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Peplo etenim induta erat splendidiore ignis fulgore. Ne to your lady will I fervice done. Ji. e. do.Anglo-S. I think from hence we are to explain that beaubon to do Somn.
tiful address to Venus by Sappho, XXX.
Ποικιλόθρον, αθάνατ’ Αφροδίτα, So underneath her feet their swords they shard.]
ΓΙάι Διός δολοπλοκάSpenser corrected it himself among the faults Which M. Dacier renders, Grande & inunortelie escaped in the printing, mard: they mard their Venus qui avez des temples dans tous les lieux du swords, they destroyed the honour and dignity monde &c. of their swords; they did marr them by so ignobly Philips has followed this in his translation, debasing them.
O Venus, beauty of the skies,
To whoin a thousand temples rife-Mote princes place beseeme so deckt to bee.] It might in Dionys. Halicarn. 'tis printed Moixidá©pwv, cungrace the palace of a prince to be so adorned.
ning, crafty-minded : but then this epithet is too It is frequently omitted.
like Arómoxi, which immediately follows. So XXXIV.
that I think we are to bring back the old readThe walls were round about apparelled
ing, Moxınó gor', and interpret (as some comWith costly clothes of Arras and of Toure ;
mentators already have interpreted it) from HoThe which with cunning hand was pourtrahed mer, II. χ'. 441. εν δε θρόνα ποικίλ' έπασσι, operaque The love of Venus and her paramoure
picta varia sparsim intexebat. Ipóvæ i. e. Forxiduata, The fayre Adonis turned to a flowre.] The walls avon. From this passage of Homer Sappho of Castle Joyous were hung with such costly seems to have formed her compounded epithet, clothes as are now made at Arras or Toure- Oxhagsor', alluding to ber mantle and dress, as 'Tis usual for poets to bring minuter circum- Spenser has expressed it learnedly and elegantly, stances down to their own times : which may coloured like the starry skies. And hence I would be more allowable in a Fairy, than in an Epic explain the epithet given to Aurora, II.2.565. or Tragic poem: and yet the most approved ispovos, not pulchro in folio fedens ; but alluding to writers in both, have, by a kind of anticipation, her variegated and Rowery vest, in which (to alluded to their own customs and fashions, arts poetical eyes) she appears dreft, when the first and sciences. So above in B. i. C. 4. St. 14. unbars the gates of light: 'tis with the same He introduces the fashionable dresses of Queen kind of allusion that Homer gives her the epithet Elizabeth's court. And in B. i. C. 4. St. 26. of uzaxón indos, croceo-peplo-induta, II. $. 1. he alludes to the fowle evil not known, 'till
XXXVI. brought into Europe by the crew of Columbus. And whilA he bathed, with her two crafty spyes.] By Several of these anticipating allusions occur not only in our poet, but in every the most correct a metonymy he uses spyes for that which the poet of antiquity-He adds, in which with cuna Spyes with, viz. her eyes. Speculatores i. e. oculi ning hand, &c. i. e. skilful. Tis frequently lo quibus speculatur. The faine expression he has used in the translation of the Bible, Cherubims
in B. i. C. 2. St. 17. and B. vi. C. 8. St. 43. of cunning work, Exod. xxvi. 1. a cunning player as Crítsoas ir tãoş öx25, those that look out of thic
windows. Ecclef. xii. 3. on a harp, 1 Sam. xvi, 16.-The story of Ado
To hunt the salvage beast in forrell wyde,
Dreadful of daunger that mote him betyde, Her mantle colourd like the Blarry skyes.] The She oft and oft adviz'd him to refraine beautiful dress of Venus is mentioned by Ho- From chaise of greater beastes) But for the law
him, &c. i. e. But because she saw him bent mer, Il. v. 338.
to cruell play, namely to hunt, &c. dreadfull, Αμβροσία διά πέπλε, όν ώ χάριτες κάμαν αυτάι.
i. e. full of the dread of danger, fearing what Divinum per peplum, quem ei Charites elaborarunt may betide him, the thus advised him, ipfae.
Parce meo, juvenis, temerarius elle periclo : And in the hymn to Venus, which some think Neve feras, quibus armia dedit natura, lacelje. Homers.
Ov, Met. X. 545. Πέπλον μεν γαρ ίερο φαεινότερον πυρός αυγής. .
Hos tu, care puer, cumque his genus omne ferarum,
Met. x. 705. Did roll too highly.) This is the reading of the
two old quarto editions, which I have altered Lo where beyond he lyeth languishing--] Beyond, from the Folios of 1609, 1611, 1617. This that is, at some distance, procul : it seems imi- lady had not virgins, but whores in her eyes, tated from Bio,
ο κόρας αλλά πόρνας. Having eyes full of adulter,
and that cannot coase from sin (rolling too lightly) Kivται καλός "Αδωνις επ' ώρεσι μηρόν οδόντι
2 Pet. ii. 14. Λευκά λευκών οδόντι τυπεις, και Κύπριν ανία
XLII. Αιπλόν άποψύχων. .
But onely vented up her umbriere, Facet formo sus Adonis in montibus femur dente Candidum candido dente percusjus, et Venerem dolore up, 1. e. the gaveovent to, or lifted up the visor
And so did let her goodly visage to appere.] Vented afficit
of her helmet : wore her beaver up, as ShakeTenuiter spirans.
speare expresses it in Hamlet. So the AmaXXXIX.
zonian Bradamant lifts up her vental or umbri. And swimming deepe in sensual desyres.] Milton
ere, and discovered herself to Astolfo, Orl. ufes this phrase with his usual way of playing Fur. xxiii. 10. with its double meaning,
Ed alzo la visiera
E chiaramente fe veder ch'ella era.
xi. 625. So again to Ferrau, xxxv. 78. XL.
Teneva la visiera alta dal viso. And all the while sweet music did divide
Just in the same sense as below, C. 2. St. 24. Her looser notes with Lydian Draxmony.] This is a Latinism,
Through whose bright ventayle lifted up on high
His manly face-lookt forthgrataque faeminis Imbelli cithara carmina divides.
The ventayle is the vent or breathing part of the
Hor. i. xv. 15. helmet, which is made to lift up. And thus Seneca, Hercul. Oet. 1980. accord- The virgin /hone in silver armes arraid, ing to Dr. Bentley's correction,
Her ventall up to high that he descryde Orpheus carmina dividens.
Her goodly visage and her beauties pride. I must not omit Milton in his ode on the paffion
So Fairfax translates Tallo vi. 26. E la visiera
Alta tenea dal vultoi And G. D. in his version My Muse with Angels did divide to sing.
of Virgil xii. 434. Spenfer mentions here Lydian; harmony which was proper for this effeminate place, being soft Summaque per galeam delibans oscula fatur. and complaining: Seu tu velles Acoliurn fimplex, feu Per galeam, throw his helmes ventale. Chaucer
Ajum varium, seu Lydium querulum. L. Apuleii writes it aventaile, and after him his imitator Florida. Jam tibiae multiforabiles cantus Lydios Lydgate. The a is added or omitted frequently dulciter conjonant : quibus spéčiatorum pectora juavè (as it happens) in our language. 'Tis likewise mulcentibus &c. L. Apul. Met. Lib. x. So Mil
called Umbriere from ombrare, because it shadows
the face. ton in L'allegro.
XLIII. And ever against eating cares,
As when fayre Cynthia in darkesome night Lap me in soft Lydian airs.
Is in a noyous cloud enveloped And Dryden likewise imitating these soft mea- Breakes forth her silver beams-] This is a very fures,
elegant and happy allusion,-he might have
taken the hint from Heliodorus, pag. 223. Softly sweet in Lydian measures Soon he footh'd his soul to pleasures.
where Chariclea in a mean dress is compared to The following verses should perhaps thus be even osanyásas svešiac prev, tanquam ex nube lunae
the moon shining through a cloud : oor vierg printed,
splendor relucebat, or rather he might have in view, Which when those knights beheld, with scornful eye (putting here the moon for the sun) those poets They (deigned such lascivious disport.
whom I shall cite in a note on B. ii. C. go In the close of the stanza, sort means company; as may be seen more fully in the Gloffary.
addresses the fair ladies in the same manner, And her knights service ought, to hold of her in fee.) which the reader, at his leisure, may compare And owed her knight's service, viz. to hold of with Spenser, Canto xxii. St. 1. and Canto her in fee, and to fight her battles. This lady
This lady xxviii. St. 1. He says of Castle- Joyous is contrasted to the chast Bri
Emongst the roses grow fome wicked weeds, i. e. tomart: and the names of her knights corres- noxious. pond to their characters.
So Chaucer Troilus and Cress. I. 947.
For thilke groun: l that berith the wedis wicke, As hee that hath espide a vermeil rose,
Berith eke these wolj me herbis as full oft, To which fiarpe thornes and breres the way forestall
, And nexte to the foule nettle rough and ihicke Dare not for dread his hardy hand expose,
The rose ywexith fate. But wishing it far off his ydle wish doth lose.] I which our old bard tranflated from Ovid. would rather read,
Remned. Amor. ver. 45. But wishing them far off
Terra salutares herbas, eademque nocentes i. e. the thorns and briars. Characterizing Bri
Nutrit, & urticae proxima faepe rofa eft. tomart he says that she quas full of am able grace
Ibid. and manly terror: in which description I believe For love does alwaies bring forth bounteous deeds, he had in view Heliodorus L. VII. épxşòn tölu se rj And in each gentle hart defire of honor breeds.] gopzór a poo@nitowo, amabiliter pariter et feverè intuens.
Amor dà all' avarizia, all'ozio bando,
El core accende all onorate imprese.
Berni, Orl. innam. L. ii. C. 4. St. 3.
LI. Utque leves flipulae demptis adolentur arislis.
Ov. Met. i. 492. Pourd out their plenty-] The proverb says, sme
Whiles fruirful Ceres and Lyæus fatt Non fecus exarsit
Cerere et Baccho friyet Venus : our lady of delight, Quàm fiquis canis ignem fuppmat aristis.
*Ov. Met. vi. 455.
her castle, attendants, entertainments, &c. are
all agreeable to her character and difpofition.Ibia. And ranfact all her veines with passimentyre.) Ob- fruitfull Ceres, her epithet is alma, frugifera, &c.
", Serve how Spenser uses entire. i. e. with a passion quod curas folvat. that wholly, entirely possessed her.
Curam metumqne Caesaris rerum juvat He weened that his affection entire
Dulci Lyaeo folvere.
Hor. Epod. ix. She should aread.
B. iii. C. 7. St. 16.
Fatt is a proper epithet for Bacchus, because i. e, his affection that had wholly possessed him. drinking makes people fat-bellied: hence he is And there out fucking venime to her parts entyre.
called råspwe by Charon in Aristophanes, Bat. B. iv. c. 8. St. 23.
He is likewise pictured plump and fat i. e. to all her parts
in Gorlæus, Gemm. 205. which gem Casaubon into their harts and parts entire.
has printed and illustrated in his treatise, De B. iv. C. 8. St. 48. Satyrica Poesi. He is called plump Bacchus
, in B. iv. C. 8. St. 48. Shakespear's Antony and Cleopatra, act ii
, i, e. and into all their parts.
S ene te laft. Sometimes Bacchus is painted She entred into all their partes entire.
all grace and beauty; sometimes fat; and some
B. v. C. 7. St. 37. times with an old face and beard. So very i. e. thoroughly: used adverbially.
whimsical and discordant we find both painters And groning fore from grieved hart entire. and poets, who will often make mythology sub
B. vi. C. 8. St. 48. mit to their own systems.--Soon after, i, e. from a heart entirely grieved.
Nought wunted there that dainty was and rare. XLIX.
i. e. there was nought wanted that &c. but there Faire ladies] Spenser apostrophizes the ladies, and rare have an unharmonious jingle; fo that whom he would not have blamed for the
fault the construction would be easier, as well as the of one.- In the same manner he addresses them, verse bettered, if I could have found the reading B. iii. C. 9. St. 1. least they should take amils which I looked for, viz. his episode of Malbecco and Hellenore. Ariosto Nought wanted they that dainty was and rare. VOL. II.
Tibull. ii. 75.
Et pedibus prætentat iter, suspensa timore;
Compare likewise Ariosto, xxviii. St. 62, 63.
LXII. i. e. to let loose, or to unloose her warlike limbs, and to lay aside her sternesse, force or Where feeling one-! I should have printed it effort, to loose her effort, to relax a little. The When, had I authority. fame verb, with some difference of fignification,
LXIII. is applied to two different substantives.
Their lady lying on the fenceleffe grownd] Sencelese
is to be referred to Lady. Spenser loves this
LXV. avize, i. e. compleatly. B. iii. Č. 6. St. 23. But lightly rased her soft filken skin in secrete wize, i. e. secretly.
That drops of purple blood thereout did weepe,
Which did her lill, smock with staines of vermeil steep.)
Compare this passage with B. i. Č. 5. St. 9: I Did spred itselfe and venime close inspire] Virg. iv. believe our poet had Homer in view, where Me66.
nelaus is wounded; for he almost literally tran
flates him, -Ep molles flamma medullas Interea, & tacitum vivit fub pectore vulnus.
Ακρότατον δ' άρ' όϊςος επέγραψε χρόα φωτός:
Αυτίκα δ' έρρεεν αιμα κελαινεφέν έξ ωτίτλης.
Summamque sagitta perftrixit cutem viri :
Hom, Il. iv. 139.
When Menelaus was wounded, 'tis added that
vermillion. See note on B. ii. C. 9.
41. To lodge the warlike maid, unwisely loov’d;
Ne in fo glorious spoyle themselves embosse.] See the
LXVII. And lent her weary eare to UNDERSTAND If any puffe of breath, or signe of fence shee FOND.) So early ere the grosse earths gryesy Made] I find gryesy Weary care, i. e. warie. Anglo-S. pære, printed often for gryefly, or griesly: and the poet cautus. 'Tis so spelt in the two old quarto perhaps intended it should have thus been printed editions, but in the folios wary. The folios here; so in other places, griefly night, B. 1. C. 5. likewise read fand; as the rhime directs: but I St. 20. B. iv. C. 7. St. 22. griesty Madows, B. ii. believe Spenser gave it, HOND- UNDERSTOND
51. B. iii. C. 4. St. 54. GRIESLY See below C. 2. St. 52. fond SHADE, B. iii. C. 6. St. 37: griesly shades of night, withstond. And immediately follows, .
B.v. C. 10. St. 33. Anglo-s. grislic, horribilis. Which whenas none she fondo
horrere. If we keep the received readThis passage might have been imitated from the (though somewhat far-fetch'd) moist, humid, following,
&c. as Virg. ii. 8. Humida nox. Cum furtim tacito defcendens Scylla cubili
HUMENTEMQUE Aurora polo dimoverat UMAuribus arreftis nocturna filentia tentat,
iii. 589... Et prellis tenuem fingultibus aëra captat : Tum Jufpenfa levans digitis veftigia primis
Humentibus umbris, iv. 351.
Let the reader Egreditur.
Virg. Ciris. 208. please himself: though I think the place is to be
altered rather than interpreted.
In is often used in old writers, where now we TERE have I cause in men juft blame to find
use on : ex. gr. That in their proper praise too partial bee - ] I But she againe him in the field did smite. scarce know what to make of our poet : the
B. iii. C. 4. St. 16. Aattery to his Fairy Queen has made him put We should say, on the field. on the gravity of a Spanish romance-writer. So
— And in his necke Ariosto, with a half-laughing countenance, in
Her proud foot setting. the same manner moralizes : See his introduc
B. v. C. 4. St. 40, tion in praise of women, Canto xx. 1. and Canto xxxvii. 1, 2,-'Twas a saying of Ma- There are many other passages where in is used homet, that among men he knew many perfect, for on. So Milton, i. 52. rolling in the fiery flood. but of women he could allow but four; and i. 324: rolling in the flood, iii. 448. all who il two of those four were his own wife and daugh- vain things built their fond hope. ter, See Prid. life of Mahom. pag. 69. I omit These passages of Milton Dr. Bentley alters. Virgil and others; but let us hear Solomon,
Ibid. Among a thousand men I have found none; but not Thyself thy praises tell — This seems taken from one woman among all. Eccleľ. vii. 26. Now is
the address of Tibullus to Messala, not this, as Spenser says, for men to be too partial in their proper praise, i. e. in their own Nec tua praeter te chartis intexere quisquam praise, in laude propriâ ?
Facta queat, diétis ut non majora superfint. Scarce doe they spare to one or two or three,
IV. Rowme in their writts; yet the same writing She traveiling with Guyon by the way, Perhaps 'twas originally, yet that same writing— Of fondry thinges faire purpose gan to find—) Here for the and that are often confounded, because is certainly a blunder, whatever was the occawritten with an abbreviation.
sion of it. Guyon, in the first Canto of this III.
book, encountreth Britomart; after their re
conciliation he goes in quest of Florimell: but And striving fit to make, I feare do marre.] But
the went forward, as lay her journey, and sees my rhymes are too rude, when they light on so
fix knights attacking one, which was the redhigh an object, and striving fitly and agreeably crosse knight, or St. George; whose adventure to the dignity of the subject to MAKE, i. e. is told in the first book : him the rescues ; and to compofe a poem, I fear they do rather spoil then St. George and Britomart go together to it :-o make and to marr are often opposed : here
Castle Joyous ; which having left they are now they are opposed with another use of the word travelling together. It should have been written to make, i, e. to make verses, to compose a poem, therefore ; Fontiv. hence, muutns, a maker, a poet.
She traveiling with the red-crosse knight, by th’ way And hath he skill to make fo excellent.
Of sundry thinges faire purpose gan to find Spenf. Ecl. iv.
He is called the red-crofle knight below, C. 2. Besides her peerlesse skill in making well.
St. 16. and C. 3. St. 62. And above in this book, Colin Clout's come home againe. C. 1. St. 42. St. 63. And Una is hinted at by Just above he says,
the errant damazell. See note on B. iii. C. i.
See likewise the argument to this But ah! my rymes too rude and rugged are
The red-crolle knight to Britomart
. When on so high an object they do lyte,
X X X 2