fame expression, Canto xii. says he imitated him, expressing the name of 94.

his royal mistress in Belphoebe, whose name

• he fashioned according to Sir W. Raleigh's E se non fu di ricche pietre elette

own excellent conceit of Cynthia ; Phoebe tomba, e da MAN DEDALA scolpita.

and Cynthia being both names of Diana.' IV.

See B. iii. C. 6. St. 28. 'Tis not much to the

purpose to add that Cynthia was the fictitious But if in living colours, and right hew,

name of the mistress of Propertius; but 'tis Thyselfe thou covet to see pictured,

more material to observe that Britomartis, the Who can it do more lively or more true,

heroine of this book is the same as Diana, CynThen that sweete verse, with nećtar sprinckeled, thia, or Belphoebe. Britomartis, says HelyIn which a gracious feruaunt pictured

chius, is the name of Diana among the Cretans, His Cynthia.-]The 2d quarto and folio's read βριτόμαρτις εν Κρήτη και "Αρτεμις: βριτύ. γλυκύ. Κρήτει. Yourselfe you covet.-But I have kept the oldest from this word gotù, which signifies sweet, in reading that of the ift quarto. "So in B. iii. the Cretan dialect, our word pritty seems to me C. 2. Št. 3. Thyselfe thy praises tell --not, Your- to be derived : which I rather mention, becauie felfe your prayses tell

. And in the Introduction to M. Casaubon's etymology from mégıtlos is far the ift book, St. 5. Shed thy faire beames, not

fetched. Cretes Dianam religiofiffimè venerantur, Shed your faire beames-He adds, Then that sweet Britomartin gentiliter nominantes, quod sermone noftro verse with nectar sprinckeled,

fonat virginem dulcem. Solin. Polyhist. Cap. xi. In which a gracious fervaunt

Britomartis was likewise the name of one of -Volui tibi fuaviloquenti

Diana's nymphs and companions, and is menCarmine Pierio rationem exponere noftram,

tioned by Callimachus, Hymn. in Dian. 190. Et quafi Musaeo dulci contingere melle.

where the reader at his leisure may consult the Lucret. i. 944. This shows whether 'twas the name of Diana,

learned Spanheim, and other commentators. Pierio liquidam perfundis nectare vocem.

or one of her chaft nymphs, that Britomartis Varro Atacinus.

is well chosen for a goddess to represent Chale This gracious fervaunt here mentioned means Sir tity, and the BRITISH VIRGIN, xatè Tragovopasiar.


TO 1.
Τ ο

DUESSAE S traines, and Malecaf? Arthur having been wounded in his 'engagea's champions are defaced.

ment with Maleger, staid with Alma till his So these verses are to be measured ; 'tis ridicu

wounds were cured ; and Sir Guyon, having loufly spelt Malerastaes in all the editions : the

ended his adventure against Acrasia, returned has her name not from Chastity : her castle is

to the house of Alma, and joined the Briton named Castle Joyous, and the same name is

Prince. With respect to the words I refer to given to Sir Lancelot's castle in the History of the Glossary.—But consider the last verse in Prince Arthur : She is called the Lady of delight,

this stanza, in St. 31. mentioned too by name, Fair Male They courtecus conge took, and forth together yode. sasla, in St. 57.

Sir Guyon had lost his fine horse, called BrigI.

liadore, as mentioned, B. ï. C. 3. St. 4. And The famous Briten prince and faery knight-] Prince was forced to fare on foot, till he had finished

Uuu 2

his B. i. C. 59.

his adventure: but now, for present use, he has Parcere subjectis & debellare superbos. provided himself with another horse. Spenser

Virg. vi. 844 does not tell us how he provided himself with this horse: 'tis a circumstance, he thinks too Difender gli innocenti, e punir gli empi,

Premer gli alteri, e sollevar gli imbelli, minute: and indeed there are several of these

Fian l arti lor.

Tasso x. 76. minuter circumstances, which he leaves unexplained, and the reader is to supply them for

And to this were sworne the Knights of the himself. This verse I believe was thus given Round table. See the History of Pričce Arthur. by the author, They courteous conge tooke and forth together rode :

Ay doing things that to his fame redownd,

Defending ladies cause and orphans right, Like two knights, alla cavalleresca.

B. iii. c. 2. St. 14. A knight there was, and that a worthi man,

First prayle of knighthood is fowle outrage to deface. That fro the time that he first began

B. ii. C. 8. St. 25. To ridin out, be lovid chevalrce.

Are not all knightes by oath bound to withstond So Chaucer in the description and character of Oppresours powre by' armes and puissant hond? the knight: Again, speaking of Theseus in

B. ii. C. 8. St. 56. the knight's tale, 983.

IV. Thus ritt this duke, thus ritt this conquerour. They spide a knight that towards pricked fayre;] Spenser speaking of Sir Guyon, in B. ii. C. 7. They spied a knight that fairly spurred his horse St. 2. says,

towards them in full career-immediately folSo long he yode, yet no adventure found,

lows, And right: for he had just lost his horse. And And him beside an aged squire there rode, though we read in B. ii. C. 11. St. 20.

That seemd to Couch under his field three-Square; Which fuddein horror and confused cry

As if that age badd him that burden spare, Whenas their captaine heard, in haste he yode to couch, i.e. to lie, to repose, &c. But the tenor The cause to weet, and fault to remedy :

of the sentence seems to require, to crouch, to Upon a tygre swift, and fierce he rode.

stoop, Yet this paffage by no means vindicates the That seemd to CROUCH under his shield three-Square; above questioned reading ; 'tis a miscreated As if that age badil him that burden spare. captain, without knighthood or dignity; besides he ought not to have used rode twice ; nor make 'twas so burdensome, and the Squire so old, that the same word to rhime to itself. Let any one

the Squire seemed to CROUCH under this threein our famous burlesque poem instead of,

Square field, i. e. three-cornered ; like the shield Then did Sir Knight abandon dwelling,

of our English kings: for Britomart is a British

Princess. Marinell's fhield is likewise threeAnd out he rode a colonelling,

square., See B. iii. C. 4. St. 16. But pray substitute yode, and then he will better fee the observe, that Sir Guyon, in whom is imaged impropriety of the received reading, and the Temperance, spurs his horse and tilts with this propriety of what is now offered,

- undefied knight: 'twas a strange custom this of

courteous knights, see B. iv. Č. 6. St. 4. but They courteous conge tooke, and forth together rode.

much more, før fo sober and temperate knight, It feems as if the fourth ftanza, just below, had, as Sir Guyon; unless we suppose fome secret some how or other, caught the printer's eye; history alluded to: and this poem is full of alluwhere the rhime (as said above) is sufficient an- fions, either moral or historical. In Britomart {wer against alteration.

I supposed imaged the Virgin Queen; in Sir III.

Guyon the Earl of Essex. Sir Guyon is disSeeking the weake oppressed to relieve,

mounted presuming to match himself against And to recover right for fuch as wrong

Britomart. If Guyon historically and covertly So the books read, which I would alter thus,

(now and then) means the Earl of Eflex, will And to recover right for such as wrong’d did grieve. match himself with Queen Elizabeth? And


it not bear an easy allusion to his prefuming to This was the characteristic of knights errant, not the poet with the finest art managed a very and their military oath,

dangerous and secret piece of history?

did grieve.]



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Che il conte di Brava, Rinaldo, For never yet fith warlike armes he bore.

il mondo al colpo fuc ftarebbe saldo. Ah! gentlef knight, that ever armor bore.) I have After the death of Argalia, this lance came to no authority to print the former verse thus, Astolpho, the English duke [Orl. Inn. L. i. For never get fith warlike armes he wore.

C. 2. St. 20.] with this lance he unhorses his

adversaries in the tilts and tourneyments (Ibid. The reason of my offering this correction is, that the same words with the same significations knights with her enchanted speare, in B. iv.

Canto iii.] Just as Britomart overthrows the fhould not rhime together ; which fault Spenser C. 4. St. 46. if posibly avoids. The word here offered is

In Ariosto, Orl. Furios. Canto viii. St. 17. (for very proper. So Milton in his Malk,

the Orlando Furioso is a second part or contiWhat was that snaky-headed Gorgon field

nuation of the story of the Orlando Innamorato) That wife Minerva wore, unconquer'd virgin ? we read of this fame inchanted lance. Again Ibid.

C. xviii. St. 118.
And shivering speare in bloody field first shooke.? Aftolfo d'altra parte Rabicans
Tremebunda hafta, Virg. x. 521. quasjatque tre- Venia spronando à tutti gli altri inante,
mentem haftam, xii. 94.

Con l incantata lancia d' in

mano, Ibid.

Ch'al fiero scontro abbatte ogni giostrante. Ah! gentlest knight,

Astolfo, in C. xxiii. St. 15. gives this inchanted Let not thee grieve dismounted to have beene,

speare of gold to Bradamante, a woman warriThat speare enchaunted was which layd thee on the

our, in many instances like our chast Virgin

knight. I Thall not stop the reader to tell him of the Bradamante la lancia, che'l figliuolo elegance of this apostrophe to Sir Guyon, but Porto di Galafrone, anco riceve; to inform him of the history of this inchanted La lancia, che di quanti ne percote, Spear; which was made by Bladud, a British Fa le felle restar subito vote. king, skilled in magick; see B. iii. C. 3. St. 60.

With this speare Bradamante gains a lodging in For never wight fo fast in sell could


Sir Tristrans castle, la Rocca di Tristano, Canto But him perforce unto the ground it bore :

xxxii. Not unlike to Britomartis, who gains The staff of this Speare was of ebony, see B. her entrance, when refused a lodging, B. iii. iv. C. 6. St. 6. and it was headed with gold: C. 9. St. 12.--Other passages might be added, una lanza dorata, as Boyardo in Orl. Innam. but these seem fufficient to thew the reader, the calls it pag. iv. 2. So the unerring spear of various allufions and imitations. But did not Cephalus, cujus fuit aurea cufpis. Ov. Met, vii. our romance writers image this inchanted spear 673. and from her golden lance Pallas was from the speare of Pallas ?-Bproj, péra, soßafòr, called xqueóloyxos. Euripid. in Ione. ver. 9. Il. 6. ver. 745. But let us hear the history of it from the Italian Then Pallas grasps her speare, her ponderous speare, poets.-Galafron King of Cathaia, and father Mally and firong: which in her wrath o’erthrows of the beautiful Angelica, and of the renow med Heroes and hosts of men. warriour Argalia, procured for his son, by the

VIII. help of a magician, a lance of gold, whose virtue was such, that it unhorsed every knight as Whose image fbee bad seene—] See this story below,

B. iii. C. 2. St. 17. soon as touched with its point. Berni Ori. In

IX. nam. L. i. C. 1. St. 43. Il re fuo padre (Galafron del Cattaio) gli ha dato un

Full of disdainefull wrath] pien d'ira e di sdegno.

Arioft. Orl. Fur. xiv. 108. deftriero Molto veloce, e una lancia d'oro

XII. Fatta con arte, e con sottil lavoro.

Of friend or foe, whoever it embaste,] And each E quella lancia di natura tale

vowed not to suffer the others honour to be deChe refifter non prolli alla sua spinta;;;!

faced by pretended friend or real foe, whoever Forza, e destrezza contra lei non vale,

should endeavour to leflen or debase it. Convien she l' una, e l' altra resti virta :

Incanto, a cui non è nel mondo eguale,
L'ba di tanta poljanza intorno cinta,

Let later age that noble uje envy,] Let later ages



look up with admiration and defire on that those particular times: and yet the fimile is so noble use and custom. See Menage in V. En- artfully managed as that it may be taken in VIE. Envie, pour desir.

the most general sense.Hairie beames and fam"Yampridem nobis te caeli regia Caefar

ing lockes dispredd, is very poetical and alluding

to the etymology, Anglo-S. Feaxed steorra, Invidet, atque hominum queritur curare triumphos. invidet signifie desiderat.

Nella crinita, a starre with hairy beames, a blaz

ing starre. Nor indeed is there scarcely any XIV.

poet that mentions a comet, but alludes likeSave beares, lyons, and bulls, which romed them wise to its etymology, and to its portentous naaround.] As nothing is so tirelome as verse in

ture. Cometas Graeci vocant, nostri crinitas, borthe same unvaried measure and cadence, so the

rentes crine sanguineo, et comarum modo in vertice best poets, as Homer and Virgil among the an- hispidas. Plin Lib. ii. C. 25. See Cicero, Nat. tients, Spenser and Milton among the moderns, Deor. ii. 5. Theo, in his Commentary on often vary, not only in the pause of the verse, Aratus, pag. 120. Tas áxtūras Tô Fertos ásicos but likewise in the accent of the words. See xóvas ivvas vopuistow. Compare Lucan. i. 528. note on B. i. C. 1. St. 26. Hence our poet Silius Ital. viji. 638. Taffo, vii. 52. Milton ii. does not write,

708. See note on B. iv. C. 1. St. 13. Save lyons, beares and bulls


The prince and Guyon-] He returns to this adSuve beares, lýons and bulls

venture, B. iii. C. 4. St. 45. B. iü. C. 6. St. 54 The reader may observe several of like fort;

XXIV. where the accent is varied and cadence changed, left the ear should be tired with one unvaried calls Una, whom he names not; but describes

--fe th' errant damzell bight.] So he fameness of measure, like a ring of bells without her, as in B. i. C. 3. St. 3. B. i. C. 6. St. 2. any changes.

B. i. C. 7. St. 50. The knight thus assaulted XIV.

is the Red-cross knight, St. George ; who atAnd eke, through feare, as white as whales bone.

chieves the adventure in the first book: See be. Her garments all were wrought of beaten gold,] low, St. 42. Una is called the errant damzell, Perhaps the reader is not to be put in mind that B. ii. C. 1. St. 19. which proves to demonstrawhālēs is of two syllables, as in the Introduct. tion the error that has gotten place in all B. iii. St. 4.

the copies, in B. ii. C. 2. St. 4. for which I And with the wonder of her beaměs bright, thus prepare the reader before hand. So below B. iii. C. 1. St. 39. wārldēs. and many

XXV. other of like fort. See notes in pag. 379. he Ne may love be compeld by maistery; says, her garments were wrought of beaten gold, For foon as maistery comes, sweet love anone meaning perhaps, that beaten gold was inter- Taketh his nimble winges, and soone away is gone.] woven through her garments. xpuoepas do Ins, This seems plainly from Chaucer in the Frane auro intertexta vestis: as the dress of Chariclea is kelins tale. 2310. described in Heliodorus.

Love wolle not be constreyn'd by maistery :
-Tenui telas discreverat auro.

When maistery cometh, the god of love anone

Betith his winges, and farewell he is gone.
All as a blazing farre doth farre outcast

Hence Pope in his Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard, His heary beames, and flaming lockes dispredd,

Love free as air, at sight of human ties At sight whereof the people stand aghajt;

Spreads his light wings, and in a moment flies. But the fage wisard ielles (as he has redd) That it importunes death and dolefull dreryhedd.]

Our poet has the same thought in B. iv. C. 1. Spenser has many allusions to what happened St. 46. in his own times. This fimile though proper For love is free and led with self-delight, at any time, yet seems more affecting, as such Ne will enforced be with masterdome or might. a phænomenon appear’d in the year 1582, ac- Compare Xenophon, Memoirs of Socrates, B. ii

. cording to Cambden and the writers of Q, Eli- c. 6. Sect. g. and Sect. 31. and B. iii. C. 11. zabeth's reign. The people jlanding aghajt--the Sect. 11. svifard ajtrologer foretelling-seem to allude to


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