Sivut kuvina

And I find Sir P. Sidney in his Arcadia p. 104. Inverso bibulum reftinguens lumen olivo, has the same expreffion. "In Theffalia there was Incipit, et crebros infani pečturis ielus < (well may I say there was) a prince (no, no Ferre manu, affiduis mulcens praecordia palmis. « prince, whom bondage wholly poleled, but yet ac

Virg. Cir. ver. 340. i counted a prince) and named Mujidorus.'

Old Glauce well apayd, well satisfied to see her XLI.

ward taking a little reft, does not blow out the Not so thArabian Myrrhe did set ler mind; lamp, for that was ill ominous, but fteeps it, Not fo did Byblis spend her pining heart:

and thus extinguishes it, in the oyl: and then But lou'd their native flesh against al kynd.] Spen- sets herself to watch by her, and lamenting her fer himself corrected it Nor so did,' &c.against case weeps over her. al kynd, i. e. against nature. And presently after

XLVIII. St. 43. unkinde, i. e. unnatural. - The Arabian

their prayers to appele Myrrhe, so the poem frequently alluded to in With great devotion and with little zele.] i. c. this episode,

to appele to the deity by prayers ( appellare. Gall. Hei mihi, ne furor ille tuos invaferit artus, appeler.) with great seeming outward devotion, Ille Arabis Myrrhae

but with little inward zeal: for the thoughts of Biblis, or as others spell it Byblis, fell in love Britomartis were otherwise employed : with her own brother. See Ovid. Met. ix. For the faire damzell from the holy herse ver. 453. Presently after

Her love-ficke hart to other thoughts did steele. Sweete love such lewdnes bands from his faire come from the holy herse, i. e. from the holy hersals, repanee.

hearsals, or offices. So he uses it in his with

Ecl. perhaps 'foands, i. e. disbands. There is an obvious reading occurs, banns, curfes. But

Dido my deare alas! is dead without any alteration Spenser might follow the

O heavie HERSE! Italian, dar il bando, bandire to banish:

Spenser's friend, who wrote notes to his Ec. Amor all avarizia, all ozio BANDO.

logues, with Spenser's consent and advice, in

terprets Herse, the solemn obsequie in funerals, BANDS from bis faire companee, banishes, &c.


All which she in a earthern pot did poure.] Nothing Her alablaster breft.] The 2d edition in quarto is more frequent among the poets, than allusions has it alablasted, which must be wrong. This

to the various powers of charms, philters, and spelling, which is agreeable to all the old incantations. There were two sorts of incaneditions, is vindicated by Skinner in his Intro- tations used by lovers

, the one to procure love, duction to his Etymological Dictionary.

the other to remove it. This is plain, as from XLIV.

other passages that may be easily cited, fo from I fonder then Cephifus foolish chyld.] I fonder than the following in Virg. Æn. iv. 487. the foolish son of Cephisus: viz. Narcissus. Inveni, germana, viam, gratare forori, XLV.

Quae mihi reddat eum, vel eo me folvat amantem-For which he faded to a watry flowre.] Ovid.

Haec se carminibus promittit folvere mentes,

Quas velit; af aliis duras immittere curas.

The incantation here is to undoe her daughters -croceum pro corpore florem Inveniunt, foliis medium cingentibus albis.

love : the plants and shrubs, which Glauce uses

on this occafion, are rue, favine, camphire, i. e. The Narcissus has white leaves with a calamint and dill; whose efficacious powers in yellow cup, and loves the water : hence he medicine are faid to abate desires of venery, calls it a watry flowre.

and to procure barrenness : to these is added XLVII.

coltwood or colt's-foot; which is reckoned a Her chearfull words] This whole stanza is good cooler, and proper to abate the fervour of

--of the imitated from the following,

choice of these plants and thrubs : but why His ubi sollicitos animi relevaverat aestus -- is the whole sprinkled with milk and blood, Vocibus, & blanda peatus fpe vicerat aegrum : which were used in the evocation of the infernal Paullatim tremebunda genis obducere vestem shades, and were offered as libations to the Virginis, et placidam tenebris captare quietem, dead? These offerings likewise of milk and VOL. II.


Met. iii. 509.


blood were grateful to the inchantress Hecate; temque repugnantis fignavit: hoc peracto carmine, and this goddess was to be assistant in this ma ter me juffit exspuere, terque lapillos conjicere in gical operation, déomova xj ouvegyòs, as Medea furum, quos ipsa praecantatos purpura involverat, &c. in Euripides invokes her. Hence the reader This silly custom of spitting they used in order may see the propriety of Spenser's adding milk to avert what was odious or ill ominous : See and blood, as well as mentioning the other in- the scholiast on Theoc. Idyll. vi. 39. Teis isz gredients. Compare Theocritus and Virgil in škôr inluox xóamov, ter in gremium meum inspui. their Eclogues named The Inchantresse. The Spenser happily expresses conne, thrice and spit old nurse (Glauce) is here the Pharmaceutria : upon me ;

thrice. (he has got ready' the earthern pot to hold her Come, daughter, come, come spit upon my magical ingredients :

face she should not have said face, but bolem : At nutrix patulâ componens sulfura testa, these wicked rhimes must plead his excuse.] Narcissum, cafiamque, herbas incendit olentes.

Spitt thrice upon me, thrice upon me spitt. Terque novena ligat triplici diverfa colore Fila: ter in gremium mecum, inquit

, despue Virga mumbles (as our poet learnedly expreflés it)

But before she bids the virgin spit thrice, she Despue ter, Virgo : numero deus impare gaudet.

Virg. Ceiris. ver. 369. certein sad words, i. e. words agreeable to there Dryden, in his notes on Virgil's viiith pastoral; Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 3. concerning this expreslion,

superstitious solemnites. See Davies's note on fays that Spenser has followed both Virgil and Certa verba. · Theocritus, in the charms which he employs

LI. · for curing Britomartis of her love. But he Thrice Me her turnd contrary, and returnd] So Me" had also our poet's Ceiris in his eye: for • there not only the inchantments are to be

dea in her magical rites, Met. vii. 189. found, but also the very name of Britomartis.' Ter se convertit I cannot persuade myself that Virgil wrote this poem : Spenser thought it, however, worth his Contrary is repeated thrice : See the note above.

The reader at his leisure may consult the Masque reading and imitation. The patula testa, earthen

of Queens written by B. Johnson. pot, or cauldron (as Shakespeare expresies it in Macbeth) is, I think, the fame, which The

About, about, and about, ocritus names rencen, i. e. a pot or cauldron,

'Till the mist arise, &c. resembling a large cup, which is there got who in his notes cites Remigius, Gyrum femper ready for the love-ingredients; and this pot the in laevam progredi. You see Johnson repeats Inchantresse bids her maid

to bind round with thrice, About, &c. and hence give me leave to a purple fillet of wool. This I mention, be- propose a correction in Shakespeare's Macbeth, cause it seems to me that the word is not under- Act 1. stood by the commentators of Theocritus. If we turn to Virgil's Pastoral, which Dryden

The weird sisters hand in hand, thinks that Spenser had in his eye, as well as

Porters of the sea and land, the Ceiris; there is no earthern pot or cauldron;

Thus do go, about, about, (about] but an altar is erected: on which frankinsence,

Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, vervain, bay-leaves, brimstone, and flower

And thrice again to make up nine. sprinkled with salt, was burnt; and this altar Where 'tis plain from the very speaking and likewise is bound round with a fllet of wool, acting of the part, about is to be repeated thrices -Molli cinge haec altaria vittà.

though the verse might hence appear somewhat

hypermetrical. Στίψο» [ταν κελίβαν] φοινικέω οιός αώτω.

Terna tibi haec primum triplici diversa colore

So thought she TO UNDoe her daughters love.]
Licia circumdo, ferque hagc altaria circum
Effigiem duco. Numero deus impare gaudet.

Haec se carminibus promittit SOLVERE mentes,

Virg. iv. 487. [Thuneven nomber for this business is most fitt.] I

Tbid. cannot help citing a passage from Petronius, which illustrates these foolith and fuperftitious But love that is in gentle breft begonne, ceremonies. Illa de fonu licium protulit varii coloris No ydle charmes fo lightly may remove.] filis intortum, cervicemque vinxit meam : mox ture

E con mio danno mi convien provare, batum fpreto puluerem medio fuftulit digito, frome Ghe contr' amor non val negromanzia,


Ne per radice, o fiore, o sugo d'erba,

Suftineat, nullisque levet Medea venenis. La cruda piaga Jua si difacerba.

Val. Fl. vi. Bern. Or. Inn. L. i. C. 5. St. 22.

LII. - Ahi quanto è crudo nel ferire! à piaga,

She shartly like a pyned ghost became, Chi ci faccia, herba non giova, od arte maga.

Which long hath waited

by the Stygian strond.) Waited because Taffo, iii. 19.

he body had not the rites of burial.

Pyned ghof is Chaucer's expression. See the -vulnus referens, quod carmine nullo Glossary,

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loves imitate the excellent : for as the love of

heaven makes one heavenly; the love of verMOST sacred fyre. 1-To speak according to the Platonic doctrine, there is but one on

tue, vertuous : so doth the love of the world ly source of beauty, original, and all-perfect,

• make men worldly.' - Again, pag. 123, povosions : all the inferior or reflected kinds of (O Lord 1) to see the admirable power and beauty, whether they strike the eye, as in

noble effects of Love, whereby the seeming buildings, painting, prospects, &c. or touch the insensible loadstone, with a secret beauty, ear, as in musical sounds.-All these subordinate holding the spirit of beauty in it, can draw or secondary degrees, are like the ladder in Ja that hard-heated thing unto it: and like a cob's vifion, whose bottom touches the earth, vertuous mistress, not only make it bow itbut the top reaches to heaven : so that all earth “self, but with it make it aspire to so high a ly love and admiration is only the scale or lad

• love as of the heavenly poles ; and thereby der to conduct us to heavenly love, where the to bring forth the noblest deeds, that the sacred fire burns pureft ; and from thence was

children of the earth can boast of.' And transfused into the human mind : this love is pag. 476,. That sweet and heavenly uniting not luft,

of the minds, which properly is called Love,

' hath no other knot, but vertue ; and therefore But that sweete fit that doth TRUE BEAUTIE love, not the bastard kind, but original, mental,

• if it be a right love, it can never slide into the true beauty : Compare B. iii. C. 5. St. I, 2.

any action that is not vertuous.' The reader where he tells us that love acts secunduin modum

may at his leisure see our poets Hymn of heavenly Love.

What a deal of Greek citations might be recipientis. Compare likewise Introduct. B. iv.

here made from Plato, and the Platonic writers?

But Plato's readers know very well where to For it of honour and all vertue is

find all this kind of lore. The roote.

See likewise how the angel in Milton, viii. 588. And stirred? up th' heroes high intents

. ] He tries to regulate this irregular passion according writes Heröes of three syllables, and not to the Platonic scale of Love and Beauty,

And stirrelft up the heros high intents.
In loving thou dost well, in pasion not,
IV herein true Love consists not; Love refines

See below, St. 32. tl' old heröes.
The thoughts, and heart inlarges, is the SCALE

By which to heavenly Love thou mayt afcend. But thy dredd darts in none doe triumph more,
Let us hear the Platonic Sydney, pag. 44. • The Ne braver proofe in any of thy powre
true love hath that excellent nature in it, that

Shewdst thou-] Observe here a mixture of it doth transform the very essence of the tenses, doe triumph --- Mewdswhich we have • lover into the thing loved, uniting, and as it

noticed elsewhere : see note on B. i. C. 3. ' were incorporating it with a secret and in- St. 41. Observe likewise presently after, ward working : and herein do these kind of From whose two boynes thou afterwardes did rayse,

Yyy 2


St. 2.

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ii. 992

did, and not didft: so in the following stanza, osto, xxvi. 39. Il Savio incantator Britanno. Till that -- thou have--and not, thou hast; so he

Ibid. fays grieves, and not griev's; boasts, and not

-The Africk Ismael.] The Ifraelites or beauft/, &c. to avoid the disagreeable sound, that the clashing of so many consonants would Agarens, called afterwards Saracens, conquered occafion.

a great part of Africa : hence he says the Africk

Mof envious man that grieves at neighbours good.

B. i. C. 9. St. 39.

To Maridunum, that is now by chaunge
All those great battels, which thou boasts to wir.

Of name Cayr-Merdin cald, they took their way.

B.i. C. 9. St. 43: There the wife Merlin.-) According to Jeffry of Fair for of Mars, that seeke with warlike spoile. Monmouth, B. vi. C. 17. (compare likewile

B. ï. C. 1. St. 8.

Cambden's Britan. p. 745) the famous magi

cian Merlin was born in Kaermerdin, i. e. Is this the hope that to iny hoary heare

Caermarthen; named in Ptolemy, MariduThou brings?

B. vi. C. 3. St. 4.

num-Presently after, St. 10. our poet says To these instances the reader may add several that Merlin intended to build a wall of brass others : I shall only add some passages of Mil-, round Maridunum: and so says Drayton in his ton, who was a great imitator of Spenser's lan- Polyolbion, fong iv. guage,

How Merlin by bis skill and magiques wondrous O prince, chief of many throned powers,

might, That led thembatteld seraphim to war. i. 129. From Ireland hither brought the Stonendge in a night:

And for Carmardens fake would faine have brought O prince, O chief that led's not to be referred to ,

to pase powers. That mighty leading angel who of late

About it to have built a wall of solid brasse : Made head against heav'ns king, though overthroun. And set his fiends to work upon the mightre

frame ;

Same to the anvile ; some that still injori't the fiume. There are other passages likewise that might (For all bis wondrous Skill) was cooned by himselfe.

But whilft it was in hand, by loving of an elje
be added, but there seem sufficient once for all For walking with his Fuy (viz. the lady of the
here to be mentioned.

Lake) her to the rocke: bee brought,

In which he oft before his negromancies wrought,
Begin tben, O my dearest sacred dame,

And going in thereat his magiques to have showne, Daughter of Phoebus and of Memory:] He invo- Shee jtopt the caverns mouth with an inchanted stone : cates Clio, as entering on some new matter Whoje cunning strongly croft, amazd whilf he did and argument, and calls her daughter of Phoe Stand, bus, and of Mnemosyne. See note on B. 1. c. xi. She captive bim convayd into the Fairy land. St. 5. Her great volume of eternity he mentions Then how the laboring spirits to rocks by fetters bound, likewise in the Introduction, B. i. C. 2.

With bellowes rumbling groanes, and hammers thund

ring found, Lay forth out of thine everlasting scryne

A fearfull horrid dinne still in the earth do keepe, The antique rolls

Their master to awake, Juppos’d by them to sleepe ; where consult the note ; and likewise on B. iii. As at their work how still the grieved spirits repine, C. 2. St. 18.

Tormented in the fire, and tyred in the mine.

If the reader will turn to Ariosto, üi. St. 10. Till that by dew degrees and long PROTENSE he will find that Bradamante, a famous woThou have it lastly brought unto her Excellence.] So man-knight, arrives at the grot of Merlin : the ist quarto, but other editions PRETENSE. which grot Ariosto, with the liberty of a RoThe old quarto is right: PROTENSE,' a pro- mance-writer, places in France. 'Merlin is tendo, from stretching and drawing out. Cujus: there said to have been deluded by the lady of protendere famam: Claudian. de Laud. Stil. I. the lake, La donna del lago. The reader at his

36. The Italians have protendere, protefo, proten- leisure may see this story told in Morte. Artbur, fione. The following verse wants, I believe, no or, as the romance is commonly called, The

life and death of Prince Arthur, Lib. i. c. 60, VI.

and in C.

64 To weet the learned Merlin. ] He is called in Ari.




By falfe illusion of a guilefull spright Emongst the woody hills of Dynevowre.] The prin. On a faire lady nonne, that whilome hight cipal "feat of the princes of South Wales

was Matilda, daughter to Pubidius Dynefar, or Dynevor castle, near Carmarthen, who was the lord of Mathtraval by right, who from thence were called the kings of Dye And coofen unto king Ambrofius ;

Whence he indued was with skill fo merveilous. Neere Deneuvir the seat of the Demetian kings.

The princes and lords of Powis, the chief seat Drayt. Polyol. Song v.

of which was Matraval in Montgomeryshire, IX.

were called kings of Matraval, see Cambden's

Britan. pag. 781. Spenser says, that Merlin's Arid oftentiines great grones and grievous stowndes,

mother was a nun, and named Matilda, daughWhen too huge toile and labour them constraines,

ter to Pubidius.--- This Matilda and Pubidius And oftentimes loud strokes and ringing lowndes

are our poet's invention, as far as I can find :From under that deep rock most horribly rebowndes.]

no such names being mentioned in Morte Ara Rebrendes the rhime requires ; Rebownde, the thur, or in Jeffry of Monmouth, who in B. vi. construction. 'Tis hard that construction and C. 18. introduces Merlin's mother, who was fense must give place to rhime. See note on

a neice and daughter of the king of Demetia, B. v. C. 6. St. 32.

i. e. South Wales, giving Vortegrin an acOur poet describes very particular the habi

count of her wonderful conception of her son. tation of Merlin ; a hollow cave: Wizards

-A philosopher explains it (there introduced) dwelt in caves, so the Sibyl; and Merlin's cave that it was some Daemon or Incubus, some is mentioned in Ariosto, Canto iii. but

guilesul spright,' partaking partly of the naRomance writers remove the scene of ac

ture of man, partly of angels, and affuming tion to what regions they please.

- a hollow

a human shape, which begot Merlin ; and this cave under a rock that lies a little space from the explains what Ariosto says, that Merlin was swift Barry tombling down among the hilles of Dyne- the son of a Daemon, voure.-See how formidable our poet in the 8th and 9th Cantos describes this cave ! not from Di Merlin dico, del demonio figlio.

Orl. Fur. xxxiii. 9. his own fiction ; for he has sufficient vouchers to produce for the truth of the story. "In a Drayton in his Polyolbion, song v. thus fings of

rock of the Inand of Barry, in Glamorgan- Merlin, who was born in Caer-merdin, shire (as Giraldus says) there is a narrow Of Merlin and his skill what region deth rot beare? chink or cleft, to which if you put your ear, IV ho of a British nymph was gotten, whilft the plaid you

shall perceive all such sort of noises, as IV ith a seducing may fancy smiths at work under ground.

XIV. -strokes of hammers, blowings of bellowes, With love to frend] See note on B. i. C. 1. grinding of tools, &c.' See Cambden's Britan. St. 28. with God to friend. pag. 734. and Hollings. vol. i. pag. 129. Drayton in Polyolb. pag. 63. alludes to this story of

XVI. the Lady of the Lake, and to this marvellous Thrise Jhined faire, and thrise seemd dim and wan.)

Now have three Moones with borrowed brothers light,

The poets frequently use these circumlocutions, --the laboring spirits to rocks by fetters bound With bellowes rumbling grones, and hammers thun- fond of

this manner of expresion, fee Fast. ii.

meaning three months are fully past. Ovid is dering found,

175, 447. ii. 121.
A fearful borrid dinne still in the earth doe keepe,
Their master to awake, fupposd by them to sleepe.

Luna quater junctis implerat cornibus orbem

Dumque quater junctis implevit cornibus orbem. And hoftes of men of meanest things could frame.) Luna, quater plenum tenuata retexuit orbem. Like Astolfo (in Orl. Fur. xxxviii. 33, and xxxix. 26.) who turned stones into horses, and The fame kind of poetical circumlocutions he trees into thips.

uses, B. i. C. 8. St. 38. B. ii. C. i. St. 53. B.ii. XIII.

C. ii. St. 44. and in other places. And footh men say that he was not the forne

XVII. Of mortal fyre or other living wight,

The old woman wox half blanck-) half confoundBut wondrously begotten and begonne

ed and out of countenance. Ital, reftar bianco,

cave, where

Met. ï. 344.

vii. 530.

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